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# Topic: Caesar cipher

 Cryptography--Caesar Cipher One of the simplest examples of a substitution cipher is the Caesar cipher, which is said to have been used by Julius Caesar to communicate with his army. Caesar is considered to be one of the first persons to have ever employed encryption for the sake of securing messages. Caesar decided that shifting each letter in the message would be his standard algorithm, and so he informed all of his generals of his decision, and was then able to send them secured messages. www.trincoll.edu /depts/cpsc/cryptography/caesar.html   (778 words)

 Codes and Ciphers Ciphers have been in use since at least Ancient Rome, and there are indications in ancient writings that they were in use earlier than that. The Caesar Substitution cipher, and all like it were called "simple substitution" (to the cryptologist, "monalphabetic substitution") because throughout the message, each character was always replaced by the identical cipher character (e.g., in the Caesar Substitution, "F" would always represent "c" throughout the message). Field Ciphers were not intended to be as secure as those between military bases and diplomatic missions, but if they could prevent an adversary from decrypting a message until it was too late, they served their purpose. www.otr.com /ciphers.shtml   (2124 words)

 Wikinfo | Caesar cipher   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Even as late as 1915, the Caesar cipher was in use: the Russian army employed it as a replacement for more complicated ciphers which had proved to be too difficult for their troops to master; German and Austrian cryptanalysts had little difficulty in decrypting their messages. A Caesar shift of 13 is also performed in the ROT13 algorithm, a simple method of obfuscating text used in some Internet forums to obscure text (such as joke punchlines and story spoilers), but not used as a method of encryption. The Vigenère cipher uses a Caesar cipher with a different shift at each position in the text; the value of the shift is defined using a repeating keyword. www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Caesar_cipher   (0 words)

 vigenre cipher - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com The Vigenre cipher is a method of encryption that uses a series of different Caesar ciphers based on the letters of a keyword. The invention of the Vigenre cipher was misattributed to Blaise de Vigenre in the 19th century; it was originally described by a Giovan Batista Belaso in his 1553 book La cifra del. Sig. For nearly 300 years this cipher was thought to be unbreakable, but Charles Babbage and Friedrich Kasiski independently found a way to break it the middle of the 19th century. www.onpedia.com /encyclopedia/Vigenre-cipher   (0 words)

 Caesar cipher - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In cryptography, a Caesar cipher, also known as a Caesar's cipher, the shift cipher, Caesar's Code or Caesar Shift, is one of the simplest and most widely-known encryption techniques. The Caesar cipher is named for Julius Caesar, who used an alphabet with a shift of three. A Caesar shift of thirteen is also performed in the ROT13 algorithm, a simple method of obfuscating text used in some Internet forums to obscure text (such as joke punchlines and story spoilers), but not used as a method of encryption. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Caesar_cipher   (1476 words)

 pookey.co.uk/wiki/crypto/ceasar_shift Caesar shift is a very common cipher, that is incredibly easy to use. In this cipher, the alphabet used to encode the text is simply the standard alphabet, rotated round by an agreed number of positions. This cipher is incredibly easy to break, as there is only 25 different answers (not 26, a rotation of 26 would be the same as the plain text alphabet!). pookey.co.uk /wiki/crypto/ceasar_shift   (327 words)

 Code Breaking and Decoding Tools - The Da Vinci Game - Atbash cipher, Caesar Shift, Ceaser Square, Anagrams, ... The Atbash Cipher is a simple substition cipher where the first letter of the alphabet is exchanged with the last letter of the alphabet and so on. The Caesar Shift or Caesar Cipher can be made more complicated by having a different shift for different letters in the sequence, as in the recent code that Judge Peter Smith hid in the document of this judgement in The Da Vinci Code vs. Holy Blood, Holy Grail case. In addition to the ciphers above there are many other ways to code messages and the most difficult codes will use a range of different encryption methods, such as applying a sustitution cipher and then rearranging the letters using a Caesar Square or some other method. www.thedavincigame.com /Code_breaking.html   (1017 words)

 [No title] This calculator enciphers and deciphers text using an affine cipher (such as the Caesar cipher) in which letters are encoded using the formula C=aP+b (mod 26) where a and b are whole numbers between 0 and 25 and a is relatively prime to 26. The calculator also supports general substitution ciphers in which each letter is replaced by a another letter in a given permutation. If you're trying to crack a cipher and you think you know a few of the substitutions, it often helps to "empty" the cipher and fill in only the letters you think you know. www.wiley.com /college/mat/gilbert139343/java/java12_s.html   (329 words)

