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Topic: Capitalism in the twentieth century

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  Nonfiction. Bartleby.com
The most popular anthology of the twentieth century comprises 70 volumes.
Four centuries of the development of English prose are illustrated by 24 works from 17 authors.
Thirty-two essays on topics literary, political and humorous, spanning over a century of this form’s development in America.
www.bartleby.com /nonfiction   (1199 words)

  Capitalism - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The first use of the word "capitalism" in English is by Thackeray in 1854, by which he meant having ownership of capital.
By the early 20th century the term had become widespread, as evidenced by Max Weber's use of the term in his The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism in 1904, and Werner Sombart's 1906 Modern Capitalism.
Marxists and others criticize capitalism for enriching capitalists (owners of capital) at the expense of workers without necessarily working themselves ("the rich get richer, and the poor get poorer"), and for the degree of control over the lives of workers enjoyed by owners.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /capitalism.htm   (5675 words)

 Capitalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Capitalism contrasts with socialism and communism, where the means of production, and the resulting products, are owned and used by the state, or by the community collectively.
Capitalism is also contrasted with feudalism, where land may be privately operated, but is owned by the state and held in fee.
Capitalism is often contrasted to socialism in that besides embracing private property in terms of personal possessions, it supports private ownership of the means of production.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Capitalism   (9053 words)

 Capitalism: A Treatise on Economics
It argues that in its logically consistent form of laissez-faire capitalism—that is, with the powers of government limited to those of national defense and the administration of justice—capitalism is a system of economic progress and prosperity for all, and is a precondition of world peace.
Because its advocacy of capitalism is based in large measure on the author's own, original contributions to economic theory, this is a book that the professional economist can profit from as much as the general reader.
Capitalism's value as a treatise that provides a comprehensive, logically consistent view of the economic world cannot be overstated.
www.capitalism.net   (1965 words)

 ZNet | Activism | Winnowing Wheat From Chaff   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Though most twentieth century libertarian socialists failed to realize it, their only hope was to throw themselves wholeheartedly into reform struggles while searching for ways to minimize the corrupting pressures that inevitably are brought to bear on their members as a result.
According to the logic of capitalism, when this occurs people should not waste time whining about their fates, but get with the program and move to where the action is. Capitalism tells people they should abandon the neighborhoods they grew up in before they are blighted and move to the suburbs.
Capitalism tells people to leave their family and community roots in the "rust belt" and migrate to the "sun belt." According to the logic of capitalism any who fail to move in time are losers and deserve what they get.
www.zmag.org /content/print_article.cfm?itemID=7529&sectionID=26   (17561 words)

 Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century
Fernand Braudel is associated with the influential Annales School (La nouvelle histoire) that advocated a major break from the dominant narrative paradigm of the early twentieth century embracing an approach to history integrating the social sciences with a problem-focused history.
For Wallerstein capitalism is a system built upon the international division of labor in which the core of the resulting world system prospers, if not at the expense of the others, at least relative to others.
Capitalism also benefits from all the support that culture provides for the solidity of the social edifice, for culture--though unequally distributed and shot through with contradictory currents--does in the end contribute the best of itself to propping up the existing order.
www.eh.net /bookreviews/library/heston.shtml   (4812 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/20th century
The twentieth century of the Anno Domini era began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000, according to the Gregorian calendar.
As the century begins, Paris is the artistic capital of the world, where both French and foreign writers, composers and visual artists gather.
The widespread use of petroleum in industry — both as a chemical precursor to plastics and as a fuel for the automobile and airplane — led to the vital geopolitical importance of petroleum resources.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/20th_century   (1856 words)

 Free Enterprise: Left or Right? Neither!, by Terry Arthur
Although the state capitalism of the twentieth century (as opposed to the earlier misnamed "laissez faire" variant, in which the statist character of the system was largely disguised as a "neutral" legal framework) had its roots in the mid-nineteenth century, it received great impetus as an elite ideology during the depression of the 1890s.
From the turn of the twentieth century on, there was a series of attempts by corporate leaders to create some institutional structure by which price competition could be regulated and their respective market shares stabilized.
Monopoly capital is able to externalize many of its operating expenses on the state; and since the state's expenditures indirectly increase the productivity of labor and capital at taxpayer expense, the apparent rate of profit is increased.
www.libertarian.co.uk /lapubs/econn/econn102.htm   (18176 words)

 Twentieth Century 3
At the turn of the century, as throughout the nineteenth century, mechanization of manufacturing industry was a great trend in technological change.
Marx expected Capitalism to collapse, and he expected that the collapse would be followed by a working-class revolution.
To save capitalism, it would be necessary for government to manage "aggregate demand" through taxation, manipulation of the monetary system and deficit spending.
william-king.www.drexel.edu /top/prin/txt/marx/marx12.html   (1414 words)

