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Topic: Calculating machine

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In the News (Wed 17 Apr 19)

  Calculating machine / Computer - Computerit-solutions.com
A calculating machine is thus a device for calculation, which supports the computation of mathematical tasks, as as little as possible cognitive expenditure is demanded from the user of the machine.
That means that the calculation 9+1 is to be mastered simply, however 9999+1 high energy expenditure required and probably to blocking the machine led.
This may be justified in it that the calculating machines at the beginning of their development stood, consequently for practical application yet not developed enough and too expensively in the production was.
www.computerit-solutions.com /calculating-machine   (1201 words)

 Pascal's Calculating Machine
Que si tu veux, outre la facilité du mouvement de l'opération, savoir quelle est la facilité de l'opération même, c'est-à-dire la facilité qu'il y a en l'opération par cette machine, tu le peux, si tu prends la peine de la comparer avec les méthodes d'opérer par le jeton et par la plume.
Tu sais de même comme, en opérant par la plume, on est à tous les moments obligé de retenir ou d'emprunter les nombres nécessaires, et combien d'erreurs se glissent dans ces rétentions et emprunts à moins d'une très longue habitude et en outre d'une attention profonde et qui fatigue l'esprit en peu de temps.
Cette machine délivre celui qui opère par elle de cette vexation ; il suffit qu'il ait le jugement, elle le relève du défaut de la mémoire ; et, sans rien retenir ni emprunter, elle fait d'elle-même ce qu'il désire, sans même qu'il y pense.
www.fourmilab.ch /babbage/pascal.html   (1230 words)

 Adding & Calculating Machines
A wide variety of calculating machines were invented beginning early in the 17th century.
Because these machines were expensive, there was a market for the numerous simple adders that were advertised in business publications at $5 to $35.
However, stepped-drum and pinwheel calculators, as well as the available direct multiplication calculators, were not efficient for high volumes of addition and subtraction, and hence they did not play a major role in the typical early business office.
www.officemuseum.com /calculating_machines.htm   (1451 words)

Machines of this kind are designed to produce arithmetical and other tables which shall be rigorously correct.
The principle upon which these machines are constructed may be described as follows: In the manner in which quantities are combined in the common system of numeration, the value of each figure is ten times greater than it would be if it occupied a position one place to the right.
Their engine proceeds by the method of differences, calculating to the 15th place of decimals, and stamping the eight left-hand places in lead, so as to make a stereotype mould, from which plates can be taken by either a stereotype or electrotype process, ready for the printing-press.
www.history.rochester.edu /appleton/c/calcmac.html   (816 words)

 Calculating machine Summary
Napier mechanized the calculating process by placing his logarithms on wooden cylinders, the surface of which contained numbers that could be manipulated to perform the accurate calculation.
Although both machines proved profitable to their inventors, the Monroe calculator was able to convert to a motor drive in 1925.
Calculating machines shouldn't be confused with adding machines, which are for solving sums.
www.bookrags.com /Calculating_machine   (1961 words)

 Making the arithmometer count
The arithmometer was one of two calculating machines to receive a prize medal, but the jury decided that it was inferior to a Russian entry devised by Israel Abraham Staffel, originally a watchmaker from Warsaw.
His memoir was self-consciously presented as a case study in technological diffusion: having used the machine since 1855 and frequently demonstrated it to friends and colleagues he sought to document common reactions to the arithmometer and to identify and defuse the objections which he perceived as hindering its progress.
The machine remained with the firm and is listed in a 1915 inventory of materials and machines drawn up for Darras: ‘Grande machine à calculer d’Exposition 1855 dans son grand meuble en bois noir incrusté et garni de cuivre fabriquée par M. Thomas de Colmar.
www.mhs.ox.ac.uk /staff/saj/arithmometer   (11472 words)

 Mechanical calculators
The first calculating machines were built in the 17th century by gifted mathematicians moved by the intense desire to simplify the repetitive nature of arithmetical operations.
His machine was based on the movement of six dented weels, geared through a mutilated wheel which with every full turn allowed the wheel located at the right to rotate 1/10th of a full turn.
The machine was built on a brass rectangular box, where a set of notched dials (5 or 6 or even 8) moved internal wheels in a way that a full rotation of a wheel caused the wheel at the left to advance one 10th.
mathsforeurope.digibel.be /Mechanicalcalculators.html   (1282 words)

