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Topic: CS-Cipher

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In the News (Sat 20 Apr 19)

 CS Communications and Systems :
CS Cipher cipher-text versions of the files are saved in the same sub-diretory as the plain-text versions.
CS Cipher.40 is a free download (6.6Mb) from the CS Communications and Systems website and is easy to install and use.
The CS-Cipher algorithm is implemented in the form of software only for the CS's products so far but the algorithm is easily converted into hard-wired VLSI chips.
ourworld.compuserve.com /homepages/pagrosse/j031.htm

 dtSearch Case Study — Cipher
Cipher’s award-winning software product, Knowledge.Works™, is designed to give an organization deeper insight into all aspects of its marketplace by uncovering, managing and delivering the strategic details necessary to make better decisions.
Cipher offers both turnkey strategic research services and fully customized intelligence solutions.
Cipher takes the mystery out of decision making for clients across industries.
www.itfinds.com /CS_Cipher.html

The Hasty Pudding Cipher is fast, achieving 247 megabits per second on 512-bit blocks on a 300 MHz DEC Alpha.
The Hasty Pudding Cipher is in the public domain; there are no known patent restrictions.
The code for the Hasty Pudding Cipher is freely available in the US and Canada.
www.cs.arizona.edu /~rcs/hpc

 Quantum computer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Just double the size of the key for the cipher.
The first paper ever published on this: Bennett, C. H., Brassard, G., Breidbart, S. and Wiesner, S., "Quantum cryptography, or unforgeable subway tokens", Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of Crypto 82, August 1982, Plenum Press, pp.
But it is also easy to defend against.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Quantum_computer

 distributed.net: Project CSC
The CS-Cipher Algorithm is a symmetric block cipher, meaning that the same key is used to encrypt and decrypt the message.
The CS-Cipher Challenge is organized by CS Communications and Systems and will last until March 17, 2000.
It is meant to demonstrate how weak a 56-bit key is against brute force attacks.
www.distributed.net /csc

 The German Enigma Cipher Machine - History of Solving
Hans-Thilo Schmidt (his pseudonyms: Asche or H.E.), an employee of the Chiffrierstelle of the Reichswehrministerium (Cipher Bureau of the German Ministry of Defense) approached the agents of the French Intelligence service (Servic‚ de Renseignement - S.R.F) and proposed to deliver the classified documents.
After an interception, Polish Cipher Bureau had decided to buy legally (under a cover name and address) commercial version of Enigma Machine, available on the market in Germany.
The team for the research and work on the decryption of the machine ciphers was formed, consisting of three officers: Captain (later Major) Maksymilian Ciezki, Michalowski, and Czajsner.
www.enigmahistory.org /chronology.html

 Electronic Wheel Cipher is Added to Monticello Site
Three computer science students at the University of Virginia have created an electronic version of Thomas Jefferson's Wheel Cipher that allows visitors to Monticello's Web site to encode and decode short messages and send them via e-mail.
As long as the recipient had exact copies of each disk in the exact same order as the sender, the original message would appear when one row of the cipher was set to the encoded letters.
The electronic Wheel Cipher and instructions on how to use it are accessible at www.monticello.org/jefferson/wheelcipher.
www.cs.virginia.edu /csnews/show.php?artID=252

 Cs on Encyclopedia.com
CS Group Posts CS-CIPHER, a European Encryption Solution on the Web.
'CS-Cipher Challenge': The Group of Internet Users, distributed.net, Wins the Cryptographic Contest Launched by CS Group.
CS spray can cause serious injuries at close range warns new Police Complaints Authority report.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/C/Cs.asp

A substitution cipher is a cipher that replaces each plaintext symbol for another ciphertext symbol.
A better cipher can be made when multiple Caesar shifts are used, as in a Vigènere cipher, where each letter of a keyword provides the basis for a Caesar shift.
A simple substitution cipher is the cyclic or Caesar cipher.
www.cs.ucc.ie /~adrian/cs1061/cipher.html

Ciphers with much larger key sizes can be easy to break.
When I say I'm not qualified to do cryptanalysis, I mean that if you want a cipher attacked, I'm not a good person to ask; I can only break the most trivial of ciphers.
However, if I can break it, you can be assured it's a bad cipher.
www.ciphersbyritter.com /NEWS/94031606.HTM