 Caesar Shift Cipher   (Site not responding. Last check: ) According to Suetonius, Caesar simply replaced each letter in a message with the letter that is three places further down the alphabet. Cryptographers often think in terms of the plaintext alphabet as being the alphabet used to write the original message, and the ciphertext alphabet as being the letters that are substituted in place of the plain letters. A cipher is the name given to any form of cryptographic substitution, in which each letter is replaced by another letter or symbol. www.simonsingh.net /The_Black_Chamber/caesar.html   (155 words)

 How the Vigenere Cipher Works : A detailed explanation into an important cryptographic historical discovery   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Caesar Cipher — Also known as the shift cipher, or Caesar Shift, the Caesar Cipher is one of the most basic and widely-known encryption techniques. The Caesar cipher is named after Julius Caesar, who used it with a three letter shift formula to protect messages during battle, according to Suetonius, a prominent Roman historian. The Vigenere cipher is a method of encryption which uses several different Caesar ciphers based on the letters of a keyword and is considered a simple form of polyalphabetic substitution. www.xramp.com /resources/vigenerecipherdetails   (0 words)

 Exercise 1: The Caesar Cipher (50%) This is called a substitution cipher, in which each letter of the original message (the "plaintext") is replaced by a different letter to generate the coded message (the "ciphertext"). This simple kind of cipher is sometimes called a "Caesar Cipher" after Julius Caesar, who is said to have used it for secure battlefield messages. To implement a Caesar cipher with a C program, note that, when accessing individual characters in C, what you are "really" dealing with are numeric codes for the characters. www.eeng.dcu.ie /~mcmullin/swe1/swe1labs/node40.html   (0 words)

 Vignere Cipher Encoder The Vigenere Cipher Encoder (VCE), written by Jason M. Chu of Boston University, is an MFC application for encrypting and decrypting the Vigenere cipher text. An example of a shifted cipher is the Caesar's Cipher, where the secret message is generated by shifting forward every single character in the original message by 3 (e.g. Unlike the traditional mono-alphabetic shifted ciphers, which shift every character in a message by the same amount (such as in ROT-13 and the Caesar's Cipher), the characters in a message of a Vigenere Cipher is to be shifted by different amounts. jason.mchu.com /VCE   (734 words)

 Clay Mathematics Institute The Caesar cipher was never secure despite its alleged use by powerful emperors. The Caesar cipher was reputedly used by the Emperor Julius Caesar to communicate with his generals. The Vigenère cipher was invented in the mid sixteenth century by Blaise de Vigenère, who worked in the court of King Henry III of France. www.claymath.org /posters/primes/vigenere.php   (0 words)

 VB Helper Tutorial: Breaking Caesar Substitution Caesar substitution ciphers may have been good enough in Caesar's day when noone knew what a cipher was, but today they're pretty simplistic. You can easily break a Caesar substitution cipher by simply trying all of the possible offsets 0 through 25 and seeing which one gives you a meaningful result. To quickly break a Caesar substitution cipher, simply calculate the percentage of times each letter appears in the message. www.vb-helper.com /crypto3.htm   (309 words)

 Chapter Ciphers in JavaScript A cipher is an algorithm or set of algorithms that systematically convert a sender's intended message text to what appears to be meaningless text, which can be converted back to the sender's original message only by authorized recipients. Ciphers in which both the sender and the recipient use the same key to encrypt and decrypt the message are said to be part of a Ciphers in which data is encrypted and decrypted with a pair of keys--one freely distributed to the public, the other known only to the recipient--are said to be part of a www.oreilly.com /catalog/jscook/chapter/ch09.html   (4694 words)

 Caesar's Cipher In Julius Caesar's cipher, the algorithm is to offset the alphabet and the key is the number of characters to offset it. Caesar's Cipher is so vulnerable to frequency analysis. If the frequency of the letter in the cipher text is almost the same as the frequency of letters in standard English, we can find out which letter is substituted for the letter in ciphertext. library.thinkquest.org /C0126342/ceaser.htm   (322 words)

 How to Encode and Decode Using the Vigenere Cipher - WikiHow The Vigenère cipher is a method of very weak encryption that uses a series of different "Caesar ciphers" based on the letters of a keyword. In a Caesar Cipher, each letter in the passage is moved a certain number of letters over, to be replaced by the corresponding alphabet number. By way of example, this would mean that in a Caesar cipher shift of three: A would become D; B would become E; C would become F etc. A Vigènere cipher is similar to this example but more complex; this article shows you how to use it. www.wikihow.com /Encode-and-Decode-Using-the-Vigenere-Cipher   (719 words)

