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Topic: CO2

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  MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: CO2 test - serum
The CO2 test is most often done as part of an electrolyte panel.
Changes in your CO2 level suggest you may be losing or retaining fluid, cause an imbalance in your body's electrolytes.
CO2 levels in the blood are influenced by kidney and lung function.
www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/ency/article/003469.htm   (581 words)

 CO2OIL.com Enhanced oil and gas production using CO2
CO2 floods of oil reservoirs are performed after natural depletion (primary recovery) and normally after the reservoir has been flooded with injected water (secondary recovery).
CO2 EOR involves the piping of pure CO2 from some high pressure trunk line to the field, injection wells (either additional or converted water wells), modification to producing wells to deal with the corrosive nature of wet CO2 and recycling facilities to separate the produced CO2 from other gases.
Natural CO2 fields only occur in specific areas and most industrial sources of CO2 are low purity (15%) and cannot be used in CO2 EOR without expensive "carbon capture".
www.co2eor.biz /co2eor.html   (599 words)

  CO2 Studies at Mt. Erebus
A direct airborne CO2 measurement was made in the plume of Mt Erebus during the 1997-1998 field season using a LICOR 6262, infrared CO2 analyzer.
Soil CO2 flux values ranged from 0 to 4,400 g/m2/day and indicate that significant CO2 degassing is occuring as soil gas in the summit area.
CO2 flux measurements from active volcanoes are also useful in hazard prediction and may also give insight to the eruptive mechanisms within a particular volcanic system (Gerlach et al., 1997).
www.ees.nmt.edu /Geop/mevo/geochem/co2.html   (1708 words)

 Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Methods
All of these CO2 generators produce heat as a by-product of CO2 generation, which is rarely needed in a controlled environment grow room but may prove beneficial in winter growing and cool area greenhouses.
Since CO2 is heavier than air, one good method of distributing it to the plants is to attach the container or dry ice to the light reflectors which are normally placed over the plants.
With CO2 enrichment, a higher temperature, up to 100 degrees F, can be used, more light may be needed as it is required for the photosynthetic reaction to take place.
www.hydrofarm.com /content/articles/co2.html   (3488 words)

 Carbonating at Home with Improvised Equipment and Soda Fountains
Since my carbonator super-saturates the water with CO2 (the water is both chilled and pressurized while the gas is dissolved), and the gas in the head space of the bottle at the end of the process is vented, the yield must be somewhat less.
CO2 regulators are available for about $50 from soft-drink distributors, welding gas suppliers, or homebrew hobby suppliers (see, for example, the page at http://www.kegworks.com).
The degree of carbonation as a proportion of CO2 to water is measured in standard "volumes of CO2" for a given volume of water, where the "volume" of CO2 is understood to be that of the gas at 32 deg F and atmospheric pressure, where CO2 gas has a density of about 2.0 grams/liter.
truetex.com /carbonation.htm   (14772 words)

 Discount Hydroponics - CO2
CO2 is present in relatively low quantities, 300-450 Part Per Million or "ppm" in normal everyday air.
The C.A.P. CO2 generators are constructed of powder coated steel enclosures that resist moisture, rust and discoloration.
It also features temperature and humidity controls which will disable CO2 injection if the temperature or humidity levels that you specify are exceeded, activating an exhaust outlet which can control ventilation equipment (air conditioner, fan, etc.) It also has a built in photo controller, which disables the CO2 function when the lights are off.
www.discount-hydro.com /co2.asp   (1536 words)

In early 1770 Torbern Bergman discovered that an equal volume of CO2 gas was almost entirely soluble in water at a temperature of 10°C and observed that the solubility of this gas decreases as the temperature rises.
Later on CO2 was recovered from combustion of cokes and still later on from combustion of heavy fuel oil.
Using CO2 to neutralize the pH level in water is therefore an ecologically sound process, as a CO2 injection does not bring about excessive acidification of the water nor does it introduce any pollutants to it.
www.acpco2.com /eng/products/co2.asp   (1558 words)

In low light tanks CO2 is not necessary, the speed at which the plants grow is slow enough that most nutrients including CO2 are being introduced into the water faster than the plants are consuming them.
CO2 in gas form is more efficient than liquid carbon so the first two options are the most common.
CO2 levels effect PH in a way that as more CO2 is added to the water the PH will drop.
www.gpodio.com /diy_co2.asp   (1827 words)

