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Topic: Calvin cycle

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In the News (Sat 20 Oct 18)

  timelinescience - photosynthesis (Melvin Calvin) - resources
Calvin set up a team of young scientists - at 34 he was about the oldest - and for the first time he got together biologists, chemists and physicists who all worked together contributing different skills to the research.
Calvin decided to use carbon-14 isotope as a tracer in the reactions of photosynthesis.
The Calvin group showed that sunlight acts on the chlorophyll in a plant to fuel the manufacturing of organic compounds, rather than on carbon dioxide as was previously believed.
www.timelinescience.org /resource/students/photosyn/calvin.htm   (322 words)

 Botany online: Photosynthesis - Dark Reactions - Assimilation - Carbon Dioxide - Calvin Cycle
The Dark Reactions of Photosynthesis, Assimilation of Carbon Dioxide And The CALVIN Cycle.
CALVIN and BENSON determined the sequence of the incorporation and were able to unite the single steps to a pathway.
One of the F-6-P molecules is converted into glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) that is sluiced away from the CALVIN cycle and is the net yield of photosynthesis.
www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de /b-online/e24/24a.htm   (741 words)

 Calvin cycle
The Calvin cycle (also known as Calvin-Benson cycle) is a series of biochemical reactions taking place in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic organisms.
It was discovered by Melvin Calvin[?] and Andy Benson[?] at the University of California, Berkeley.
The light-independent Calvin cycle uses the energy from these short-lived energy carriers to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds that can be used by the organism.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/ca/Calvin_cycle.html   (106 words)

The Calvin cycle uses nine molecules of ATP and six molecules of NADPH to produce a net synthesis of one glyceraldehyde phosphate.
To produce one molecule of glucose, the Calvin cycle uses 18 ATPs and 12 molecules of NADPH.
Recycling: the ADP and NADP+ resulting from the Calvin cycle return to the light reactions where they are phosphorylated and reduced.
www2.mcdaniel.edu /Biology/botf99/photodark/calvin.htm   (456 words)

 Chapter 10
Summarize the carbon-fixing reactions of the Calvin cycle and describe changes that occur in the carbon skeleton of the intermediates.
For the Calvin cycle to synthesize one molecule of sugar (G3P), three molecules of CO must enter the cycle.
ï The Calvin cycle is confined to the chloroplasts of the bundle sheath.
www.niles-hs.k12.il.us /jacnau/chpt10.html   (5729 words)

 Photosynthesis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The Calvin cycle is named for Melvin Calvin, who began to elucidate its steps along with his colleagues in the late 1940s.
To convert C02 to carbohydrate, the Calvin cycle also requires chemical engery in the form of ATP, which is also generated by the light reactions.
The metabolic steps of the Calvin cycle are sometimes referred to as the dark reactions, or fight-independent reactions, because none of the steps requires light directly.
www.calpoly.edu /~spuhl/p3.html   (556 words)

 Melvin Calvin
Melvin Calvin was born on April 8, 1911, in St. Paul, Minnesota.
In 1937, Calvin moved to California, where he studied and taught at the University of California at Berkley, advancing to Professor of Chemistry in 1947.
Calvin was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1961 for his discovery along with Adam Benson, of the Calvin cycle or the carbon movements through a plant.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/biography/calvin.html   (312 words)

 Illustration of the Calvin Cycle   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
To begin the Calvin cycle, a molecule of CO reacts with a five-carbon compound called ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) producing an unstable six-carbon intermediate which immediately breaks down into two molecules of the three-carbon compound phosphoglycerate (PGA).
For every six molecules of CO that enter the Calvin cycle, two molecules of G3P are produced.
Most of the G3P produced during the Calvin cycle - 10 of every 12 G3P produced - are used to regenerate the RuBP in order for the cycle to continue.
student.ccbcmd.edu /~gkaiser/biotutorials/photosyn/fg7.html   (294 words)