 Capitalist Development in the Twentieth Century : An Evolutionary-Keynesian Analysis (Modern Cambridge Economics ...
Capitalism in the twentieth century has been marked by periods of persistent bad performance alternating with episodes of good performance.
The authors consider the macroeconomic record of the developed capitalist economies over the past 100 years (including rates of growth, inflation and unemployment) as well as the interaction of economic variables with the changing structural features of the economy in the course of industrialization and transformation.
Capitalism in the twentieth century was marked by periods of persistent bad performance alternating with episodes of good performance.
www.gettextbooks.com /isbn_0521341493.html   (275 words)

 [No title]
During the twentieth century, hundreds of millions of people were able to live with more freedom and comfort through democracy and capitalism.
Democratic capitalism, I propose, is the superior economic system that offers positive effects on all of the elements on both the supply side and demand side of the economic equation.
During the twentieth century, the percentage of the GDP collected in all taxes— local, state, and federal—increased in the United States from 3% to over 30%.
mars.superlink.net /~carey/chptrs/intro.html   (3441 words)

 Mutualist Blog: Free Market Anti-Capitalism
It is now widely understood that the United States in mid-twentieth century is a Leviathan Corporate Stateā€”a political economy dominated by giant multinational corporations whose extensive domain, operating with the levers of government, extends from the local retail outlet to firms negotiating for rights to explore oil deposits offshore of Saigon.
The corporate leviathan began to emerge at the turn of the twentieth century, after an era of substantial laissez-faire had proceeded to industrialize and urbanize the nation.
Of course I'd question the characterization of the nineteenth century economy as "substantially laissez-faire" and "freely competitive." The order-of-magnitude increase in statism in the twentieth century was a direct response to instabilities resulting from the state-engineered rise of the corporate economy in the nineteenth.
mutualist.blogspot.com   (3449 words)

 The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The 20th Century: Introduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Almost every introduction to a work of history seems to define its period as "a time of great change." In a sense, that claim is more true of the twentieth than of any other century, yet most of the changes that define our sense of the character of this period were initiated before it began.
Perhaps the speed of change is this century's defining characteristic, in particular the speed with which technology has been developed to improve the quality of life and to end it.
Nineteenth-century fin de siècle produced decadent and aesthetic art; the close of the twentieth century, with the additional anxieties consonant with the end of a millennium, generated more extremes forms of writing that tested the limits of traditional forms almost to destruction.
www.wwnorton.com /nael/20century/welcome.htm   (967 words)

 Varieties of capitalism in the twentieth century...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Of the world's multiple national variations on a basically capitalist system, the paper compares the century's history of the British and American, the two 'pioneers' whose institutions and economic behaviour patterns most closely confirm to, and those of Germany and Japan whose institutions most significantly deviate from, the prescriptions of neo-classical textbooks.
By the end of the post-war golden age, there were signs of convergence on similar forms of managerial capitalism.
The crucial, and for us unpredictable, question is how far the transition to shareholder capitalism in Britain and America over the last two decades will be duplicated in Germany and Japan.
db.socionet.nw.ru /RuPEc/xml/oup/article-oxford/oupoxfordv:15:y::i:04:p:102-120.xml   (159 words)

The last entries are some research tools we considered helpful in shedding light on turn of the century literature, as well as on Edna's perspective as a woman in Southern Louisiana.
Comment: A comprehensive study of the woman suffrage movement in the South, emphasizing the historic, economic and class factors that influenced the movement in the second half of the 19th century until the ratification of the nineteenth amendment.
According to Linderman, the forces creating war were more expressions of a disappearing nineteenth century social structure and less the initial declaration of twentieth century capitalism.
www.loyno.edu /~kchopin/Annotate.htm   (1592 words)

 The Proceedings of the Friesian School
In the Twentieth Century, philosophy was like a confused and clumsy person who repeatedly tries to commit suicide, but keeps failing, though with the addition of debilitating damage at each attempt.
Papers in the Abhandlungen remain of some note in the history of logic and mathematics, although the specifically Friesian material is, of course, largely ignored and forgotten.
The Proceedings of the Friesian School, Fourth Series is therefore founded on the determination that the lapse of Friesian philosophy in English cannot be allowed to be.
www.friesian.com   (4085 words)

