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Topic: Calculating Space

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In the News (Mon 22 Apr 19)

  Konrad Zuse - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the late 1960s, Zuse suggested the concept of a Calculating Space (a computation-based universe).
Working in his parents' apartment in 1938, his first attempt, called the Z1, was a binary electrically driven mechanical calculator with limited programmability, reading instructions from punched tape.
It was a binary calculator featuring programmability with loops but without conditional jumps, with memory and a calculation unit based on telephone relays.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Konrad_Zuse   (1103 words)

Contractions that do not save space only complicate the learnability and applicability of the code and may block the usage of dot combinations for frequent letter strings that would warrant their contracted representation but are not included in the code (Durre, 1992).
The top space savers are those that either have their own unique dot pattern (such as th, the, in, and, and er) or are alphabet letter contractions (such as that, people, have, and will).
The best space saver is th, with a normed space-saving capacity of 216.31, followed by the, in, and, and er, all of which have a normed space-saving capacity of more than 100.
www.braille.org /papers/jvib0696/vb960314.htm   (1789 words)

 File 58795   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
When calculating this space you should account for the fact that the RDBMS deals more efficiently with a table or index stored in a single extent than one stored in multiple extents.
Space used by transaction entries and deleted entries does not become free immediately after the commit due to delayed cleanout.
Accurate space calculations of the objects in the database allow the DBA to acquire the disk space needed and to plan an efficient layout of the physical datafiles.
www.uaex.edu /srea/osee/58795.htm   (2821 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The method claimed in claim 15, wherein the color difference values are a different color space representation from that of the pixels sampled from the local neighborhood of pixels about the pixel of interest used to calculate a noise reduced pixel value.
The apparatus claimed in claim 29, further comprising the means of calculating color difference values as CIELAB a* and b* components, and identifying the color regions and calculating the color weighing factors in color difference space.
The apparatus claimed in claim 29, further comprising the means of calculating color difference values as CIE C* and H* components, and identifying the color regions and calculating the color weighing factors in color difference space.
siesta.cs.wustl.edu /~loui/513f04/scanner-patents   (1722 words)

 Curta Brochure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
It answers to the long term demand by calculators who wished a less cumbersome machine that could be used anywhere, and it therefore fills a niche that has always existed for calculating machines.
The machine doesn't occupy any space on the desk because it is not placed on it, the left hand doesn't have to change its position during the recording of the result.
When the crank is pulled or pushed along its axis, the mechanism moves between two positions, the lower one for augmentative calculations (adding, multiplication) and the upper one for diminutive calculations (subtraction, division).
www.geocities.com /SiliconValley/Horizon/1404/curen.html   (1782 words)

 Concepts and Planning Guide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Space occupied by messages that have been retrieved is reclaimed periodically by an asynchronous process.
To calculate the approximate space required for all messages on a page set you must consider maximum queue depth of all the queues that map to the page set and the average size of messages on those queues.
When calculating the space required for each message, the first thing you need to consider is whether the message will fit on one page (a short message) or whether it needs to be split over two or more pages (a long message).
www-306.ibm.com /software/integration/mqfamily/library/manualsa/csqsat00/csqsat002k.htm   (919 words)

 Measurement face extraction apparatus and method - US Patent 5694483   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
wherein said conversion means includes plane calculation means for calculating an equation of the projection plane corresponding to the measurement face in the three-dimensional space in accordance with the plurality of edge positions.
The conversion section 3 calculates the equation of a plane corresponding to the road area in three-dimensional space.
The plane calculation section 7 calculates the equation of the road plane according to the posture of TV cameras (1a, 1b).
www.patentstorm.us /patents/5694483.html   (5231 words)

 Space Estimations for Schema Objects
Calculating the amount of space used per row is a multi-step task.
The calculations in the procedure rely on average column lengths of the columns that constitute an index; therefore, if column lengths in each row of a table are relatively constant with respect to the indexed columns, the estimates calculated by the following procedure are more accurate.
Calculate the data space required by an average row for each table in the cluster.
www.boku.ac.at /oradoc/server/8.0.5/server.805/a58397/apa.htm   (3231 words)

 Environmental Protection Agency > Basic Concepts in Environmental Sciences > Module 2 > Treatment Time
Calculate the treatment time and space velocity of a gas stream in an air pollution control device.
Space velocity is an alternative way to express the time available to treat a pollutant-laden gas stream and is defined by Equation 2.
The space velocity is a value equivalent to the number of times that the control device will be filled with untreated gas in a given period of time.
www.epa.gov /eogapti1/module2/treatment/treatment.htm   (788 words)

