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Topic: Capital punishment in the United States

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The state legislature defines the structure of the system, including such factors as whether the sentence is imposed by judge or jury, how defense counsel is assigned to indigent defendants, and the aggravating and mitigating factors to be considered for sentencing.
The foremost cause for the arbitrariness in the imposition of the death penalty is the quality of the defense attorney, demonstrated by the fact that approximately 33% of cases are overturned on appeal.
Thus, for the United States to demonstrate an "evolving standard of decency" in conjunction with the rest of the world, the use of capital punishment must be challenged in the public arena if it is ever to be prohibited in the legal arena.
www.wcl.american.edu /hrbrief/spring98/html/death.html   (1742 words)

  Capital punishment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the State as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences.
Supporters of capital punishment argue that it deters crime, prevents recidivism, and is an appropriate retribution for the crime of murder.
In the United States, the state of Michigan was the first state to ban the death penalty, on March 1, 1847.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Capital_punishment   (4544 words)

 Capital punishment in the United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Capital punishment in the United States is officially sanctioned by 38 of the 50 states, as well as by the federal government and the military.
Capital punishment was suspended in the United States between 1973 and 1976 as a result of several decisions of the United States Supreme Court, primarily the case of Furman v.
Georgia, 408 U.S. In this case, the court found the application of the death penalty to be unconstitutional, on the grounds of cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the eighth amendment to the United States Constitution.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Capital_punishment_in_the_United_States   (4092 words)

 Close Up Foundation Civics Education | Capital Punishment   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Capital punishment has also remained a perennial "hot button" issue; when the average person is asked if he or she supports the death penalty, that person is likely to give a definitive yes or no answer.
Capital punishment is a topic that encompasses a number of subjective convictions about values such as justice, fairness, racism, and mercy.
Capital punishment has a corrosive effect on society: it teaches and promotes revenge; it weakens and destroys the natural horror of bloodshed; and it cheapens the sanctity of life because society is willing to kill its killers.
www.closeup.org /punish.htm   (6720 words)

 Capital Punishment [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
The retributive notion of punishment in general is that (a) as a foundational matter of justice, criminals deserve punishment, and (b) punishment should be equal to the harm done.
Finally, critics of capital punishment argue that the true basis of retributive justifications of capital punishment is not at all foundational, but instead rooted in psychological feelings of vengeance.
Corporal punishment, such as flogging, and extreme types of capital punishment, such as burning at the stake, are no longer accepted practices because of their indignity.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/c/capitalp.htm   (2148 words)

 Capital Punishment in the United States: A Forum on Death-Penalty Issues
Panelists discuss whether the errors that arise in the administration of the death penalty in the United States are symbolic of systemic disorder or whether the death penalty presents a unique set of circumstances.
In some states, there is no reasonable prospect of having an execution for the next couple of years, because, politically speaking, the people who would have to make that decision don't see any political value in pushing that case forward.
There's still a number of states in the country where the execution of 16- and 17-year-olds is permitted, and I'm beginning to see movement in the direction of eliminating that practice, as well as focusing on the idea of abolishing executions for the mentally retarded, which still exists in some states around the country.
fathom.lib.uchicago.edu /2/10701044   (11311 words)

 Hamhock's -- Fresh -- Capital Punishment, Oxford Comp. to the US Sup. Court   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Research does not confirm the claim that capital punishment is an effective general deterrent.
Administration of capital punishment in law and practice is inconsistent with retributive theories of punishment, for under such theories we would punish by death all those convicted of premeditated murder but would punish no other crime in this manner.
By April 1991, statutes in thirty-eight states and the federal government permitted capital punishment.
www.afn.org /~afn31396/capital_punishment.html   (970 words)

 CAPITAL PUNISHMENT   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Machinery of death: a shocking indictment of capital punishment in the United States.
Capital punishment: hearings before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Ninety-ninth Congress, first and second sessions, on H.R. 2837 and H.R. November 7, 1985, April 16, May 7, June 5, and July 24, 1986.
Toder, H.A. The decision-making attributes of capital punishment legislation in Missouri.
www.lib.jjay.cuny.edu /research/cappunish/part3.html   (4025 words)

