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Topic: Cancer staging

  Staging: Questions and Answers - National Cancer Institute
Staging describes the extent or severity of an individual’s cancer.
Staging describes the extent or severity of an individual’s cancer based on the extent of the original (primary) tumor and the extent of spread in the body.
Additionally, childhood cancers are staged using either the TNM system or the staging criteria of the Children’s Oncology Group, a group that conducts pediatric clinical trials.
www.cancer.gov /cancertopics/factsheet/Detection/staging   (1438 words)

 Cancer staging - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Staging of cancer is important because the stage at diagnosis is the biggest predictor of survival, and treatments are often changed based on the stage.
Pathologic staging is usually considered the "better" or "truer" stage because it allows direct examination of the tumor and its spread, contrasted with clinical staging which is limited by the fact that the information is obtained by making indirect observations at a tumor which is still in the body.
Stage migration is the artificial change in the stage of a cancer produced by either a change in the staging system itself or a change in technology which allows more sensitive detection of tumor spread (e.g.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cancer_staging   (1275 words)

 Lung Cancer Staging   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The treatment and prognosis (outlook for survival) for a patient with lung cancer depends, to a large extent, on the cancer's stage.
T1: The cancer is no larger than 3 centimeters (slightly less than 1¼ inches), has not spread to the visceral pleura (membranes that surround the lungs) and does not affect the main branches of the bronchi.
Limited stage usually means that the cancer is only in one lung and in lymph nodes on the same side of the chest.
www.health-alliance.com /Cancer/Lung/staging.html   (759 words)

 eMedicine - Lung Cancer, Staging : Article by Isaac Hassan, MBChB, DMRD, FRCR   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
It is indicated in the assessment of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and staging.
The failure to diagnose lung cancer or a delayed diagnosis of a suspected lung cancer on a CXR is a pitfall.
The failure to accurately stage disease by using CT is a pitfall, as is the failure to diagnose metastases of the primary lung tumor.
www.emedicine.com /radio/topic807.htm   (4596 words)

 Lung Cancer Staging
This usually means that the cancer is contained in one lung, and may include involvement of the area between the lungs and adjacent lymph nodes.
Stage IA and Stage IB: In 1997 Stage I cancers were divided into A and B. All stage I lung cancers are completely contained within the lung with no evidence of lymph node involvement or metastases.
Stage IB have a tumor of greater than 3 cm and are somewhat invading surround local areas.
www.alternative-cancer-treatments.com /staging-lung-cancer.htm   (817 words)

 Kidney Cancer - Staging
The letter M followed by a 0 or 1 indicates whether or not the cancer has spread to distant organs (for example, the lungs or bones) or to lymph nodes that are not near to the kidneys.
Stage III also includes tumors with spread to fatty tissue around the kidney and/or spread into the large veins leading from the kidney to the heart, that have not spread to any lymph nodes or other organs.
Stage IV also includes any cancer that has spread to more than one lymph node near the kidney, to any lymph node not near the kidney, or to any other organs such as the lungs, bone, or brain.
www.cornellurology.com /uro/cornell/kidney/staging   (515 words)

 Lung Cancer Staging - Metastasis Stage - lung cancer treatment options
After the T and N stages are identified, the last step is determining the M stage, which is used to describe the presence or absence of metastases or cancer in other parts of the body such as the bone, brain, or lymph nodes further from the lungs.
Stage I is the earliest stage of lung cancer and Stage IV is the latest or most advanced stage of the disease.
The treatment of lung cancer and its prognosis are largely based on the stage of lung cancer at diagnosis.
www.lungcancerinfo.net /content/staging/metastasis   (354 words)

 Testicular Cancer | Staging
Staging is a measure of the degree to which the cancer has spread.
Approximately 9% of testicular cancers are in Stage III.
Stage II patients are usually given the option of radiation therapy (seminoma) or chemotherapy (non-seminoma), but may also be given the option of a RPLND (surgical removal of the lymph nodes).
www.kantrowitz.com /cancer/staging.html   (686 words)

 CancerQuest : Diagnosis & Detection : Cancer Staging
The severity of a cancer is determined in part by the findings from the biopsy as outlined in the pathology report.
It is important to note that although the stage of a cancer is important, the prognosis may be affected by other factors, such as age of the patient and other health related factors.
One common method of staging is the T/N/M system, which identifies three important characteristics of cancer and assigns a level of severity to each of those characteristics to determine an overall degree of severity for the patient's cancer.
www.cancerquest.org /index.cfm?page=407   (526 words)

 The Liver Cancer Network Diagnosis: Staging
Primary liver cancer (or hepatocellular cancer), intrahepatic bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma), are diseases that occur when the tumor originates in the liver and did not spread from another organ.
Staging is part of the diagnostic process and consists of gathering detailed information about the tumor to determine its stage of development.
To determine the stage of your disease, your physician uses a variety of diagnostic procedures to determine the type of tumor, size and location, and whether the tumor has metastasized or spread to another region of the body.
www.livercancer.com /diagnosis/staging.html   (408 words)

