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Topic: Capitalism in the nineteenth century


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  capitalism - HighBeam Encyclopedia
Capitalism has existed in a limited form in the economies of all civilizations, but its modern importance dates at least from the Industrial Revolution that began in the 18th cent., when bankers, merchants, and industrialists—the bourgeoisie—began to displace landowners in political, economic, and social importance, particularly in Great Britain.
Capitalism stresses freedom of individual economic enterprise; however, government action has been and is required to curb its abuses, which have ranged from slavery (particularly in Britain and the United States) and apartheid (in South Africa) to monopoly cartels and financial fraud.
Capitalism does not presuppose a specific form of social or political organization: the democratic socialism of the Scandinavian states, the consensus politics of Japan, and the state-sponsored rapid industrial growth of South Korea while under military dictatorship all coexist with capitalism.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-capitali.html   (571 words)

  
 Capitalism
By 1560 the cleavage between capital and labor was firmly and widely established.
The proletarian situation is an inescapable consequence of the demonic structure of capitalism.
Early capitalism led to the formation of ascetic tendencies, nineteenth century capitalism led to the preponderance of the desire to save and hoard leading to the twentieth century capitalism of the desire to spend and over-indulge in ever-increasing consumption.
latter-rain.com /kingdom/capital.htm   (1244 words)

  
 Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century
The economic history emerging from these centers is likely to emphasize the impact of capitalism on the social structures of society and the dependencies involved in the evolution of a worldwide economy over the past five hundred years.
For Wallerstein capitalism is a system built upon the international division of labor in which the core of the resulting world system prospers, if not at the expense of the others, at least relative to others.
Capitalism also benefits from all the support that culture provides for the solidity of the social edifice, for culture--though unequally distributed and shot through with contradictory currents--does in the end contribute the best of itself to propping up the existing order.
eh.net /bookreviews/library/heston.shtml   (4812 words)

  
 Capitalism in the nineteenth century - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
As the nineteenth century began, the United Kingdom was locked in a struggle with Napoleonic France that did much to define the terms for institutional developments, capitalist and otherwise, in the remainder of the century.
Throughout the early decades of the nineteenth century, capitalism as a financial phenomenon was becoming intertwined with the new methods of manufacturing, especially of textiles.
This intertwining was aided by Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin in 1793.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Capitalism_in_the_nineteenth_century   (1170 words)

  
 Historical Capitalism vs. The Free Market   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
As a consequence, even before all of the implications and requirements for a free-market economy could be fully appreciated and implemented in the 19th century, it was being opposed and subverted by the residues of feudal privilege and mercantilist ideology.
Capitalism, therefore, has come to be viewed as compatible with and indeed even requiring activist government: a government that manipulates investment patterns through fiscal policy, regulates production, supervises competition through licensing and antitrust laws, stimulates exports by use of subsidies, and controls the purchase of imports with tariffs and quotas.
And for the socialists of the 19th century, capitalism was seen as the source of exploitation and economic insecurity for "the working class," who were dependent for their livelihood upon the apparent whims of the "capitalist class."
www.fff.org /freedom/0193b.asp   (1308 words)

  
 The Eternal Return: Imperialism and ‘Globalization’ Revisited - Empire? - Global Policy Forum
Markets were embedded until the end of the eighteenth century; after that, and throughout the nineteenth century, they were dis-embedded; then, after the nineteenth century system collapsed in the course of the world wars, a compromise was concluded which resulted in markets being re-embedded.
For Polanyi, it was the commodification of land and labor that was the substance of the ‘dis-embedded’ economic relations in the nineteenth century.
Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, various forms of economic protection and monopoly, as well as restrictions on labor organization and on political participation, enabled Europe’s small elite of landowners and wealthy industrialists to monopolize land as well as the entire field of industry and trade.
www.globalpolicy.org /empire/history/2004/12eternal.htm   (10911 words)