 Capital Punishment - United States Mission to Germany
In the United States, the death penalty, or capital punishment, may be prescribed by Congress for federal capital crimes and by some states for murder and violent crimes.
Such executions are a disproportionate punishment for juveniles, whom society views as categorically less culpable than adult criminals, the court said, and violate the ban on cruel and unusual punishment contained in the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
The recent commutation by the governor of the state of Illinois of 167 death sentences "demonstrates once again the vigorous public debate in the United States on the issue of capital punishment," U.S. diplomat Douglas A. Davidson told the OSCE Permanent Council in Vienna.
www.usembassy.de /germany/policy/capital_punishment.html   (2756 words)

 Bureau of Justice Statistics Publications Alphabetical Listing
Crime and Justice in the United States and in England and Wales, 1981-96, 10/98.
Probation and Parole in the United States, 2005, 11/06.
Probation and Parole in the United States, 2004, 11/05.
www.ojp.usdoj.gov /bjs/pubalp2.htm   (9810 words)

 capital punishment: In the United States — Infoplease.com
This ruling voided the federal and state death penalty laws then in effect but left the way open for Congress or state legislatures to enact new capital punishment laws, a process that began almost immediately.
The death penalty debate: the United States is one of the few industrialized nations that still uses capital punishment.
A view to a kill: unlike capital punishment in the United States, Japan's death penalty is on the rise.
www.infoplease.com /ce6/society/A0857173.html   (676 words)

 Capital Punishment in the United States Resource Guide
Capital Punishment in the United States provides annual data on prisoners under a sentence of death, as well as those who had their sentences commuted or vacated and prisoners who were executed.
Capital Punishment in the United States, 1973 through the present is available from the ICPSR in logical record length (lrecl) format.
Included are capital offenders transferred from prison to mental hospitals and those who may have escaped from custody.
www.icpsr.umich.edu /NACJD/cp   (1292 words)

 Trial Stages:Sentence & Punishment:Capital Punishment
Gray, 51 MJ 1 (1999) (the standard for determining whether a member should be removed from a capital court-martial because of opposition to the death penalty is whether the member’s views would prevent or substantially impair the performance of the member’s duties in accordance with his instructions and his oath).
Gray, 51 MJ 1 (1999) (rejecting claim that military capital sentencing procedure is unconstitutional because the military judge lacks the power to adjust or suspend a sentence of death that is improperly imposed; seeUnited States v.
Gray, 51 MJ 1 (1999) (capital defendant has broad right to introduce mitigating evidence to avoid the death penalty, but relevance and other concerns expressed in rules of evidence are still to be applied in the traditional manner by the judge).
www.armfor.uscourts.gov /digest/1999dig/IVC6.htm   (1235 words)

 United States Conference of Catholic Bishops
The Holy Father will arrive in Washington on the evening of April 15, with a visit to the White House on April 16 and a meeting with the bishops of the United States at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception that evening.
April 17 will include a public Mass at the new Nationals Stadium in Washington and a meeting with the presidents of Catholic universities and diocesan heads of education at Catholic University of America, as well as a meeting with representatives of other religions at the John Paul II Cultural Center.
By providing these links, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops assumes no responsibility for, nor does it necessarily endorse, these websites, their content, or their sponsoring organizations.
www.usccb.org   (348 words)

 Capital Punishment - US Department of State
McDonough did not address whether the chemicals used in lethal injections might be unconstitutional because they might cause pain; instead, the ruling permits inmates to challenge the method of execution as a civil-rights issue and sends the case back to the lower courts to rule on the inmate’s claim.
More than 1,000 people have been executed in the United States for certain federal crimes and by some states for murder and violent crimes since the death penalty, or capital punishment, was reinstated in 1976.
Arguments in favor of the death penalty in the United States include deterrence and retribution.
usinfo.state.gov /dhr/human_rights/capital_punishment.html   (258 words)

 Bureau of Justice Statistics Capital Punishment Statistics
In 2006, 53 persons in 14 States were executed -- 24 in Texas; 5 in Ohio; 4 each in Florida, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Virginia; and 1 each in Indiana, Alabama, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, California, Montana, and Nevada.
Correctional Populations in the United States, Presents data on the number of persons in the United States who were under some form of correctional supervision.
Correctional Populations in the United States, 1996, 4/99.
www.ojp.usdoj.gov /bjs/cp.htm   (525 words)