 Simple Substitution Julius Caesar is said to have used a very simple method to safeguard his communications, the so called Caesar cipher. In the Caesar cipher the letters of the plaintext are substituted for the letters found three places further down the alphabet (at the end of the alphabet, the letters "wrap around", so after Z, the letter A follows), and the key for Caesar's secret cipher looks like this: The idea of the simpler checkerboard cipher just described, together with a Caesar-like crypto were to some extent used by the old Vikings. hem.passagen.se /tan01/simsub.html   (1467 words)

 Lab 10: JavaScript Strings & Encryption Both the Atbash and Caesar ciphers are examples of substitution ciphers, codes in which one letter of the alphabet is substituted for another. A substitution cipher can be described succinctly by specifying its key, i.e., the sequence of letters to which the alphabet is mapped. Although both of these ciphers were effective at their time (when very few people could read at all), their simple patterns of encoding letters seem pretty obvious today. www.dickinson.edu /~braught/courses/cs131s99/Labs/Lab10.html   (0 words)

 [No title] It is a type of substitution cipher in which each letter in the plaintext is replaced by a letter some fixed number of positions further down the alphabet. The Vigenère cipher is a method of encryption that uses a series of different Caesar ciphers based on the letters of a keyword. This cipher is well known because while it is easy to understand and implement, it often appears to beginners to be unbreakable; this earned it the moniker le chiffre indéchiffrable (French for 'the unbreakable cipher'). www.math.colostate.edu /~ziliak/Lecture_6.doc   (1394 words)

 System Management Guide: Communications and Networks - Secure NFS One of the earliest ciphers, the Caesar cipher, is attributed to Julius Caesar. Modern ciphers are designed to address the fact that computers can be powerful tools for an intruder attempting to break a cipher. Because of the complexity of the algorithm and the size of the cipher key, DES is essentially unbreakable. www.ncsa.uiuc.edu /UserInfo/Resources/Hardware/IBMp690/IBM/usr/share/man/info/en_US/a_doc_lib/aixbman/commadmn/nfs_secure.htm   (3674 words)

 Download Caesar Shift Cipher 2.0.1.2 - Caesar Shift Cipher is a useful program that will allow the encryption and ... Caesar Shift Cipher is a useful program that will allow the encryption and decryption of data using any of the twenty-five possible monoalphabetic shift-substitution ciphers. The first cipher to be used for serious purposes, Julius created the original which encrypted each letter by substituting it with the letter three characters along in the alphabet. In more modern times, this cipher has been used to encrypt messages on Usenet and other areas of the Internet - ROT13 is a Caesar Shift Cipher with a shift value of thirteen. www.softpedia.com /get/Security/Encrypting/Caesar-Shift-Cipher.shtml   (657 words)

 Turbo Encrypto Recovery The cipher is named for none other than Julius Caesar who used the method right around 3 BC though it may have been invented earlier. A pure Caesar cipher was limited to the standard alphabet and used an offset of three such that "A" becomes the letter "D". In fact, it is a variant of the Caesar cipher that uses an exclusive-or (XOR) operation instead of the offset value. members.aol.com /jpeschel2/rw1.htm   (1561 words)

 Early Cryptology Throughout the Middle Ages, ciphers were used by monks "for scribal amusement, and the Renaissance knew from its study of such classic texts as Suetonius that the ancient world had used ciphers for political purposes" (@ Kahn 106). He listed seven cipher methods and asserted that "a man is crazy who writes a secret in any other way than one which will conceal it from the vulgar" (@ Davis). The work discussed six cipher methods, including the Caesar cipher, for which he recommended the use of a cipher disc. home.att.net /~mleary/history.htm   (1743 words)

 Introduction to Cryptology - Part 1 - Science Articles The Julius Caesar cipher is a simple form of the more general cipher known as a substitution cipher. As with the Julius Caesar cipher there are 25 possibilities for the first key, there also 25 possibilities for the second key, there are 25 possibilities for the third key and so on. The reader may have also noticed that due to the Vigenere cipher being a generalisation of the Julius Caesar cipher, it follows that for each key a given letter ALWAYS enciphers to another given letter. www.physicspost.com /articles.php?articleId=174&page=4   (1961 words)

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