  
 ADLER ARCHIVE: Preface to The Capitalist Manifesto
But there is a question as to whether nineteenth-century capitalism conforms to the idea or ideal of capitalism; and with this goes the question whether the historic injustices committed by the capitalism of the nineteenth century are historic accidents or are intrinsic to the very idea of capitalism itself.
Ten years ago, at a time when I did not understand the idea or ideal of capitalism as something quite different from what existed under that name in the nineteenth century, I naturally tended to suppose that the economic injustices perpetrated in the nineteenth century were intrinsic to capitalism.
Strachey refers to contemporary capitalism -- the capitalism of England and the United States in the middle of the twentieth century -- as "latest stage capitalism." That is not only a technologically advanced economy with ever increasing accumulations of capital.
radicalacademy.com /adlercapmanifesto.htm   (2390 words)

  
 Capitalism (via CobWeb/3.1 planet03.csc.ncsu.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The first use of the word "capitalism" in English is by Thackeray in 1854, by which he meant having ownership of capital.
By the early 20th century the term had become widespread, as evidenced by Max Webers use of the term in his The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism in 1904, and Werner Sombarts 1906 Modern Capitalism.
Marxists and others criticize capitalism for enriching capitalists (owners of capital) at the expense of workers without necessarily working themselves ("the rich get richer, and the poor get poorer"), and for the degree of control over the lives of workers enjoyed by owners.
capitalism.kiwiki.homeip.net.cob-web.org:8888   (4950 words)

  
 Is Capitalism a Fraud?
The possibility that the apparent triumph of capitalism could be a recipe for economic and political disaster is only now beginning to be realised although warnings of this likelihood have been voiced over two hundred years.
From the early days of industrial capitalism in the nineteenth century it had been widely accepted that the vital public services and utilities, such as water and energy, telecomunications and education, should be largely provided by organisations owned and controlled by the state.
The present intransigence of the current ruling elite is in the direct contrast to the spirit of liberal pragmatism which enabled the previous ruling elite to adjust to change through the nineteenth century and much of the twentieth.
www.doeda.com   (3755 words)

  
 Faith and Reason in the Nineteenth Century
In Europe during the nineteenth century, human reason made strides toward modernism by shifting focus onto the individual, and by applying what we had learned as a whole, thinkersí intellectual advancements were used for the betterment of industry and society.
They knew that this was the problem with capitalism and it was in the middle of the nineteenth century.
In the mid-nineteenth century, there were two extreme examples of a nation of people wanting to form a state in an attempt to make their lives better.
www.udayton.edu /~hst-102/BROWER~1.HTM   (2668 words)

  
 Capitalism (via CobWeb/3.1 planet03.csc.ncsu.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Most theories of what has come to be called Capitalism developed in the 18th century, 19th century and 20th century, for instance in the context of the industrial revolution and European imperialism (e.g.
Some emphasize the private ownership of capital as being the essence of capitalism, while others emphasize the importance of a free market as a mechanism for the movement and accumulation of capital.
Capitalism is often contrasted to socialism in that besides embracing private property in terms of personal possessions, it supports private ownership of the means of production (compare definitions of socialism).
capitalism.iqnaut.net.cob-web.org:8888   (7647 words)

  
 Foucault, Marxism and History: Chapter 2 / Mode of Production, Mode of Information
Before the nineteenth century one could argue that labor was a constant, a relatively unchanging feature of the social landscape, unworthy of attention by historians because of its stagnant quality.
In the nineteenth century industrial capitalism was upsetting patterns that had endured for a thousand years, and its implication, as Marx noted well, was 'the automatic system' (automation) which might do away with manual labor altogether and inaugurate the 'realm of freedom' in place of the 'realm of necessity'.
Capitalism is in need of revolutionary criticism, Marx asserts, because it constitutes improperly the subject-object relation in the realm of work.
www.humanities.uci.edu /mposter/books/Chp2.html   (7536 words)