 Colon Cancer Staging
Cancer that does begin in the colon or rectum is assigned a "stage" by physicians.
The earlier the stage of the cancer, the greater the chance of survival.
Staging is also predictive of prognosis, that is, the chance of surviving the cancer.
www.alternative-cancer-treatments.com /colon-cancer-staging.htm   (454 words)

 USNews.com: Health: Breast Cancer: Breast cancer staging
The stage of a cancer is an expression of the tumor's size and the extent to which it has spread to the lymph nodes and other sites in the body.
Stage IIA: A tumor has a diameter of 2 centimeters or less and has spread to a small number of lymph nodes, or it is 2 to 5 centimeters in diameter but has not reached the nodes.
Stage IIIA: Either the tumor's diameter is larger than 5 centimeters or it is smaller than that, but the cancer cells have spread to lymph nodes, and the nodes are sticking to each other or to surrounding tissue.
www.usnews.com /usnews/health/cancer/breast/bcancer.test.stage.htm   (479 words)

 Ovarian Cancer - Staging - WomensHealthChannel
To stage the cancer, the physician reviews the histopathology report from the samples obtained during laparotomy, as well as results from needle biopsy, blood tests, imaging studies, or other tests.
Staging provides an estimate of disease-free survival, overall survival, and the risk for recurrence or relapse.
Ovarian cancer staging usually is described in terms of the FIGO system (staging scheme developed by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) and the TNM system (classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC]).
www.womenshealthchannel.com /ovariancancer/staging.shtml   (824 words)

 Breast Cancer Staging   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The treatment and prognosis (outlook for survival) depends, to a large extent, on the cancer's stage.
The staging system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), also known as the TNM system, is the one used most often for breast cancer.
Surgery and radiation therapy options for stage I and stage II tumors are similar, except that in stage II, radiation therapy may be considered after mastectomy if the tumor is large or has spread to many lymph nodes.
www.health-alliance.com /Cancer/Breast/staging.html   (1146 words)

 Lung Cancer - Staging - oncologychannel
Staging provides an estimate of disease-free survival, overall survival, and risk of cancer recurrence or relapse.
The influence of staging is particularly important when radiation or surgical therapy are added to chemotherapy in treating patients with limited stage disease.
Lung cancer staging usually is described in terms of the TNM system - a classification system developed and recently revised by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC; International Union Against Cancer).
www.oncologychannel.com /lungcancer/staging.shtml   (809 words)

 Breast Cancer Staging
After surgery, the pathology report will provide information for staging the cancer, a process that helps to determine whether any further treatment is needed after surgery and to predict the outlook for a cure.
Stage I: The tumor is two centimeters (about one inch) or less in diameter and it has not spread to the underarm (axillary) lymph nodes or to any other sites.
Stage II: Tumor is larger than two centimeters, or cancer cells are detected in movable (not fixed) axillary lymph nodes on the same side of the body as the breast mass.
womenshealth.aetna.com /WH/ihtWH/r.WSIHW000/st.35891/t.35868.html   (282 words)

 Staging : Prostate Cancer : NYC DOHMH
Staging is the process of gathering information about a cancer from certain examinations and diagnostic tests to determine how widespread it is. The stage of a cancer is the most important factor in choosing treatment options and predicting a patient's outlook for survival.
However, the clinical stage may underestimate the extent of cancer spread, and the pathologic stage determined after surgery is more accurate in predicting the patient's outlook for survival.
T1c cancers are also found only by biopsy, but in these cases a core needle biopsy is done because the PSA blood test result suggested that a cancer might be present.
www.nyc.gov /html/doh/html/cancer/pcancer4.shtml   (1831 words)

 Staging System of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Since determination of stage has important therapeutic and prognostic implications, careful initial diagnostic evaluation to define location and extent of primary and metastatic tumor involvement is critical for the appropriate care of patients.
The stage of disease is based on a combination of clinical (physical examination, radiologic, and laboratory studies) and pathologic (biopsy of lymph nodes, bronchoscopy, mediastinoscopy, or anterior mediastinotomy.[1] The distinction between clinical stage and pathologic stage should be considered when evaluating reports of survival outcome.
Stage II is divided into 2 categories by the size of the tumor and by the nodal status; IIA, T1N1M0 and IIB, T2N1M0.
www.cancerlinksusa.com /lung/tx_professional/stage.htm   (876 words)

 Kidney Cancer - Staging - Urologychannel
The grade of a cancer cell is an assessment of its appearance compared to that of a normal, healthy cell.
Although grading and the identification of cancer cell types help determine a patient's prognosis, most doctors believe that the cancer's stage is a better indicator of a patient's survivability.
Staging allows a physician to gauge the size and location of tumors by using information gathered from imaging studies such as CT scans and MRIs, and from pathology tests and physical examinations.
www.urologychannel.com /kidneycancer/stage.shtml   (552 words)