 Visible Storage
The Millionaire Calculator was invented in 1892 by Otto Steiger and built in Zurich by the firm of Hans W. Egli.
Calculating machines were individually handcrafted until 1820, when Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar, a French insurance executive, began manufacturing machines.
Their machines, made in large numbers from about 1900 to 1970, were smaller and more convenient.
www.computerhistory.org /VirtualVisibleStorage/artifact_main.php?tax_id=   (652 words)

 Burroughs Computing Billing Machine
The calculating mechanism is constructed to handle figures in the most convenient and efficient way possible.
If the machine does not have this bar, spacing from the regular motor bar is obtained by turning up the vertical adding machine space lever.
On some machines it is made inoperative by raising and turning a knurled knob at the top of the block.
www.geocities.com /andriesdeman/burrbill.html   (3731 words)

 Leibniz On Computers
When I noticed, however, the mere name of a calculating machine in the preface of his "posthumous thoughts"...I immediately inquired about it in a letter to a Parisian friend.
In other words, this was the moment when his invention of the calculating machine actually occurred, although he didn't act on the inspiration at the time.
It was only later, when he saw the words "calculating machine" in some papers of Pascal, that he was prompted to actually design such a machine - after studying the design and capabilities of Pascal's machine.
www.mathpages.com /home/kmath335.htm   (783 words)

 History of Mechanical Calculators - Part I
Although the machine attracted a lot of attention in those days, it did not get wide acceptance because it was expensive, unreliable as well as difficult to use and manufacture.
This machine invented in 1666 had a duodecimal scale based on the English currency, and required human intervention to enter the carry displayed in an auxiliary dial.
His machine remained in the attic of the University of Göttingen until a worker found it in 1879 while fixing a leak in the roof.
www.xnumber.com /xnumber/mechanical1.htm   (1938 words)

 The ternary calculating machine of Thomas Fowler
His calculating machine was built several years later, giving mechanical form to the techniques outlined in the book.
Where the machine became really useful was for complex problems that required a great number of intermediate calculations in between the conversions to and from ternary.
The calculations that Fowler faced at the Poor Law Union were exactly that sort of problem (see An Example of Calculating With Fowler’s Ternary Tables).
www.mortati.com /glusker/fowler/about.htm   (316 words)

 No. 1297: Verea's Calculating Machine
In 1878 Verea was granted a patent for a calculating machine.
Calculators had been tiptoeing into the market since 1820, and they all used repeated addition to multiply.
Kidwell, P. A., Ideology and Invention: The Calculating Machine of Ramón Verea.
www.uh.edu /engines/epi1297.htm   (538 words)

 The History of Japanese Calculators
In 1902 he invented a mechanical calculating machine and a patent was granted to him in 1903.
This machine was a kind of hybrid between the pinwheel type and the Soroban.
Sotoyama was one of the directors and founders of Keisanki Seizou Co, Ltd. (a calculating machines manufacturer) which was incorporated in 1918 in Yokohama.
www.xnumber.com /xnumber/japanese_calculators.htm   (1589 words)

 Electro-mechanical machines (1)
Powered by a strong motor this machine was widely used in offices for doing fast additions and calculations.
Model SW had an extra small calculator on the left side of the machine.
The desktop machines could be operated smoothly while the results were printed on papertape.
www.calculi.nl /page6.html   (275 words)

 IBM Archives: Edmondson's Circular Calculating Machine
This machine, which was designed and patented by Joseph Edmondson in 1883, is a modification in circular form of the straight arithmometer of the Thomas type.
Eight number slides are placed radially on the outer fixed portion of the machine.
The hinged slide of the straight type of machine is replaced by a circular plate, carrying 20 figure discs, each of which — depending on its position relative to the number slides and driving handle, respectively — can serve either for recording the result in multiplication or for setting the figures of the multiplier.
www-03.ibm.com /ibm/history/exhibits/attic3/attic3_117.html   (174 words)