  
 A. Tucker's Big Four: Absentee Landlordism
The nineteenth century is commonly described, alike by paternalistic liberals and social democrats, and by the kinds of vulgar "libertarians" who engage mainly in pro-corporate apologetics, as an age of "laissez-faire." But to use such a term in reference to that period is an utter travesty.
In addition, it was of the allegedly "laissez-faire" nineteenth century that Benjamin Tucker wrote, when he identified the four great forms of legal privilege on which capitalism, as a statist system of exploitation, depended.
One outstanding example is the American government's policy, since the end of the nineteenth century, of "reserving" vast land tracts of the "public domain"--i.e., the government's land holdings....
www.mutualist.org /id66.html   (7981 words)

  
 davidisenhath   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In the later nineteenth century, however, industrial capitalism was on the brink of ruin.
Industrial capitalism saw the rise of a strong middle class that forms the vast majority of the populations in capitalistic countries.
Capitalism’s adaptability, particularly to Marxist ideology, has also been revealed in the mobility of its working classes—in their readiness to move to new jobs, to take up different lives, and to gain a higher education.
campus.udayton.edu /~s02-102-10-2/davidisenhath.html   (883 words)

  
 Time, slavery and plantation capitalism in the ante-bellum American south Past & Present - Find Articles
In rendering their slaves extremely sensitive to (and obedient of) clock-time, ante-bellum southern masters succeeded in regulating slave work-times and work-rates by the clock, and in effect produced a time-based form of plantation capitalism that has remained overlooked by historians of the old South.
This reliance has led them to apply a model of the emergence of a modern time-sensibility and its relationship to capitalism that simply does not fit the slave South very well.(2) Thompson, after all, detailed the battle between nineteenth-century English factory workers' preindustrial, natural time-consciousness and a modern, factory-owner-inspired time-discipline.
Used here, time-obedience refers to a respect for mechanical time among workers that, unlike time-discipline, was not internalized, but was rather enforced by time-conscious planters, either with the threat or the use of violence or with the constant repetition of mechanically defined time through sound, as with the chiming of clock-regulated bells.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m2279/is_n150/ai_18105023   (589 words)

  
 Project for the First People's Century.- PFPC - Global capitalism and American Empire - L. Panitch and S. Gindin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
What this erratic trajectory from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century suggests is that the process of globalization is neither inevitable (as was conventionally assumed in the latter part of the nineteenth century and as is generally assumed again today), nor impossible to sustain (as Lenin and Polanyi, in their different ways, both contended).
The rise of capitalism is inconceivable without the role that European states played in establishing the legal and infrastructural frameworks for property, contract, currency, competition and wage-labour within their own borders, while also generating a process of uneven development (and the attendant construction of race) in the modern world.
Among the various dimensions of this new relationship between capitalism and imperialism, the most important was that the densest imperial networks and institutional linkages, which had earlier run north-south between imperial states and their formal or informal colonies, now came to run between the US and the other major capitalist states.
www.rrojasdatabank.org /pfpc/socreg01.htm   (9106 words)

  
 [Infoshop News] Anarchism's Promise for Anti-Capitalist Resistance   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
As socialists, anarchists were particularly concerned with capitalism, which during the Industrial Revolution was causing suffering on a hitherto-unimaginable scale.
But unlike capitalism, it took statism many more decades to gain the same naturalistic status as the market economy, and so anarchism's critique, while correct, held less of an imperative for most radicals.
Under capitalism, homogeneity and heterogenity will always be linked at the expensive of both the community and self.
flag.blackened.net /pipermail/infoshop-news/2004-January/003380.html   (3428 words)

  
 Capitalism in the twentieth century - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Capitalism in the twentieth century changed substantially from its 19th century origins, but remained in place and by the end of the century was established as the world's most prevalent economic model, after the collapse of the USSR.
One response to this crisis was a turn to fascism, an ideology which advocated state-influenced capitalism; another response was rejection of capitalism altogether in favor of communist or socialist ideologies.
Other aspects of twentieth century capitalism include the rise of financial markets, quantitative analysis of market trends, and the increasing globalization of production and consumption.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Capitalism_in_the_twentieth_century   (239 words)

