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Topic: CPU architecture


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  Z80 CPU architecture
The Z80 CPU is an 8-bits processor witch was constructed in the beginning of July 1976, with ideas from Intel 8080.
Another aspect in processor- architecture are the number of internal registers, and if they are dedicated to special purposes.
The Z80 CPU has with Intel, inspired to the global processor development and are still alive today more than 20 years after it's construction and it seems like it will continue to live many years more.
www.geocities.com /SiliconValley/Peaks/3938/z80arki.htm   (623 words)

  
 Central processing unit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
The term "CPU" often refers—imprecisely—to other centrally important parts of a computer, such as caches and input/output controllers, especially when those functions exist on the same microprocessor chip as the CPU.
With the arrival of multi-core chips, the term CPU can either mean the physical chip (see the picture) mounted on the motherboard, or it can mean the core within the chip.
Many processor architectures can also be characterized by their CPU design, like register size.
www.hackettstown.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Central_processing_unit   (523 words)

  
 IBM POWER - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The POWER architecture was used to develop (and remains very similar to) the PowerPC architecture, used in later Apple Macintosh computers, some IBM workstations, as well as a number of embedded applications.
The FPU portion of the design was separate from the instruction decoder and integer parts, allowing the decoder to send instructions to both the FPU and ALU (integer) execution units at the same time.
The PowerPC was essentially a POWER1 CPU with some of the more basic instructions emulated in microcode, using a bus interface based on the Motorola 88000 design.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/IBM_POWER   (1109 words)

  
 cpu   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
The central processing unit (CPU) is the part of a computer that interprets and carries out the instructions contained in the software.
In most CPUs, this task is divided between a control unit that directs program flow and one or more execution units that perform operations on data.
The term CPU is often used vaguely to include other centrally important parts of a computer such as caches and input/output controllers, especially in computers with modern microprocessor chips that include several of these functions in one physical integrated circuit.
www.yourencyclopedia.net /Cpu.html   (276 words)

  
 Central processing unit - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
When every part of a CPU is on a single physical integrated circuit, it is called a microprocessor.
The term CPU is often used vaguely to include other centrally important parts of a computer such as caches and input/output controllers, especially when those functions are on the same microprocessor chip as the CPU.
A future and somewhat controversial architecture being pushed by AMD and Intel is a dual-core processor.
open-encyclopedia.com /CPU   (388 words)

  
 8086 Architecture
The advantage of this pipelined architecture is that the EU can execute instructions almost continually instead of having to wait for the BIU to fetch a new instruction.
These registers are used by the BIU to determine the memory address output by the CPU when it is reading or writing from the memory unit.
The CPU must perform two memory read cycles: one to fetch the low-order byte and a second to fetch the high-order byte.
telnet7.tripod.com /articles/8086_achitecture.htm   (2337 words)

  
 [No title]
For instance, modern out-of-order processor architectures don't actually execute code sequentially in the order in which it was written.
Only the CPU knows in what order the program's instructions were actually executed, and in that respect the processor is like a fl box to both the programmer and the user.
In cooperative multitasking systems, some programs would monopolize the CPU and not let it go, with the result that the whole system would grind to a halt.
arstechnica.com /articles/paedia/cpu/hyperthreading.ars/1   (1279 words)

  
 CPU Architecture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
The Nios CPU is a five-stage pipelined general-purpose RISC microprocessor that supports both a 32-bit and 16-bit data path.
The Nios embedded processor implements the CPU with separate data and instruction-memory bus masters, generally known as a modified-Harvard memory architecture.
The Nios CPU architecture has a large general-purpose windowed register file, several machine-control registers, a program counter, and the K register that is used for instruction prefixing.
www.altera.com /products/ip/processors/nios/features/nio-cpu_architecture.html   (1059 words)

  
 Real World Technologies - Back to Basics - Laying the Foundation
While an architecture can be implemented with scalar instructions or with vector instructions or both, all architectures must employ control instructions.
So a procedure call is when a CPU is running a procedure and then it needs to, for whatever reason, call another procedure.
One example would be if you are just summing N numbers and you need to call the "count" procedure to figure out exactly what the Nth number is. Then the processor has to switch to this other procedure in the instruction stream, but unlike a branch, it must also store where it came from.
www.realworldtech.com /page.cfm?AID=RWT020503085004   (830 words)