 The Calvin Cycle Synthesizes Hexoses from Carbon Dioxide and Water
Although we will focus on the Calvin cycle, other means of fixing carbon dioxide into hexose sugars exist in the photosynthetic world, notably a version of the citric acid cycle running in reverse.
The first step in the Calvin cycle is the fixation of CO The CO molecule condenses with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate to form an unstable six-carbon compound, which is rapidly hydrolyzed to two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate.
The third phase of the Calvin cycle is the regeneration of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, the acceptor of CO in the first step.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /books/bv.fcgi?rid=stryer.section.2785   (1692 words)

 calvin cycle   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
After the substances needed are made by the light reaction, the next thing to be done is the Calvin cycle, which is also known as the dark reaction.
the cycle began with 15 carbons' worth of carbohydrate in the form of 3 molecules of the 5-C sugar RuBP.
One molecule exits the cycle to be used by the plant cell, but the other 5 molecules must be recycled to regenerate the 3 molecules of RuBP.
www.newbedford.k12.ma.us /srhigh/oliveira/calvin_cycle.html   (295 words)

 Melvin Calvin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Melvin Calvin (April 8, 1911 – January 8, 1997) was a chemist most famed for discovering the Calvin cycle (along with Andrew Benson), for which he was awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Calvin earned his Bachelor of Science from the Michigan College of Mining and Technology (now know as Michigan Tech University) in 1931 and his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Minnesota in 1935.
Calvin joined the faculty at the University of California, Berkeley as an instructor in 1937 and was promoted to Professor of Chemistry in 1947.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Melvin_Calvin   (604 words)

 Calvin Cycle
In this stage, known as the Calvin Cycle, carbon molecules from CO are fixed into glucose (C
A five-carbon sugar molecule called ribulose bisphosphate, or RuBP, is the acceptor that binds CO dissolved in the stroma.
Three turns of the cycle, using three molecules of CO produces six molecules of G3P.
library.thinkquest.org /C004535/calvin_cycle.html   (205 words)

 Photosynthesis - The Dark Reactions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The key enzyme in the Calvin Cycle is the one that catalyzes the transformation of the 5-carbon sugar ribulose-5-phosphate and the single-carbon carbon dioxide to two 3-carbon 3-phosphoglycerates.
In particular, several enzymes of the Calvin Cycle are activated by the breaking of disulphide bridges.
The reactions of the Calvin cycle have to stop when they run out of substrate; as photosynthesis stops, there is no more ATP or NADPH in the stroma for the dark reactions to take place.
web.mit.edu /esgbio/www/ps/dark.html   (485 words)

 Calvin cycle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The light-independent Calvin cycle, also (misleadingly) known as the "dark reaction" or "dark stage", uses the energy from short-lived electronically-excited carriers to convert carbon dioxide and water into organic compounds that can be used by the organism (and by animals which feed on it).
The enzymes in the Calvin cycle are functionally equivalent to many enzymes used in other metabolic pathways such as glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, but they are to be found in the chlorophlast stroma instead of the cell cytoplasm, separating the reactions.
These regulatory functions prevent the Calvin cycle from operating in reverse to respiration, which would create a continuous cycle of carbon dioxide being reduced to carbohydrates, and carbohydrates being respired to carbon dioxide.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Calvin_cycle   (888 words)

 The Calvin Cycle   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The Calvin cycle is a metabolic pathway found in the stroma of the chloroplast in which carbon enters in the form of CO and leaves in the form of sugar.
For every three molecules of CO that enter the cycle, the net output is one molecule of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P).
The light reactions sustain the Calvin cycle by regenerating the ATP and NADPH
www.bio.umass.edu /biology/conn.river/calvin.html   (211 words)

 References - Calvin cycle - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape ...
Fridlyand LE, Scheibe R 1999 Regulation of the Calvin cycle for CO2 fixation as an example for general control mechanisms in metabolic cycles.
Smith LH, Langdale JA, Chollet R 1998 A functional Calvin cycle is not indispensable for the light activation of C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase and its target enzyme in the maize mutant bundle sheath defective2-mutable1.
Suss KH, Prokhorenko I, Adler K 1995 In situ association of Calvin cycle enzymes, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activase, ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, and nitrite reductase with thylakoid and pyrenoid membranes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts · Plant Physiol.
www.hort.purdue.edu /rhodcv/hort640c/referen/calvinc.htm   (2375 words)

 C4 and CAM Cycles   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is taken into the fluid environment of the cells and enters into the typical bicarbonate equilibrium.
cycle, the fixation reaction occurred in a mesophyll cell and the decarboxylation reaction occurred in a bundle sheath cell, in CAM plants the two reactions are separated temporally rather than spatially.
Obviously, with every cell having both the Calvin cycle and the CAM pump, one might expect the CAM plant to be able to use the Calvin cycle alone if conditions allow.
plantphys.info /Plant_Physiology/c4cam.html   (1425 words)

