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Topic: CO2 sink


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In the News (Tue 2 Sep 14)

  
  CO2 sink - CO2sink   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is a carbon reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon "source".
The carbon or plankton cells have to sink to the deep water in 2000 to 4000 meter to be sequestered for ca.
Although a forest is a net CO2 sink over time, the plantation of new forests may also initially be a source of carbon dioxide emission when carbon from the soil is released into the atmosphere.
www.kopete.org /CO2-sink.html   (2647 words)

  
 Carbon dioxide sink - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A carbon dioxide (CO) sink is a carbon reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon "source".
The main natural sinks are (1) the oceans and (2) plants and other organisms that use photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere by incorporating it into biomass.
The former is primarily a function of differential CO solubility in seawater and the thermohaline circulation, while the latter is the sum of a series of biological processes that transport carbon (in organic and inorganic forms) from the surface euphotic zone to the ocean's interior.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Carbon_dioxide_sink   (3501 words)

  
 CO2 sink
A carbon dioxide (CO) sink is a concept that has become widely known through the Kyoto protocol.
The idea is that growing vegetation absorbs CO, so that countries that have large areas of forest (or other vegetation) can deduct a certain amount from their CO emissions, thus making it easier to achieve the desired emission levels.
The use of CO sinks is not uncontroversial; some studies indicate that a forest can be a net source of CO Elsewhere
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/co/CO2_sink.html   (107 words)

  
 Marine Biogeochemistry Lab Home   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
A particular emphasis is improving the estimates of the oceanic carbon sink and the underlying mechanisms that regulate it.
For example, there remains much uncertainty about the geographic and temporal variability of ocean carbon sources and sinks, and their modulation by biological and physical processes, particularly in the ocean basins adjacent to North America (Figure 4, Takahashi et al., 2002).
Red-yellow areas indicate that the ocean is a source for atmospheric CO, and blue-purple areas indicate that the ocean is a CO 2 sink (Takahashi et al.
www.bbsr.edu /Labs/co2lab/co2main.html   (664 words)

  
 Carbon Cycle Science Supply - Carbon Cycle Science Supply Side Sector: Sequestration Technologies
By depositing iron into the ocean, it may be possible to stimulate phytoplankton growth and hence encourage an increased biological uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, eventually depositing the carbon in the deep oceans for decades or centuries.
CO2 Lake: Pipes running along the ocean bottom would pump liquid CO2 into a seafloor depression, creating a stable ‘deep lake’ at a depth of 3000-4000 meters.
CO2 is mixed with slurry of water and reactants, heated and compressed.
sciencepolicy.colorado.edu /carboncycle/supply/sequestration.html   (1388 words)

  
 Forests and other Land Use Change Activities in the CDM
Sinks in the CDM raises major short and long-term social and equity issues around land-use for these countries, and has still to be appropriately assessed or considered.
Allowing sinks in the CDM may imply further jeopardizing future generations of rural populations threatened by climate change, in violation of one of the basic principles of sustainable development.
Sink projects have a significant opportunity cost in terms of the health benefits to be gained by direct fossil fuel emission reductions or avoidance.
archive.greenpeace.org /climate/politics/lyonsink.html   (6682 words)

  
 Pubs.GISS: Abstract of Fung 1993   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
A balanced budget thus requires the CO sinks to remove 2.5-5.0 GtC/yr, an amount equal to 43% of the fossil fuel plus 100% of the deforestation inputs.
Interhemispheric gradient of CO in the atmosphere points to a Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes sink, whereas deconvolution of the historical records suggests that the sink has been operative for the past 50 years.
Although isotopic data can provide potentially powerful constraints on the partitioning of the CO sink between land and sea, the conclusions are highly dependent on the del13C value of the respired CO Understanding ecosystem dynamics with turnover times of 10-100 years is, thus, tantamount.
pubs.giss.nasa.gov /abstracts/1993/Fung.html   (201 words)