  
 The Old Joel on Software Forum - General question about CPU architecture
These CPUs will matter (even though they might be able to address more things then there are in the universe) because you will be able to operate on larger numbers all at once.
Current CPUs can obviously deal with very very large numbers but they are still "simulating" the whole thing either through floating point representation and hardware or some other kind of emulation!...
From an architectural standpoint, the totally flat memory space was a programmer's dream -- you just wrote to memory, and OS/400 was the only one that cared whether it was real or not.
discuss.fogcreek.com /joelonsoftware?cmd=show&ixPost=180541   (1304 words)

  
 How the CPU works
Since the CPU carries out a large share of the work in the computer, data pass continually through it.
Each type of CPU is designed to understand a specific group of instruction called the instruction set.
The location in memory for each instruction and each piece of data is identified by an address, or a number that stands for a location in the computer memory.
www.geocities.com /cfleri/work.html   (373 words)

  
 Chapter Four CPU Architecture
Intel, ever cogniscent of the fact that designers would reject their CPU if the total system cost was too high, made a special effort to design an instruction set that had a high memory density (that is, packed as many instructions into as little RAM as possible).
At the time Intel designed the 8086 CPU the average lifetime of a CPU was only a couple of years.
Intel was still playing catch-up with their competitors in the CPU arena with respect to features, but they were definitely the king of the hill with respect to CPUs installed in PCs.
webster.cs.ucr.edu /AoA/Windows/HTML/CPUArchitecture.html   (4603 words)

  
 Linux á Íslandi   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
CPU is the "brain" of computer and is a very vital component of computer system and is like a "cousin brother" of operating system (Linux or Unix).
The hardware structure or architecture determines to a large extent what the possibilities and impossibilities are in speeding up a computer system beyond the performance of a single CPU.
The CPUs are connected by some network and may exchange data between their respective memories when required.
www.linux.is /howto?view=29&flokkur=1   (3725 words)

  
 History of Computing
After that I learned several other architectures and came to conclusion that actually instruction set is to certain extent is an artistic object and we can legitimately talk about beautiful/elegant and ugly CPU instruction sets.
In a time when microprocessors are advertised on TV and CPU vendors have their own jingles, the fantastic technology embodied in these chips seems almost irrelevant.
The latter is the bible of CPU architecture.
www.softpanorama.org /History/cpu_history.shtml   (6641 words)

  
 The Sega Saturn White Paper   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
A total of eight microprocessors in the Sega Saturn (three of which are powerful 32-bit RISC chips) work together as a sophisticated suite of "coprocessors" to create a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts.
It may be easier in some ways for developers to create programs for the competition because there's less to learn and work with from a technology standpoint -- but that means that developers are much more likely to run up against the limits of the system in a short span of time.
The simpler structure of competing architectures also increases the chance that games will be "ported" from other systems (other game systems or even personal computers), which results in games that are generic and not optimized for performance and special features.
www.sega-saturn.com /saturn/other/tech.htm   (3966 words)

  
 TRON VLSI CPU Introduction
The TRON VLSI CPU architecture is a 32-bit microprocessor architecture that was developed expressly for serving as the "main hardware building block" of the real-time TRON Hypernetwork (called the highly functional distributed system [HFDS] in technical parlance), which is the ultimate goal of the TRON Project.
Accordingly, the TRON VLSI CPU specification had to describe a general-purpose microprocessor architecture with real-time enhancements that could readily be applied to embedded systems in addition to personal computers and workstations, and it had to embody state-of the-art microprocessor technology as it existed in the mid 1980s when the architecture was laid down.
The history of the TRON VLSI CPU architecture goes back to a Microcomputer Software Applications Experts Committee at the Japan Electronic Industrial Development Association, which was set up in the early 1980s to investigate the relationship between microprocessors and future real-time operating systems.
tronweb.super-nova.co.jp /tronvlsicpu.html   (3654 words)

  
 OpenPA: PA-RISC CPU architecture
It is very similar on both CPUs, not much has been changed in the transition from 7100LC to 7300LC.
The PA-7000 is the last PA-RISC processor to use seperate I/D TLBs, all later PA 1.1 and 2.0 CPUs use a combined TLB structure.
Superscalar: an implementation technique for an instruction set architecture that decodes, dispatches, executes and returns results from more than one independent instruction from an otherwise linear instruction stream during each of the processor's basic clock cycle.
www.openpa.net /arch.html   (951 words)