Oxygen is released into the air, and ATP and NADPH are used in the Calvin cycle.
In groups of three, students explore the Calvin cycle by analyzing the diagram on page 211 of their texts.
Students answer the question: The Calvin cycle used to be called the Dark reactions.
www.lehigh.edu /~infolios/Fall03/Lemon/1calvin.htm   (603 words)

Calvin cycle incorporates CO from the atmosphere into an organic molecule and uses energy from the light reaction to reduce the new carbon piece to sugar.
The Calvin cycle is named for Melvin Calvin who, with his colleagues, worked out many of its steps in the 1940s.
While the light reactions occur at the thylakoids, the Calvin cycle occurs in the stroma.
www.benzie.k12.mi.us /users/gyarick/Ch10.htm   (2583 words)

 Re: What type of sugar does green algae produce as a product of photosynthesis?
The carboxylation phase of the Calvin cycle is where carbon dioxide is "fixed", being converted from the inorganic form to an organic form by combination with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate to form two molecules of 3- phosphoglycerate.
Fructose 6-phosphate is central to the regeneration phase of the Calvin cycle.
Just as the intermediates of the Krebs cycle are used in biosynthetic reactions, giving rise to amino acids and nucleic acids and not just an energy-producing cycle, so too the intermediates in the Calvin cycle are integrated into biosynthetic pathways.
www.madsci.org /posts/archives/mar2001/985701865.Bt.r.html   (477 words)

 Calvin cycle
The series of dark reactions, also known as the carbon fixation stage, which forms the second of the two stages of photosynthesis after photolysis.
The Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts.
Carbon dioxide enters the cycle, together with energy made available by photolysis, and in a series of steps, glucose is manufactured.
www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/C/Calvincycle.html   (142 words)

 Plant Physiology
Regulation of the Calvin Cycle - we will not cover this in class except to say that regulation of the cycle is obviously important.
In C4 plants, the Calvin cycle activity occurs primarily in the bundle sheath cells, whereas PSII activity occurs in the mesophyll cells.
OAA is converted to another C4 compound that, in turn, migrates to the BSC where it is decarboxylated and used in the Calvin cycle.
employees.csbsju.edu /ssaupe/biol327/Lecture/photosyn-carbon.htm   (1796 words)

 Photosynthetic Dark Reaction
Rest of the Calvin Cycle (Carbon Reactions) pathway
In this pathway, the free energy of cleavage of ~P bonds of ATP, and reducing power of NADPH, are used to fix and reduce CO to form carbohydrate.
Enzymes and intermediates of the Calvin Cycle are located in the chloroplast
www.rpi.edu /dept/bcbp/molbiochem/MBWeb/mb2/part1/dark.htm   (1166 words)

 5) Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle
B) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the carbon fixation step of the Calvin cycle, and the cycle provides water and electrons to the light reactions.
C) The light reactions supply the Calvin cycle with CO to produce sugars, and the Calvin cycle supplies the light reactions with sugars to produce ATP.
D) The light reactions provide the Calvin cycle with oxygen for electron flow, and the Calvin cycle provides the light reactions with water to split.
www.mvcc.edu /~rthomas/Bi101/TestPhotosyn/Photosynthesis_Prac_Test.cfm   (1434 words)

 [No title]
Thus, ATP forms in the stroma where it drives sugar synthesis during the Calvin cycle (see Campbell, Figure 10.14).
G3P produced by the Calvin cycle is the raw material used to synthesize glucose and other carbohydrates.
The Calvin cycle occurs in most plants and produces 3-phosphoglycerate, a three-carbon compound, as the first stable intermediate.
www.accd.edu /SAC/biology/MrT/06WEB4/Ch10b.html   (1848 words)

 Calvin College - Spark - Spring 2005 - Alumni Profile - Chris Holstege   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Chris holstege was part of a team of U.S. doctors that secretly flew to Vienna in mid-December to help to diagnose the dioxin poisoning of then-Ukrainian presidential candidate Viktor Yushchenko.
Chris Holstege ’88 can still see the Krebs cycle that Calvin chemistry professor Larry Louters drew on his classroom board.
Holstege was aided in his decision by something that his father, Calvin sociology professor emeritus Henry Holstege ’54, taught him.
www.calvin.edu /publications/spark/2005/spring/holstege_chris.htm   (602 words)

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