 Cipher 3 method
That is the cipher we had originally intended to publish because it would have been slightly simpler to do an encryption in the field without leaving dangerous evidence behind.
This is however, the cipher that ended up being used for our third cipher and so that is what we published.
The cipher letter is then 'C' because this is what the mono-alphabetic substitution sends 'm' to.
cs.oberlin.edu /~jwalker/crypto/cipher3.html

 Parity-Based Concurrent Error Detection in Symmetric Block Ciphers
Faults introduced into the CS-cipher design are detected by comparing the overall parity of the input modified by the parity of the round keys, round constants and correction terms of the mixing functions with the parity of the (intermediate) cipher text obtained after every step of an encryption round.
In order to maintain the invariance of the parity from the inputs to the outputs of each CS-cipher encryption round, we added a parity correction term (exclusive-or of the parity of its inputs and outputs) to the non-linear function p and slightly modified the parity function due to the linear function \varphi.
We will describe a general concurrent error detection (CED) approach against such attacks on symmetric block ciphers using CS-cipher as an example.
csdl.computer.org /comp/proceedings/itc/2003/2063/00/20630919abs.htm

 Cisco Publications - IPJ Issues
It may be said that they are doing well: projects undertaken and successfully completed by distributed.net include the CS Cipher, DES III, DES II 2, and RC5-56 challenges.
It is a symmetric block cipher (shared secret key), with its block size fixed at 64 bits.
Its primary design goal was strength against both linear and differential cryptanalyses; the high degree of parallelism of the Square algorithm allows efficient implementation on parallel computers.
www.cisco.com /warp/public/759/ipj_4-2/ipj_4-2_des.html

 distributed.net - Official List Announcement - November 16, 1999
CS Communications and Systems wishes to demonstrate how weak a 56-bit key is against brute force attacks.
CSC is an encryption challenge that is organized by CS Communications and Systems.
Users can visit the CSC web page for more information at the contest start.
www.distributed.net /csc/csc-announce-dbaker.html.en

 CS 502, Homework 1
So, the only way to break this cipher is to somehow find the key length, break apart the cipher string into key-length substrings and then do a frequency analysis on individual alphabeths to try to determine the individual key letters.
First, I assume that the cipher is polyalphabetic from professor's remarks in class (he mentioned that the key is 3 - 8 letters long).
Now you may think about a systematic way of breaking the vigenere cipher and it is a good idea to write a program for future use.
www.cs.wustl.edu /~sl17

 Wired News: 56 a Bit Short of Secure
The key was developed by CS Communications & Systems, a system integrator and the fourth-largest French software producer, which now must make good on its promise to pay 10,000 Euros (US$10,117.64).
The Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, company issued an open challenge in late 1999 to break its 56-bit encryption key.
www.wired.com /news/technology/0,1282,33695,00.html

 Crypto Challenge
The following message was encrypted with a columnar transposition then a mixed plain cipher sequence and is believed to contain the text
www.cs.oberlin.edu /~jwalker/crypto

 Cipher: The Newsletter of the IEEE Computer Society Technical Committee on Security and Privacy
Cipher: The Newsletter of the IEEE Computer Society Technical Committee on Security and Privacy
www.ieee-security.org /cipher.html

 Standard Cryptographic Algorithm Naming
Ciphers that have different key schedules, but are otherwise identical are given different names (for example, SAFER-K and SAFER-SK).
If the subkeys are not in fact random and independent (to a close-enough approximation), the cipher may become vulnerable to related-key attacks, and therefore particular care is needed from the application designer in choosing how to generate subkeys.
Subkeys are encoded in the order in which they are used for encryption (or if this is ambiguous, the order in which they are presented or numbered in the original document specifying the cipher).
www.users.zetnet.co.uk /hopwood/crypto/scan/cs.html