  
 Carbon Sinks
CO2 uptake is controlled by two  "solubility pumps" that keep CO2 concentration ~10% lower than at depth.  First of all CO2 is approximately twice as soluble in the cold water at high latitudes than it is in warmer water.
The biological pump constantly remove CO2 at the surface and export Particulate Organic Matter (POM) to the deep where the carbon may be converted back to CO2 by bacteria, eventually returning to the surface.  Or a very small portion of it may get buried in the sediments.
If the pump is not functioning, the window is open and CO2 escapes to the atmosphere.  If it's operating at maximum efficiency then the window is closed and biota strip CO2 from the deep water as it surfaces and the carbon stays in the ocean.
www.environmentalsciences.homestead.com /carbonsinks.html   (1332 words)

  
 NASA GISS: Science Briefs: Oh Where Oh Where Does the CO2 Go?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Some of the anthropogenic CO is absorbed by the ocean, and the rest by the vegetation and soils.
It is important to know how the anthropogenic CO sink is partitioned between land and sea because the lifetime of a molecule of carbon in vegetation is 10-100 times shorter than in the ocean.
Atmospheric transport models are being used to infer, from the way in which CO (and its isotopes) in the atmosphere varies geographically, where the CO sources and sinks may be located.
www.giss.nasa.gov /research/briefs/fung_01   (502 words)

  
 Why does atmospheric CO2 rise
Taken together, the ocean and the terrestrial vegetation and soils must currently be a net sink of CO2 rather than a source [Melillo, p 454] [Schimel 94, p 47, 55] [Schimel 95, p 79] [Siegenthaler].
The trends are not compatible with a dominant CO2 source in the terrestrial biosphere or in the ocean.
CO2 fertilization, N fertilization, northern forest regrowth, and climatic effects are hard to separate, their relative roles are not well known [Goulden] [Melillo, p 449, 451-57] [Schimel 95, p 78-82].
www.radix.net /~bobg/faqs/scq.CO2rise.html   (2513 words)

  
 Dr.Yiqi Luo's EcoLab
The purpose of the study is to determine the potential long-term response of forest vegetation to rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, to locate a possible sink for carbon dioxide, to determine the factors that enhance and/or limit that sink, and to study changes in forest biodiversity and succession due to rising carbon dioxide levels.
Researchers are measuring tree physiology at leaf to whole-tree levels, conducting micrometerological measurements to quantify carbon fluxes, and developing a set of models to describe the processes that regulate the fluxes of carbon that occur between a forest ecosystem and the atmosphere.
This research seeks to quantify the fluxes of CO2 and patterns of biomass accumulation in all components of the loblolly pine forest ecosystem.
bomi.ou.edu /luo/projects.htm   (2884 words)

  
 Group A Main
H2 + CO2à CH4 + H2O Evidence suggests (through RNA sequencing) that these organisms are ancient and might have existed on early Earth.
Assuming that methane was produced at the same rate as it is today, methane concentrations would have been greater than 1000ppm, 600 times its present level, due to the slower breakdown of methane in the absence of oxygen.
Warmer temperatures accelerate the rate of silicate weathering, thus reducing the CO2 levels in the atmosphere (negative feedback) by a factor of 30.
www.atmos.washington.edu /2001Q2/211/groupA/evolution.html   (1445 words)

  
 The CO2 Fertilization Factor and the “Missing” Carbon Sink - An Editorial Comment
Since the ultimate storage of most of the excess carbon released to the atmosphere is the deep ocean, this additional uncertainty in the size of the annual ocean sink implies a greater uncertainty in the size of the "missing" sink than indicated above.
Their results indicate that the terrestrial biosphere shifts from a net source of carbon prior to about 1980 to a net carbon sink from 1980 onward, with increasing carbon accumulation in the terrestrial biosphere despite a continuation in land-use changes.
Closing the "missing" sink debate will require high resolution models that can address not only the effects of climate, increased atmospheric carbon, nitrogen availability and soil quality, but also questions about land-use, land management, and other anthropogenic perturbations to terrestrial biomes.
www2.bren.ucsb.edu /~keller/papers/climch33.html   (2259 words)