 United States Patent Application: 0040133379
The method according to claim 1, further comprising: superimposing a virtual image of the transmitter on a captured image on the basis of the calculated first parameter; and inputting a user's instruction associated with an adjustment value of the calculated first parameter, and updating the virtual image in accordance with the adjustment value.
An image display apparatus which presents mixed reality is implemented by superimposing an image of a virtual space (e.g., a virtual object, text information, and the like rendered by computer graphics) onto an image of a real space captured by an image sensing device such as a video camera or the like.
The calibration information calculation condition may include, for example, that data associated with three or more points of different markers be acquired, data be acquired at a plurality of viewpoint positions, and the total number of data be 6 or more.
appft1.uspto.gov /netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/srchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1="20040133379".PGNR.&OS=DN/20040133379&RS=DN/20040133379   (10178 words)

 B R Y A I R : Engineering Manual - Calculating Loads
The following methods have been used successfully to calculate vapor loads; replacing the extensive calculations and laboratory tests that might otherwise be required when a designer considers a new space humidity problem or application.
Actual data from moisture loads entering a space through walls, floors, and ceiling are available for various moisture loads and classes of construction.
Space moisture load is a combination of permeation and infiltration and both will be encountered in determining the load.
www.bryair.com /manuals/man06.htm   (1485 words)

 Section 11.19 - Off-Street Parking Requirements
The regulation of off-street parking spaces in these zoning regulations is to alleviate or prevent congestion of the public right-of-way and to promote the safety and general welfare of the public, by establishing minimum requirements for off-street parking of motor vehicles in accordance with the utilization of various parcels of land or structures.
The term "floor area" for the purpose of calculating the number of off-street parking spaces required shall be determined on the basis of the exterior floor area dimensions of the buildings, structure or use times the number of floors, minus ten (10%) percent, except as may hereinafter be provided or modified.
At least eight spaces or one space for each 200 square feet devoted to public sales or service plus one space for each 500 square feet of storage area; or at least eight spaces or one space for each employee on the maximum shift, whichever is appropriate.
www.ci.buffalo.mn.us /Admin/CityCode/1119.htm   (3403 words)

 University of Manitoba: Governance - Policy 202 - Methodology for Projecting Space Needs   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Space "above formula", however, does not necessarily mean that space is unused or even under-utilized.
Space "below formula" does not necessarily mean that staff and students are unable to meet and work within the existing buildings.
Details of the space factors and the use factors associated with each classification of space are available by contacting the Planning Office.
www.umanitoba.ca /governance/policies/section_200/202.shtml   (397 words)

 NASA - Detecting Orbital Debris
Much of the Space Station's pressurized modules are made of aluminum; Space Shuttles are constructed of tile and ceramic fabric panels and thin composite leading edges only 1/4-inch thick.
There are more than 200 different kinds of shields protecting the Space Station from impacts, and as a group, they're referred to as "Whipple shields." They are named after Fred Whipple, who came up with the idea of protecting spacecraft from high-speed collisions with pieces that are ejected from comets as they circle the Sun.
Calculating and evaluating the risk from impact collisions by meteoroids and orbital debris is a complex procedure.
www.nasa.gov /missions/shuttle/f_debris.html   (594 words)

 IBM MQSeries : Library : Manuals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
"Calculating the storage requirement for messages" describes how to calculate the space requirement for messages.
If the definition of a page set allows it to utilize multiple volumes, the primary space will be wholly contained on the first volume, and secondary extents will be first allocated on the same volume, while space is available, and thereafter the next volume will be used, while space is available, and so on.
This means, in the worst case of badly fragmented disk space, that you might only get around 22 times the secondary space allocated before you reach the maximum extent limit.
www-306.ibm.com /software/integration/mqfamily/library/manuals/csqfap/CSQFAP15.HTM   (1559 words)

 EC-344 650-0861A Operation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Notes: If no storage space is available or if the available storage space is not enough for the record you have entered, FULL appears on the display (see "Calculating Storage Space").
Notes: If no storage space is available, or if the available storage SPACE is not enough for the schedule alarm you have entered, FULL appears on the display (see "Calculating Storage Space").
Enter the amount of the secondary currency that is equal to 1 unit of the primary currency.
support.radioshack.com /support_radios/doc7/7572.htm   (1921 words)

 Metroactive | Shuttlebucks
Two days after the shuttle Endeavor rocketed into space with its Coke experiment on board, Peter H. Diamandis stood at the St. Louis Science Center and announced a $10 million award for the first private group to build a spaceship that can shoot a person 100 kilometers high and then be re-used.
The first step in the process is commercialization of space; the first step in that process is to clear away all these pesky government safety concerns and liability issues now blocking bold entrepreneurs.
But one indication of the trend is found in the agency's "advanced space transportation categories," including the X-33 and X-34 programs to create a supersonic "space plane" and the push for a "Delta Clipper" rocket capable of vertical take-off and landing.
www.metroactive.com /papers/metro/05.23.96/nasa-9621.html   (2489 words)