  
 Paul Hsieh's 7th generation x86 CPU Comparisons
The Athlon is a long pipelined architecture, and like the P6, does a lot of work to unravel some of the oddball conventions of the x86 instruction architecture in order to feed a powerful RISC-like engine.
From the architecture, the Athlon should be able to execute any combination of optimized x86 code at least as efficiently as the P6.
The architecture is a 20-stage deep pipeline, with the claimed purpose being for clock rate scaling reasons.
www.azillionmonkeys.com /qed/cpujihad.shtml   (7931 words)

  
 Intel 8086 CPU Family Architecture
CPU exception interrupts will return to the instruction that cause the exception because the CS:IP placed on the stack during the interrupt is the address of the offending instruction.
LOCK - Lock Bus Usage: LOCK LOCK: (386+ prefix) Modifies flags: None This instruction is a prefix that causes the CPU assert bus lock signal during the execution of the next instruction.
This instruction is used to prevent the CPU from accessing memory that may be temporarily in use by the coprocessor.
library.n0i.net /hardware/i8086opcodes   (10029 words)

  
 Paul Hsieh's 6th generation x86 CPU Comparisons
In keeping with their post-RISC architecture, the P-II's have in some cases increased the latency of some of the FPU instructions over the Pentium for sake of pipelining at high clock rates and with idea that it hopefully will not matter if the code is properly scheduled.
The P-II architecture is getting long in the tooth, but Intel keeps insisting on pushing it (demonstrating an uncooled 650Mhz sample in early 1999.) Mum's the word on Intel's seventh generation x86 architecture (the Williamette or Foster) probably because that architecture is not scheduled to be ready before late 2000.
This is because on older architectures, they hurt you no matter what, with no opportunity for instruction overlap, so the rule of avoiding them as much as possible was more important than knowing the precise penalty.
www.azillionmonkeys.com /qed/cpuwar.html   (11012 words)

  
 CPU Architecture and Operation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
This is a small amount of high speed memory which is used to store data the CPU is currently working on.
This enables the CPU to obtain the physical address of a piece of data quickly.
The TLB is associative: that is the CPU can compare the entry it is trying to match with all the TLB entries at once.
www.dcs.gla.ac.uk /~ian/project3/node13.html   (254 words)

  
 Nintendo Entertainment System Architecture
The 6502 CPU used in NES is not covered in this document though, as there is enough information on it in other literature.
All hexadecimal numbers are prepended with a dollar sign ($2002, $4016, etc.) which is a common notation used in 6502 CPU assembler.
The interrupt handler is supposed to finish its execution with RTI command which returns CPU to the main program execution.
fms.komkon.org /EMUL8/NES.html   (3363 words)

  
 ► » CPU Architecture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
architecture from a beginner's perspective, with the long term goal of building
(x86) architecture from a beginner's perspective, with the long term goal of
You could try a search in Amazon using 'processor architecture'.
www.hardware-help1.org /CPU-Architecture-1809750.html   (157 words)

  
 CPU | Hardware Secrets
Learn how a CPU works in an easy to follow language, including topics such as clock, memory cache, CPU block diagram, an overall view on the basic CPU units, pipeline, superscalar architecture, out-of-order execution and speculative execution.
Learn about the new Intel CPU architecture and the latest advancements in mobile computing in our IDF Fall 2005 coverage.
Check what is the maximum temperature your CPU can reach without burning and learn how to measure it.
www.hardwaresecrets.com /index.php?page=cpu   (1135 words)

  
 TOY/2 CPU architecture
TOY/2 is a minimal 16-bit processor inspired by the TOY CPU described in [1].
The focus was on a minimalist design that could be implemented in the time available (and that was so simple that the assistants would let us do it).
The Architecture of Microprocessors, Francois Anceau, Addison-Wesley, 1986
www.pcengines.ch /toy2.htm   (285 words)

  
 PROCESSOR AND MEMORY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
This section describes the components within the architecture of a Central Processing Unit (CPU).
We will illustrate the operations performed by the CPU, and examine computer memory, considering the various types of memory found within a computer.
Von Neumann suggested that programs for the computer could be represented in digital form in the computer's memory along with the data.
doit.ort.org /course/procmem/354.htm   (84 words)

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