  
 NOAA OGP Programs   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
When trying to project future CO loadings of the atmosphere for given scenarios of CO emissions from the burning of fossil fuels it is important to know how much carbon is being sequestered by ecosystems on the continents, where it is happening and what the reasons are.
Data used to constrain surface sources and sinks of CO are usually point measurements.
A recent inverse modeling result was published by Fan et al., in which a large sink of CO into terrestrial ecosystems of North America was deduced [Fan et al., 1998].
www.ogp.noaa.gov /mpe/gcc/1999/tans2.html   (1507 words)

  
 NASA GISS: Science Briefs: Tracking Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Burning   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The imbalance of about 1.3 GtC/yr, termed the "missing sink", represents the difference between the estimated sources and the estimated sinks of CO This imbalance has increase consistently since around 1920 and has undergone substantial increases since 1950.
This sink may be driven by deliberate human action and/or by feedbacks and interactions between the biosphere and the changing climate and atmosphere.
Probable sink mechanisms include climate variability, direct fertilization of the biosphere (i.e., enhanced photosynthetic uptake due to higher CO levels in the atmosphere) and indirect fertilization due to enhanced nitrogen deposition from fossil-fuel use and other human activities.
www.giss.nasa.gov /research/briefs/matthews_01   (553 words)

  
 Carbon sink or carbon source? Aerosols play role in shifts
Since plants want to take in CO2 but also preserve water at the same time, Niyogi believes the lack of shade and increased temperatures may cause plants to slow the rate of photosynthesis, causing less CO2 to be absorbed and thus more CO2 to be effectively emitted.
The daytime growing season (summer) CO2 flux observations from six sites (forest, grasslands and croplands) with collected aerosol and surface radiation measurements were analyzed for high and low diffuse radiation; effect of cloud cover; and effect of high and low aerosol optical depths (AOD).
The CO2 sink increased with aerosol loading for forest and crop lands, and decreased for grassland.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2004-12/ncsu-cso120804.php   (1091 words)

  
 Wellcome to the ESRA Lab!
For the period 1980-1993, results from an ensemble of three models agree within 25%, simulating a land carbon sink from CO and climate effects of 0.08 gigaton of carbon per year.
The best estimates of the total sink from inventory data are about three times larger, suggesting that processes such as regrowth on abandoned agricultural land or in forests harvested before 1980 have effects as large as or larger than the direct effects of CO and climate.
The modeled sink varies by about 100% from year to year as a result of climate variability.
www.forestry.auburn.edu /esra/lml_research_us.htm   (205 words)

  
 Hope College ChemBoard: Expl 5B Homework: What are the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The main sink for methane is a reaction with OH in the troposphere to form carbon dioxide and water vapor.
CO2 levels emitted from one human being and one car in a years period average out to be about the same quantaties.
CO2 has been measured in Mauna Loa since the 1950s, and the CO2 in the atmosphere has increased since the beginning of the industrial revolution from 280ppmv to about 358ppmv in 1994.
www.chem.hope.edu /~chemboard/f04/messages/10/1434.html?1099079772   (6433 words)

  
 Theme: Green House Gases   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Monitoring the role of agriculture as a source and sink for GHGs is of importance to policy makers, in view of the need for countries to assess domestic strategies, and to meet international obligations to reduce GHG emissions.
Data on the specific contribution of agriculture as both a source and sink of GHG in relation to climate change, relative to other sectors in the economy, can help to develop appropriate policies.
Agriculture's capacity as a GHG sink is enhanced by improvements in management practices, such as tillage practices, crop cover and residue management.
www.oecd.org /document/13/0,2340,en_2649_33795_1889741_1_1_1_1,00.html   (548 words)

  
 GAC : Investigations Lesson 11
However, brief coverage is provided at the end of this background section on the ocean CO2 sink processes and the teacher is given the option of expanding this lesson accordingly.
Scientists hypothesize that this missing carbon sink is due especially to the processes of carbon dioxide fertilization and forest regrowth in the Northern Hemisphere.
Tell the students this extra CO2 represents the amount that has accumulated in the atmosphere over the last couple of centuries due to "industrialization." Remind students that most of this accumulation has happened over the last 50 years or so and that we are continuing to add "too much" CO2 to the atmosphere.
www.ed.psu.edu /ci/Papers/STS/gac-3/in11.htm   (6757 words)