The call was from Carl Walz, who had spent more total time in space than any other NASA astronaut, with 230 days, 13 hours, 3 minutes, and 37 seconds over the course of four flights.
In this lesson, students will be converting the amounts of time that astronauts have spent in space into units of days, months, and years.
This means that any flights made by astronauts since this flight in early 2003 will not add to their space duration totals.
www.nasaexplores.com /show_58_teacher_sh.php?id=040409124308   (413 words)

 June 2003 - Air Conditioning Loads
Historically, the air conditioning load calculation was a technique that started as a modification of heating load estimates prior to the emergence of buildings "designed" for air conditioning in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
Moisture entering the space from surroundings that are at a higher vapor pressure (higher humidity ratio) than the space.
The load imposed by the ventilation system is the heat required to be removed from the ventilation air stream as it is conditioned from the outdoor air temperature and humidity to the temperature and humidity level of the indoor air.
www.coadengineering.com /disc/06-2003   (1270 words)

Space and Space-related activities are at the forefront of cutting-edge technological change.
Space activities and off-planet enterprises have been and will continue to be catalysts for revolutionary changes in our global society, significantly contributing to economic strength and the advancement of our nation and world.
Space economics has thus become a key element in any exchange of information in the Space and Space Technology arena, whether in illuminating the way to optimizing the allocation of scarce resources or in modeling/measuring the economic impacts and implications of technological change.
www.aiaa.org /tc/eco/spce2000.html   (458 words)

 Digital physics -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
In (additional info and facts about theoretical physics) theoretical physics, digital physics holds the basic premise that the entire history of our universe is (additional info and facts about computable) computable, that is, the output of a (presumably short) computer program.
The hypothesis was pioneered in (additional info and facts about Konrad Zuse) Konrad Zuse's book Rechnender Raum (translated by MIT into English as (additional info and facts about Calculating Space) Calculating Space, 1970).
For example, if these models are not based on (A metric space that is linear and complete and (usually) infinite-dimensional) Hilbert spaces and probabilities, they belong to the class of theories with local hidden variables that some think have been ruled out experimentally using (additional info and facts about Bell's theorem) Bell's theorem.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/d/di/digital_physics.htm   (661 words)

 Stephen Foskett: Blogs and more   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Calculating space for parity in RAID-5 : What are the calculations for RAID-5 in regards to the amount of space parity will consume?
Calculating available disk space in a RAID-5 set : I'm trying to find out how to calculate how much disk space will be available from five 36 GB disks using RAID-5.
Calculating available disk space in a RAID-5 set: I'm trying to find out how to calculate how much disk space will be available from five 36 GB disks using RAID-5.
searchstorage.techtarget.com /generic/0,295582,sid5_gci1107372,00.html   (378 words)

 OraFAQ Forum: Server Administration => Database space requirement calculation for projects
calculated as a percentage of the block size minus the block header.
calculate the combined data space for an average row in a table, use the
Calculating the average space required for the columns in an average row for
www.orafaq.com /forum/t/19607/0   (1411 words)

 Managing space usage   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Calculating space used by one table and index
Are there any formulas for calculating the space to be...
TIP :Use this script to determine total size, used space, free space and percentage of used and free space in all tablespaces.
whatis.techtarget.com /featuredTopic/0,290042,sid41_gci919451,00.html   (615 words)

 kbAlertz: (72043) - A directory listing using the DIR command under Microsoft MS-DOS version 5.0 or later reports the ...
The disk space occupied by these files can be much greater than the byte total reported...
The disk space occupied by these files can be much greater than the byte total reported by DIR, depending on the disk's allocation unit size.
The minimum storage space on an MS-DOS disk is one allocation unit.
www.kbalertz.com /kb_Q72043.aspx   (759 words)

 Caution! Calculating square footage not a consistent practice -- Los Altos Town Crier
Builders and architects, for instance, may include garage space when calculating the total square footage.
Some doubled the downstairs area for two-story homes, measured from the outside walls and counted spaces such as two-story foyers and vaulted ceilings as living space.
The actual square footage number may not be as important as the reality of your family living comfortably in your new home.
latc.com /2000/11/08/business/realesta3.html   (484 words)

 UNIX Disk Usage   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Whether it's running out of space, or just making sure that no one user is hogging all your resources, exploring how the hard disks are allocated and utilized on your system is a critical skill.
The two really big spaces are /home, where all the individual user files will live, and /usr, where I have all the Web sites on this server stored.
Using the same math, you can calculate that the second disk is 25GB, of which about half (48%) is in use.
www.informit.com /articles/article.asp?p=30599&redir=1   (2051 words)

 INF: Calculating Space for the Storage of NULL Values (65963)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
This article explains how to calculate the amount of space needed for the storage of NULL values.
The only associated overhead for a column containing a NULL value is a single byte in the storage record that defines a pointer to the column.
If the columns were created with "nulls allowed," no additional space is allocated for Text and Image columns until data is actually inserted into those columns.
www.it-faq.pl /mskb/65/963.HTM   (171 words)

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