 CO2 Dynamics
The CO2 diagram is a PV diagram for carbon Dioxide.
This is the region where the CO2 in the bottle exists as both a liquid and a gas.
CO2 bottles generally have a full-fill to volume ratio of about 2.57 cubic inches per ounce of CO2, so that one ounce of CO2 will take up 0.877/2.57 = 34% of the total volume of the bottle.
www.warpig.com /paintball/technical/gasses/co2dynamics.shtml   (2192 words)

 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) for Euthanizing Mammalian Prey
It must be noted that use of CO2 gas is not suitable for euthanizing reptiles.
You should pre-charge the container with the vaporizing dry ice prior to introducing the animals to be euthanized, to make it maximum quick, and to use enough gas -- as only high concentrations have the more humane effects.
The CO2 method is humane -- the CO2 method has a "rapid depressant and anesthetic effect" when inhaled in high concentrations.
www.anapsid.org /co2.html   (471 words)

 Trends in Carbon Dioxide
The latter is determined as a moving average of ten adjacent seasonal cycles centered on the month to be corrected, except for the first and last five years of the record, where the seasonal cycle has been averaged over the first and last ten years, respectively.
The Mauna Loa data are being obtained at an altitude of 3400 m in the northern subtropics, and may not be the same as the globally averaged CO2 concentration at the surface.
If we estimate during a given month ("m") the global average CO2 during the previous month ("m-1"), the result differs from the estimate made (up to almost a year later) when all the data are in, with a standard deviation of 0.57 ppm.
www.esrl.noaa.gov /gmd/ccgg/trends   (1188 words)

 Co2 Discussion for Planted Aquariums
At the end of most of the tests, CO2 again measured about 2-3 ppm, indicating that this was the equilibrium value for the experimental conditions (note that the altitude was 5000 feet above sea level).
Just CO2 data in the range of 10-33 ppm is shown, since we consider that range to be the most relevant for planted tanks.
This is a CO2 concentration swing of 5 mg/l (27 mg/l to 22 mg/l) times 300 liters and should occur within 1.25 hours for a usage of 29 grams per day.
www.floridadriftwood.com /whyCo2.htm   (3013 words)

 Snow Formationt
With the CO2 present as a gas, the contamination can be separated from the exhaust stream and the CO2 is available for venting outside or recovery.
In using this diagram, it is imperative to understand that the expansion of CO2 through an orifice is ideally a constant enthalpy process.
Gas fed systems tend to be cleaner (easier to filter a gas than a liquid), have less heavy hydrocarbon contamination, and have less consumption per unit time.
www.co2clean.com /snowform.htm   (767 words)

 Cut CO2 emissions 75% - Organic Weed Control by UV Light
CO2 emissions are cut by 75 % by switching from gas burners to UV Weed Control.
Plankton is the major CO2 sink as huge as the forests and green vegetation at land.
As less CO2 will be absorbed by the ocean due to higher temperature and saturation effects, equilibrium will require very low CO2 emission.
www.optocleaner.com /slash_co2_emission.htm   (1504 words)

 Carbon Dioxide - Geologic Sequestration | Climate Change - Greenhouse Gas Emissions | U.S. EPA
Instead of releasing CO2 to the atmosphere, geologic sequestration involves separating and capturing CO2 from an industrial or energy-related source, transporting it to a storage location, and injecting it deep underground for long-term isolation from the atmosphere.
CO2 can be transported as a liquid in ships, road or rail tankers, but pipelines are the most efficient and cost-effective approach for transporting large volumes of CO2.
Rather than venting the CO2, a common practice on projects of this type, this project is compressing and injecting it 5900 feet deep into a lower level of the gas reservoir where the reservoir is filled with water.
www.epa.gov /climatechange/emissions/co2_geosequest.html   (1416 words)

 Carbon Dioxide - Human-Related Sources and Sinks of Carbon Dioxide | Climate Change - Greenhouse Gas Emissions | U.S. ...
The largest source of CO2 emissions globally is the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas in power plants, automobiles, industrial facilities and other sources.
CO2 is emitted by the burning of fossil fuels for electricity generation, industrial uses, transportation, as well as in homes and commercial buildings.
leads to CO2 emissions because the carbon sequestered in trees is emitted to the atmosphere and not counter-balanced by re-growth of new trees.
www.epa.gov /climatechange/emissions/co2_human.html   (1849 words)

 Nature's Gift information on CO2 extraction of essential oils
Hypercritical carbon dioxide extraction is a relatively new process used to extract the essence of the plant.
This liquid CO2 can be used as a very inert, safe, "liquid solvent." CO2 is the gas we all breathe out of our lungs.
These tend to resemble the classic steam distillate but with the advantage of no temperature degradation and the potential for additional volatile substances that may not be distilled out of the plant under normal steam distillation.
www.naturesgift.com /CO2.htm   (655 words)