  
 Louis Kelso Made Simple   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
These good ends were served, however, without correcting the injustices of the nineteenth-century capitalism which was self-destructive as well as inhumane because, with a highly concentrated private ownership of capital, it maintained a purely capitalistic form of distribution.
On the contrary, the mixture of a laboristic with a capitalistic form of distribution in a capitalist economy, especially in a technologically advanced one in which nine-tenths of the wealth is produced by capital instruments, does serious injustice to the owners of capital.
The laissez-faire capitalism of the nineteenth century failed to follow the Principle of Limitation, which in turn led to mass violation of the Principle of Participation, causing wide-spread poverty throughout Europe and beyond.
cog.kent.edu /lib/spitzley2.html   (1027 words)

  
 Louis Kelso Made Simple
The laissez-faire capitalism of the nineteenth century failed to follow the Principle of Limitation, which in turn led to mass violation of the Principle of Participation causing widespread poverty throughout Europe and beyond.
Unfortunately, the Keynesian policies of the last 60 years fail to address the underlying problem of concentrated capital ownership, and instead use redistributional policies to raise standards of living for those dependent upon labor for subsistence, at the expense of capital owners.
The modern corporation, by retaining some or all of its earnings for future expansion, both attenuates the rights of capital owners to receive all wealth produced by their property, and also aggravates the concentration of wealth by placing the value of newly created capital directly into the hands of existing shareholders.
dept.kent.edu /oeoc/PublicationsResearch/Win1998-9/KelsoWin1998-9.html   (729 words)

  
 Chapter Five--The State and Capitalism in the "Laissez-Faire" Era
And until the nineteenth century, the control of land was probably the single most important form of privilege by which labor was forced to accept less than its product as a wage.
As compensation for labor approached value-added, returns on capital were driven down by market competition, and the value of corporate stock consequently plummeted, the worker would become a de facto co-owner of his workplace, even if the company remained nominally stockholder-owned.
The tariff was commonly called "the mother of trusts" by the populists of a century ago, because of the way it facilitated collusion between large domestic producers and the creation of oligopolies.
www.mutualist.org /id72.html   (13834 words)

  
 Dissent is Now Dangerous
A young pastor with a peace pin, a retired landscaper with a bumper sticker, and a poorly dressed filmmaker with a populist streak.
Its pristine nineteenth century buildings on a narrow main street give the familiar comfort of small town America - with the comfortable familiarity of big mall brand names: L.L. Bean, Abercrombie and Fitch, The Gap, Polo.
It too was built in the nineteenth century.
www.commondreams.org /views04/0726-12.htm   (763 words)

  
 Marxism and the United States - Part 3
American capitalism in the nineteenth century was an historically progressive force, and the victory of the North laid the basis for the economic expansion and domination of the US on a world scale.
The rise of American capitalism as a world power in the last decades of the 19th century was marked by a sharp upturn of the productive forces, booming industries and high profits that permitted certain concessions to the upper layer of the working class in the skilled trades.
In the exceptionally privileged position of US capitalism, which was already beginning to challenge Britain's position as the main industrial power by the beginning of the 20th century, concessions could be given to buy off the labor aristocracy.
www.marxist.com /marxism-united-states-part-3.htm   (8363 words)

  
 Nineteenth Century Capitalism
Fern, conversely, while still conveying the abundance of intensely negative aspects of capitalism, relays the story of a woman who struggles through this absolute adversity to obtain a position of relative independence and success.
This was a major sacrifice; she would never be able to reclaim her innocence once she challenged capitalism in an effort to upgrade her position in life.
These authors have indeed made important arguments, questioning the efficacy of the capitalistic economy which thrived in the nineteenth century and the sacrifices which were necessary to succeed in this competitive, exploitatious time period.
www.msu.edu /~gallag64/capitalism.html   (945 words)

  
 Multinationals And Global Capitalism: From The Nineteenth To The Twenty-first Century   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
This well-informed study describes the development of cross-border trade since prehistoric times and notes the emergence of "proto-multinationals"' such as the English East India Company in the 17th century as clearly defined nation-states replaced medieval political entities.
He discusses the difficulties of overcoming the political, social, and organizational challenges in achieving the most effective outcome and acceptance.
His concluding remarks remind readers that, despite the current status, prevailing ideologies have changed before and could change again; there is nothing inevitable about global capitalism or global businesses.
www.booksmatter.com /b0199272107.htm   (269 words)

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