 Capital Punishment in the United States — www.greenwood.com
The debate will continue, and any criminal justice professional tasked with enforcing the laws of this country would be well-served to add this anthology to his or her professional library.
The volume provides an excellent overview of the debate on capital punishment and may well meet the documents needs of the general public and high school and college students, while providing a good starting place for more advanced researchers.
Description: Both sides of the highly charged capital punishment debate in the United States are examined in this breakthrough collection of 112 key documents, arranged by historical period.
www.greenwood.com /catalog/GR9942.aspx   (499 words)

 United States
Abuses against individuals' basic rights also occur regularly here in the United States, and, as the Florida fiasco of 2000 revealed, our democracy is not exactly perfect.
The racial inequalities of police persecution and criminal sentencing, our reliance on capital punishment, abuses against immigrants, the denial of labor rights, and the controversies surrounding the basic mechamisms of our democracy reveal the urgency for reform.
The use of capital punishment--again, disproportionately used against people of color--despite growing evidence that innocent people may have been executed, is equally disturbing.
www.globalexchange.org /countries/americas/unitedstates   (591 words)

The first known execution in the territory now known as the United States of America was of Daniel Frank, put to death in 1622 in the Colony of Virginia for the crime of theft.
Lethal Injection Protocol : For the state of Missouri.
Citizens United for Alternatives to the Death Penalty : Citizens United for Alternatives to the Death Penalty (CUADP) works to end the death penalty in the United States through aggressive campaigns of public education and the promotion of grassroots activism.
www.fidnet.com /~weid/capitalpunishment.htm   (3376 words)

 Capital Punishment in the United States, 1973-1993
This data collection provides annual data on prisoners under a sentence of death and on those whose offense sentences were commuted or vacated during the period 1973-1993.
Information is supplied for basic sociodemographic characteristics such as age, sex, race, ethnicity, marital status at the time of imprisonment, level of education, and state of incarceration.
All inmates on death row since 1972 in the United States.
webapp.icpsr.umich.edu /cocoon/ICPSR-STUDY/06512.xml   (384 words)

 A Chronology of the Death Penalty - The Boston Globe
Early 1800s: States begin reducing their capital crimes and building state prisons.
Georgia, the Supreme Court effectively voids 40 capital punishment statues and suspends the death penalty.
2005: North Carolina executes Kenneth Lee Boyd, the 1,000th execution in the United States since capital punishment was reinstated in 1976.
www.boston.com /news/globe/magazine/articles/2006/01/01/a_chronology_of_the_death_penalty   (296 words)

 Capital Punishment - College Library Undergraduate Research Guide
This subject guide includes sources dealing with the legal, ethical, and social issues involved in capital punishment.
Refer to "Capital Punishment" in index in Volume 4, page 1804.
capital punishment and (name of country or state)
college.library.wisc.edu /resources/subject_guides/capunishment.htm   (540 words)

 Powell's Books - Capital Punishment in the United States: A Documentary History by   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Examines political and social aspects of both sides of the capital punishment debate through historical documents from the colonial period to the 1990s, including congressional hearings, position papers, biographical accounts, Supreme Court decisions, and news stories.
A breakthrough collection of key documents in the history of the capital punishment debate in the United States.
Capital punishment -- Law and legislation -- United States -- History.
www.powells.com /biblio/72-0313299420-0   (269 words)

 Markham's Behavioral Health: Capital punishment in the United States
In 2003 there were 3,374 people on death row in the United States.
47 women are on death row in the United States.
Chuck Currie is a United Church of Christ seminarian who writes a wonderful blog about current affairs.
behavioralhealth.typepad.com /markhams_behavioral_healt/2005/03/capital_punishm.html   (483 words)

 Amazon.com: Capital Punishment in the United States: A Documentary History (Primary Documents in American History and ...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Both sides of the highly charged capital punishment debate in the United States are examined in this breakthrough collection of 112 key documents, arranged by historical period.
This book by Vila and Morris provides a uniquely impartial look at capital punishment in the USA through the words of the people who have most influenced the evolution of the debate during the past 3.5 centuries; and the editors use excerpts from more than 100 original source documents to accomplish this mission.
Instead of telling us what to believe, they help us to develop our own opinions by providing these excerpts covering a variety of perspectives, and desribing the political, social, and economic context in which the documents were recorded.
www.amazon.com /Capital-Punishment-United-States-Contemporary/dp/0313299420   (948 words)

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