 A DIY CO2 system
This CO2 system can be assembled for under $150.00, but you need to do some shopping around to get the various bits and pieces.
Possibly the simplest reactor would be to feed the CO2 bubbles into the intake of a power filter or canister filter or powerhead.
CO2 regulators can be purchased on-line (mail order), or at many welding and industrial gas suppliers.
www.csd.net /~cgadd/aqua/diy_co2rig.htm   (1350 words)

 Measuring CO2 levels in a Planted Tank
NOTE: If you aren't adding CO2 to your water, and the CO2 level based on the pH and KH indicates more than 5ppm, then it is very likely that some other buffer (such as phosphate) is present in your water.
A desireable CO2 level is 10-25ppm (which is indicated in green on the chart).
CO2 concentrations over 25ppm can be harmful to the inhabitants of your tank.
www.csd.net /~cgadd/aqua/art_plant_co2chart.htm   (1732 words)

 DIY Yeast-Generated CO2 System
Carbonic acid formed by the interaction of CO2 with water tends to dissolve the rubber membrane.
Insert the CO2 hose through a hole in one of the panes between 2 panels (see picture), near the bottom, and cap it with an airstone.
The idea is for the CO2 bubbles to come out of the airstone and collect at the top of the reactor bottle.
www.cichlid-forum.com /articles/diy_co2.php   (1227 words)

 Lack of CO2...A Curse or a Blessing? - Article - Red Colony
If the cap were solid CO2, then once it was heated a few degrees a runaway greenhouse effect would ensue, heating the entire planet to habitability.
With an average atmospheric pressure of 1000 millibars, 0.35 millibars of CO2 exist in their gaseous state.
Once thought to be CO2, it was theorized that if the planet were warmed slightly, the subliming cap would fill the planet with carbon dioxide.
www.redcolony.com /art.php?id=0302130   (724 words)

 WebHome < CO2 < TWiki
The novel approach is to sequester CO2 not only by physical trapping within a reservoir, but to convert dissolved CO2 into the geochemically more stable form of calcite in a reaction with calcium obtained from dissolution of sulphates and feldspars.
For modelling and thus testing the potential of a CO2 sequestration by transforming anhydrite into calcite, the dynamics of anhydrite redistribution within the reservoir as well as the trans-formation mechanisms and rates need to be known.
Ultimately, it is one of the prime goals of this project to develop a scientifically and technically feasible new technology in which CO2 sequestration and geothermal energy use are combined to achieve a safe and economically attractive long-term storage of CO2 trapped in minerals.
www.co2trap.org   (1897 words)

 CO2 Information on Healthline   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
CO2 and bicarbonate are also measured as part of an arterial blood gas analysis.
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, you may feel moderate pain, or only a prick or stinging sensation.
The CO2 levels in the blood are influenced by kidney and respiratory (lung) function.
www.healthline.com /adamcontent/co2   (506 words)

Serum CO2 is a blood test that measures the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in serum (the liquid portion of the blood).
Serum CO2 is really a measure of serum HCO3-, also called bicarbonate.
In the body, 95% of the CO2 is present as HCO3-, so most of what is measured in the laboratory represents HCO3-.
www.healthscout.com /ency/1/003469.html   (371 words)

 CO2 Recycling
Recycling CO2 is advocated by George A. Olah, professor of chemistry and director of the Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute at the University of Southern California, and winner of the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on carbocation and hydrocarbon chemistry.
Methanol produced from this CO2 (using any energy source to produce the required hydrogen from water), is an excellent fuel on its own for internal combustion engines or fuel cells of the future.
Recycling CO2 into fuel —The conversion of CO2 to fuel is not a dream, but an effective possibility which requires further research, said research Professor Gabriele Centi from the University of Messina in Italy.
www.americanenergyindependence.com /recycleco2.html   (2221 words)

 co2 - Mike Koss on Blue Dot
If we basically do nothing, and global CO2 emissions continue to grow at the pace of the last 30 years for the next 50 years, we will pass the doubling level — an atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide of 560 parts per million — around midcentury.
Levels seem to be growing at about 2 ppmv (parts per million by volume) each year as a trend (though we have seasonal fluctuations of 6 ppmv due to plant growth).
Since the atmosphere's CO2 composition is now at 383 ppmv, about 1/4 of it can be attributed to man-made sources.
bluedot.us /users/mike/tag/co2   (1110 words)

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