 CS 465 - Vigenere Cipher Lab
ciphers can be thought of as combinations of Caesar ciphers, where each character of the key specifies a different rotation.
Learn about a cipher known to be insecure for over a century, but which is still commonly proposed and implemented.
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, the noted maths lecturer at Christ Church College, Oxford, described this cipher as unbreakable in his 1868 paper "The Alphabet-Cipher" (published in a children's magazine).
students.cs.byu.edu /%7Ecs465ta/labs/vigenere.html

 CS Disc
Cipher discs such as this were employed by Confederate signalers to encipher and decipher messages during the war.
This reproduction is of excellent quality, and examples are currently on display at the National Cryptologic Museum at Ft. Meade, MD, as well as at the Signal Corp Museum at Ft. Gordon, GA.
This reproduction is based on an original that is held in the collection of the Museum of the Confederacy in Richmond.
dahoude.tripod.com /cs_disc.htm

 SecurityFocus ONLINE Links
CS Communications and Systems has organized a security contest in the form of a Challenge for the WEB.
To win the 10,000 Euros prize you have just to crack the 56-bit secret key and decrypt the text the encrypted version of which has been published.
www.securityfocus.net /links/510

 DN - Cryptanlysis of Uncrackable Cipher [long]
Since this complex cipher is composed of four smaller ciphers, first mark which part was encrypted by which cipher.
If the individual ciphers are separated out, and each analyzed on its own, we can crack them like normal ciphers!
I think the algorithm is really the Vignere Autokey Cipher; to be more specific, a variant which was defeated by Charles Babbage at the beginning of this century.
users.castel.nl /~groor01/uncrack4.htm

 Wikipedia:WikiProject Cryptography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
/Cipher vs Cypher — a discussion of "cipher" and "cypher" spellings
Greg Goebel's Codes, Ciphers, and Codebreaking ( http://www.vectorsite.net/ttcode.html) —
List of cryptographers — an annotated list of cryptographers.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/User:Matt_Crypto/prop

 Maple worksheets for Cryptography
Both publics key and symmetric block ciphers are used along with digital signatures.
This is done before the more typical symmetric block ciphers since the public key systems are typically easier to understand mathematically.
Given the availability of computers, it seems natural that such a course should have the students encrypting and decrypting messages with the commercial grade systems they are studying.
euler.slu.edu /courseware/CryptoSubmissionSet/Cryptography.html

 Block cipher
CS2 is based on the CS cipher developed by Serge Vaudenay and takes advantage of work St Denis has done on the pseudo-Hadamard transform.
Most block ciphers are constructed by composing several simpler functions — an iterated block cipher (see also Product cipher).
This is in contrast to stream ciphers which encrypt each bit of the plaintext individually before moving on to the next.
omniknow.com /essays/Block_cipher.html

 CS 105 -- Generalizing the Caesar Cipher
Other slides within this section and other sections of slides for the topic "Privacy Issues and Encryption" can be accessed using the links below.
www.cs.williams.edu /~cs105/f02/outlines/CS105_486.html

 CRYPTON: A New 128-bit Block Cipher - Specification and Analysis - Lim (ResearchIndex)
The cipher encrypts/decrypts a 128-bit data block with a variable-length key up to 256 bits (with increment by a multiple of 32 bits) by iterating a fully parallelizable round function 12 times.
Chae Hoon Lim, Crypton: a new 128-bit Block Cipher - Specifications and Analysis, submitted to the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) contest, 1998.
Abstract: A new 128-bit block cipher called CRYPTON is proposed as a candidate algorithm for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
citeseer.nj.nec.com /141824.html

 Hacked, cracked, broken, or otherwise compromised encryption technologies.
CS Communications and Systems, a system integrator and the fourth-largest French software producer.
The Independent Computing Architecture protocol used in various Citrix products (Winframe, Metaframe) relies on a cracked encryption scheme to protect user authentication.
www.asiertech.com /secondary/cracked.htm

Unless we are satisfied with the simple hack of using three cipherings where previously one would do, we need to build up to a finished cipher in modest steps.
In a sense, a block cipher is a like a library of large automatic codebooks, where a User Key selects the particular book to use.
During this period, unprecedented advances in computational machinery have improved the ability to attack the cipher.
www.ciphersbyritter.com /NEWS/94070101.HTM

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