Staging is an assessment of how far the tumor has spread.
Stage III - Tumor involving one or both ovaries with peritoneal implants outside the pelvis and/or positive retroperitoneal or inguinal lymph nodes.
Stage IV - Growth involving one or both ovaries with distant metastases.
ovariancancer.jhmi.edu /staging.cfm   (161 words)

 Prostate Cancer Staging Systems - Urologychannel
The physician "stages" the tumor based on its size, the character of its cells, and the extent of metastisis.
Stages C and D are treatable, but their prognoses are discouaging.
For example, a tumor classified as stage B1 is a single cancerous nodule confined to one lobe of the prostate.
www.urologychannel.com /prostatecancer/stagingsystems.shtml   (330 words)

 Stages of Breast Cancer
Is it Stage II? Is it inflammatory breast cancer? Although learning where you fit in the scheme of breast cancer stages can feel like a jail term ("So now I guess I'm stuck at stage III"), this information is a key part of figuring out how you and your doctors will approach your treatment.
There is no evidence of cancer cells breaking out of the part of the breast in which it started, or of getting through to or invading neighboring normal tissue.
This stage describes invasive breast cancer in which a tumor of any size has spread to the breast skin, chest wall, or internal mammary lymph nodes (located beneath the breast right under the ribs, inside the middle of the chest).
www.breastcancer.org /dia_pict_staging.html   (1070 words)

 Colon Cancer - Staging - oncologychannel
Staging is a method of evaluating the progress of the cancer in a patient.
The staging of colon cancer is relatively straightforward.
Cancer has begun to spread, but is still in the inner lining.
www.oncologychannel.com /coloncancer/staging.shtml   (406 words)

 CancerGuide: Understanding Cancer Types and Staging
The type of cancer is determined by the organ the cancer starts in, the kind of cell from which it is derived, as well the appearance of the cancer cells.
In this system, cases are grouped into four stages denoted by Roman numerals I through IV, or are classified as "recurrent." In general, stage I cancers are small localized cancers that are usually curable, while stage IV usually represents inoperable or metastatic cancer.
Unfortunately, it is common for cancer to return months or years after the primary tumor has been removed because cancer cells had already broken away and lodged in distant locations by the time the primary tumor was discovered, but had not formed tumors which were large enough to detect at that time.
cancerguide.org /basic.html   (2646 words)

 Stages of Prostate Cancer – Staging the Disease
Prostate cancer staging is a careful attempt to find out whether the cancer has spread and, if so, what parts of the body are affected.
Stage I (A) - In this stage of prostate cancer, the cancer cannot be detected by rectal exam and causes no symptoms.
Stage II (B) - The tumor is felt in a rectal exam or detected by a blood test, but there is no evidence that the cancer has spread outside the prostate.
www.cancercompass.com /prostate-cancer-information/staging.htm   (273 words)

 Testicular Cancer Resource Center's Staging Page
In addition to the clinical stage definitions, surgical stage may be designated based on the results of surgical removal and microscopic examination of tissue.
Stage I - Stage I testicular cancer is limited to the testis.
Stage II - Stage II testicular cancer involves the testis and the retroperitoneal or para-aortic lymph nodes usually in the region of the kidney.
tcrc.acor.org /staging.html   (1986 words)

 Lung Cancer Staging
Accurate staging, assessing the extent of local and distant disease, is necessary to determine resectability and overall prognosis.
In resected patients with Stage I cancers, metastases occurred in 15% with squamous cell carcinoma vs 27% with adenocarcinomas.
Bronchogenic carcinoma: analysis of staging in the mediastinum with CT by correlative lymph node mapping and sampling.
www.chestx-ray.com /StagingLungCa/LungCancerStaging.html   (664 words)

 Endometrial Cancer - Staging - WomensHealthChannel
The main goal of staging cancer is to determine the extent of the disease.
Most endometrial cancers are staged according to a surgical system approved in 1988 by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Factors used to stage the disease include the depth of the tumor, whether the tumor has spread to the cervix and other nearby organs, the cytology of the cancer (cellular make-up and activity), whether it has metastasized to the lymph nodes, and the extent to which it has spread to other parts of the body.
www.womenshealthchannel.com /endometrialcancer/staging.shtml   (335 words)

 Rectal Cancer Staging - Cancer Treatment Centers of America
When rectal cancer is properly staged, it provides you with a clearer picture of where the cancer exists in your body, which is the first important step you can take in determining the best treatment options available to you.
Properly staging rectal cancer requires the knowledge of a gastroenterologist, a doctor who specializes in intestinal diseases, a surgical oncologist, a surgeon specializing in cancer, and a pathologist, a doctor with special training and expertise in analyzing human cell structure.
Rectal cancer is staged using Roman numerals 0 – IV (0-4).
www.cancercenter.com /rectal-cancer/staging.cfm   (250 words)

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