 Monroe calculator, printing calculators, business calculators, desktop calculators
While thus engaged, I saw the expediency of a small machine to supplement the larger one, and designed an adding machine which I named the ‘Arithmometer,’ and this patent, dated July 28, 1874, was the first one of the kind granted me by the United States Patent Office.
As soon as one of the calculating machines was finished, I took it to the office of the Pennsylvania Railroad and was referred to Mr.
This brought him in close touch with calculating machines and the various uses to which they were being applied, and he began to study them for their weaknesses, endeavoring to devise ways in which they could be improved.
www.monroe-systems.com /company_history_personal_story.asp   (2142 words)

 A Difference Engine Built With LEGO® Pieces   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Many machines of various designs were eventually built but, the most advanced and famous of these was not.
The second generation machine, documented here, calculates to the same precision, but is capable of being expanded to 3rd order differences and 4 digits accuracy.
The pins are not load bearing while the machine is operating, but are strong enough to keep the units connected while the machine is lifted from above for transport.
acarol.woz.org   (3237 words)

 History   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The first calculating machine which was produced in large numbers was invented by the Frenchman Thomas de Colmar in 1820.
His machine which was based on a 'stepped drum' mechanism had many clones and was produced as late as 1920.
There were hundreds of manufacturers which produced an amazing variety of calculating machines up to the late 1960's.
www.webcom.com /calc/CalcMach.html   (425 words)

 Invent Now | Hall of Fame | Search | Inventor Profile
Burroughs submitted a patent application in 1885 for his 'Calculating Machine' and the patent was awarded in 1888.
The first machine, however, required a special knack in pulling the handle to execute the calculation correctly.
This device enabled the machine to operate properly regardless of the manner with which the handle might be pulled.
www.invent.org /hall_of_fame/23.html   (309 words)

 The Moment Before Discovery: Werner Künzel
Thus, when the machine was ready and the tables were chosen, it was very easy to read and write down all the combinations produced by turning the paper disks step by step.
However, the decisive point in his proclamation was the idea of calculating itself: Leibniz constructed not only the famous calculating engine, with a radical new type of cylinder with which to carry the ten in the case of overflow, a machine with all four fundamental operations, working by a handle.
This machine was designed with a structure that we still use today: there is a "mill," the modern CPU (Central Processing Unit), a "control unit" for all transports, then a "storage" and a "memory," the input-area for the punch-cards and a connected printer for all the calculated results!
www.c3.hu /scca/butterfly/Kunzel/synopsis.html   (6905 words)

 The Arithmeum » Past Events » Presentation of the Mechanical Calculating Machine of Heinrich Esser     (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Esser machine in the Arithmeum does not have tens-carry in the revolution counter, which is necessary in order to be able to do abridged multiplication and division.
Esser must also have envisaged the mass-production of his machine, as it consists of modules that can easily be exchanged to meet the individual needs of customers with respect to capacity.
Esser is one of many engineers working on mechanical calculating machines at that time, and it is only due to unlucky circumstances that his machine was all but forgotten.
www.arithmeum.uni-bonn.de /en/events/23   (506 words)

 Relic information selected   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Originally the Lab was set up so there were some calculators like this to provide computing for the University and science students used to come in and use machines such as this do their calculations.
Mechanical calculators of this type were invented by Willgodt T.Odhner in 1878, he later sold his patent to Brunsviga.
This is a Swedish machine as opposed to a German one.
www.cl.cam.ac.uk /cgi-bin/relicd?name=&machine=any&class=calc&uid=   (1571 words)

 Focus On   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Basically, the machine performed the arithmetic operations of addition and subtraction using numbers up to six digits in length.
For years historians considered the inventor of the first mechanical calculator to be the French mathematician, philosopher, and apologist Blaise Pascal (1623-1662).
Babbage reasoned that if a machine could be constructed to automate both of these processes, it would also bypass these sources of errors.
cs.furman.edu /digitaldomain/focus/history/earlyhist2.html   (1455 words)

 IBM Archives: The Pascal Calculating Machine (replica)
In 1642 Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) invented a calculating machine he hoped would be of assistance to his father in the performance of his duties as a tax officer.
Pascal's machine used a series of stylus operated wheels which were interconnected so that each wheel advanced one number when its neighbor to the right made a complete revolution.
In 1647, five years after the first machine had been developed, Pascal obtained a patent for his device, which has been accepted traditionally as the first geared digital computer.
www-03.ibm.com /ibm/history/exhibits/attic3/attic3_167.html   (105 words)

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