 Amazon.co.uk: Books: Protestant Ethic and Other Writings, The (Penguin twentieth century classics)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Capitalism and Modern Social Theory: An Analysis of the Writings of Marx, Durkheim and Max Weber; Paperback ~ Anthony Giddens
The main point in Weber's *The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism* is that the Protestant ethic helped to shape values favorable to the birth of capitalism.
For instance, the author says that due to the fact that Protestant ethic viewed hard work as a duty and looked down on excesive luxuries, Protestants were indirectly encouraged to save almost all the money they earnt, thus increasing the funds available for the capitalist process.
www.amazon.co.uk /exec/obidos/ASIN/0140439218   (623 words)

 The Hayek Century   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
In 1937, in the wake of the Great Depression and with capitalism and democracy under siege from communism and fascism, he published an academic article entitled "Economics and Knowledge," which pointed out that free markets were not just a political construct, as many critics claimed, but remained the best way of coordinating scattered information.
This view of capitalism as a spontaneous information-processing machine—a "telecommunications system" was how Hayek referred to it—was one of the great insights of the century.
Even left-wing economists, who regarded capitalism primarily as a system of social exploitation, were eventually forced to concede the acuity of Hayek’s analysis, and this resulted in elaborate efforts to construct a viable form of "market socialism," one that would combine common ownership of the means of production with freely determined prices.
www.hooverdigest.org /003/cassidy.html   (3281 words)

 Ford and GM debt reduced to junk bond status
If one had to select the three most powerful symbols of the dominance of American industrial capitalism in the twentieth century it would be hard to go past Ford, General Motors and International Business Machines (IBM).
Ford pioneered the system of assembly-line production, which became the basis for the expansion of American industry in the 1920s and then laid the foundations for the longest period of growth in the world economy during the post-war boom.
Now these three giants of twentieth century capitalism confront a crisis, one that signifies not just their own decline but more broadly the decay of American capitalism as a whole.
www.wsws.org /articles/2005/may2005/gm-m09.shtml   (1183 words)

 wood s lot - Feb. 16-28, 2002   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Sentimental capitalism holds in effect that everything small, local, private, personal, natural, good, and beautiful must be sacrificed in the interest of the "free market" and the great corporations, which will bring unprecedented security and happiness to "the many" - in, of course, the future.
That was a perfect fit for U.S. foreign policy makers who have for centuries opposed justice and independence for peoples of color whether it involved stealing land from the original Americans or the Mexicans, or trampling the peoples of the Philippines, Haiti and Cuba or of supporting apartheid governments throughout Africa in the 20th century.
During the twentieth century millions of soldiers went off to what today are considered to have been unnecessary wars.
www.ncf.carleton.ca /~ek867/2002_02_16-28_archives.html   (11652 words)

 ... 'Transformations of Capitalism: Economy, Society, and the State in the Twentieth Century (Main Trends of the Modern ...
Transformations of Capitalism: Economy, Society, and the State in the Twentieth Century (Main Trends of the Modern World)
Similar DVDs to 'Transformations of Capitalism: Economy, Society, and the State in the Twentieth Century (Main Trends of the Modern World)' available at Psychohelp.co.uk...
Financial book recommended: Transformations of Capitalism: Economy, Society, and the State in the Twentieth Century (Main Trends of the Modern World).
www.loanspage.co.uk /book/0814719031   (289 words)

 EconPapers: Varieties of Capitalism in the Twentieth Century   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Abstract: Of the world's multiple national variations on a basically capitalist system, the paper compares the century's history of four--the British and American, the two "pioneers" whose institutions and economic behaviour patterns most closely confirm to, and those of Germany and Japan whose institutions most significantly deviate from, the prescriptions of neoclassical textbooks.
There is no obvious story of a long and steady process of gradual convergence--capitalist rationality slowly washing out the effects of differing cultural traditions.
There are no downloads for this item, see the EconPapers FAQ for hints about obtaining it.
netec.wustl.edu /BibEc/data/Articles/oupoxfordv:15:y:1999:i:4:p:102-20.html   (259 words)

 ZEO Course List & Descriptions
Key political economic concepts and more technical terminology such as surplus, accumulation of capital, social structure of accumulation, Keynesianism, fixed and flexible exchange rates, monetarism, structural adjustment, privatization, economic depression, the free market and measures of inequality and profitability, will be integrated into the lectures.
This class is designed for progressives who are parents or who think about parenting issues, and are concerned with the ways that family roles are created by and used to bolster the market system and rigid gender roles of the late 20th century.
We will look at the media’s role in creating proper parents; the ideologies prevalent in How-to parenting books; and the ways that parenting advice dovetails with the needs of the market, the workplace, the nuclear family, and a society that promotes individual isolation and seems to militate against community and solidarity.
www.zmag.org /ZSustainers/ZEO/zeo_course.htm   (1862 words)

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