  
 Evaluation of Carbon Sink in the Coastal Sea
The resulting enhanced biological activity tends to draw down the CO dissolved in the coastal waters, and creates a potential sink for CO in the atmosphere.
Investigating the carbon sink in ECS may shed some light on the role of coastal seas in global ocean carbon uptake.
In addition to the discharge of nutrients to ECS from Changjiang, the other major nutrient source is the upwelling of nutrient rich subsurface water of Kuroshio warm current which flows northward along the continental slope to the east boundary of ECS.
www.aoml.noaa.gov /general/project/ocdthp5.html   (760 words)

  
 American Society of Limnology & Oceanography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
That is, as CO2 levels decrease, the oxygen levels should increase since the phytoplankton use CO2 and produce oxygen in photosynthesis.
Before we started fertilizing the experiment, the lakes were supersaturated in CO2, and correspondingly undersaturated in oxygen.
Only the planktivores lake is consistently a CO2 sink, and we see the mirror image in the increase in oxygen.
aslo.org /meetings/carbon2001/cole/transcript4.html   (631 words)

  
 Carbon Balance and Management | Full text | Significance of the oceanic CO2sink for national carbon accounts
However, this 'natural anthropogenic CO sink' could be used as a disincentive for certain nations to reduce their anthropogenic CO emissions, which would ultimately dampen global efforts to reduce atmospheric CO concentrations.
I use Australia as a case study to estimate the EEZ anthropogenic CO sink due largely to the detailed accounting information on CO emissions from fossil fuels and land-use changes [3] along with its very large oceanic territory.
To demonstrate the potential implications of the EEZ anthropogenic CO sink, I have roughly estimated the uptake for Australias EEZ which is one of the largest in the world.
www.cbmjournal.com /content/1/1/5   (1709 words)

  
 American Society of Limnology & Oceanography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Initially, there is a lot of organic material from the phytoplankton blooms accumulating in the first few years of the study that is piled in the deep water and awaiting decomposition.
The bottom line is that it is difficult to predict whether the lake is a net source or sink of CO2 when adding nutrients.
However, over short time scales-- months to years--much of that CO2 is returned to the atmosphere, and in fact over the 27 years for which data are available, this lake, under a huge regime of fertilization, is not the net sink of CO2.
aslo.org /meetings/carbon2001/cole/transcript3.html   (611 words)

  
 “Greenhouse Gases and the Carbon Cycle: Science’s Best Guess as to the Growth Path of CO2 Concentrations”
(1990) suggested that the northern temperate latitudes were a net sink for carbon, largely as a result of the regrowth of forests on abandoned agricultural lands.
In the face of losses of carbon from tropical forests and only a small sink in North America, we must postulate huge, recent increases in the carbon uptake and storage in Siberian forests, for which the driving mechanism is unclear.
Without explicit management to enhance carbon storage on land, reforestation of abandoned agricultural land is the most plausible cause of a carbon sink in the terrestrial biosphere, both now and in the foreseeable future.
www.soc.duke.edu /~pmorgan/Schlesinger.htm   (6268 words)

  
 Our Changing Planet FY 1996 - Highlights Of Recent Research: Greenhouse Gases And Aerosol Concentrations
It is hypothesized that either an enhanced natural sink in the terrestrial biosphere (or possibly in the oceans) or a reduced natural source is likely responsible for the slowdown in the rate of CO increase.
Analyses of the carbon-climate record and indications that the CO growth rate has returned to higher levels during late 1994 and early 1995 suggest that this unusual downturn in carbon dioxide growth rates may be primarily a climate-related phenomenon resulting from recent variations in the global climate, especially in air temperature and possibly precipitation.
Indications that the Arctic tundra is releasing CO to the atmosphere are increasing.
www.gcrio.org /ocp96/hiliteb1.html   (1164 words)

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