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Topic: Carbon cycle

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In the News (Sun 21 Apr 19)

 Ch 7. Carbon Cycle
Carbon's electron structure gives it a plus 4 charge, which means that it can readily form bonds with itself, leading to a great diversity in the chemical compounds that can be formed around carbon; hence the diversity and complexity of life.
Carbon occurs in many other forms and places on Earth; it is a major constituent of limestones, occurring as calcium carbonate; it is dissolved in ocean water and fresh water; and it is present in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, the second most important greenhouse gas.
The global carbon cycle is currently the topic of great interest because of its importance in the global climate system and also because human activities are altering the carbon cycle to a significant degree.
www.carleton.edu /departments/geol/DaveSTELLA/Carbon/carbon_intro.htm   (1821 words)

 ESA - Observing the Earth - Understanding Our Planet - Carbon cycle   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The movement of carbon between these states occurs over a grand scale and a long timeframe, and this movement is called the carbon cycle.
It is the cycle that makes carbon continue to be available to sustain life on Earth, and we urgently need to understand it better to estimate how our planet will react to the extra 1600 million tonnes of carbon that humans place into the atmosphere each year.
This is an exchange of carbon between 'sources' such as natural fires, volcanic activity, the weathering of carbon-formed limestone and the respiration of living organisms, matched with 'sinks' found in the land, atmosphere and ocean.
www.esa.int /esaEO/SEM1813VQUD_planet_0.html   (665 words)

 The Carbon Cycle
Carbon is also a part of the ocean, air, and even rocks.
In the atmosphere, carbon is attached to some oxygen in a gas called carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and traps heat in the atmosphere.
eo.ucar.edu /kids/green/cycles6.htm   (172 words)

 9(r) The Carbon Cycle
chalk; and (5) in the oceans as dissolved atmospheric carbon dioxide and as calcium carbonate shells in marine organisms.
Carbon is released from ecosystems as carbon dioxide gas by the process of respiration.
Carbon is stored in the lithosphere in both inorganic and organic forms.
www.physicalgeography.net /fundamentals/9r.html   (809 words)

 Biocycle - Global Carbon Cycle
Carbon is the natural currency of life itself: all organic compounds, including plants, animals, humans, food and fiber, and much of our energy sources are built of structures made of carbon atoms.
Carbon cycle-climate feedbacks like such as that studied by the Hadley Centre are among the primary sources of uncertainty in predictions of global change, and have profound implications for management of energy and carbon sinks.
The carbon cycle science community now faces a new challenge: the synthesis of many disparate data streams from local to regional to global scales; the development of rigorous methods of evaluating the new generation of models; and ultimately, the prediction of carbon-climate interactions over the coming decades.
biocycle.atmos.colostate.edu /GlobalCarbonCycle.htm   (1935 words)

 Carbon Cycle
One hypothesis is that the ocean is absorbing the carbon oxide.
Carbon from the remains of dead algae and other organisms, is released in the deeper waters as carbon dioxide.
For carbon dioxide to be removed from the atmosphere by the sea, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the sea water has to be less than that in the atmosphere.
www.wested.org /werc/earthsystems/biology/carbondioxide.html   (1783 words)

 Carbon Cycle
Carbon dioxide is slightly soluble and is absorbed into bodies of water such as the ocean and lakes.
Some of the dissolved carbon dioxide remains in the water, the warmer the water the less carbon dioxide remains in the water.
The carbonate sediments are constantly being formed and redissolved in the depths of the oceans.
www.elmhurst.edu /~chm/vchembook/306carbon.html   (629 words)

 [SafeClimate] understanding climate change | the carbon cycle
The carbon cycle is a complex series of processes through which all of the carbon atoms on earth rotate.
Although natural transfers of carbon dioxide are approximately 20 times greater than those due to human activity, they are in near balance, with the magnitude of carbon sources closely matching those of the sinks.
The additional carbon resulting from human activity is the cause of the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration over the last 150 years.
www.safeclimate.net /business/understanding/carboncycle.php   (707 words)

 CRC for Greenhouse Accounting - About greenhouse: Carbon cycle
Carbon is the major chemical constituent of most organic matter, from fossil fuels to the complex molecules (DNA and RNA) that control genetic reproduction in living organisms.
Carbon is continuously cycled between these reservoirs in the ocean, on the land, and in the atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have risen, and are continuing to rise.
www.greenhouse.crc.org.au /about_greenhouse/carboncycle.cfm   (1187 words)

 The Environmental Literacy Council - Carbon Cycle
Carbon is a fundamental building block of life; life on Earth is comprised of carbon-based life forms.
Carbon stored beneath the ocean floor is removed from the biological carbon cycle, entering the geological carbon cycle.
Since carbon dioxide is a primary greenhouse gas, many scientists argue that the increase in atmospheric CO from human activities has resulted in an enhanced greenhouse effect and could result in corresponding changes in our global climate, including higher global temperatures.
www.enviroliteracy.org /article.php/478.html   (968 words)

 U.S. Global Change Research Information Office
If the carbon cycle were that simple, there would be little concern about enhanced greenhouse warming, for whatever CO we might add to the atmosphere would be completely removed by our friends the trees, in the span of but a dozen years or so.
Carbon dioxide is also being released by intensive deforestation in certain areas of the globe, mostly in the tropics, as forests are cleared for chiefly agricultural purposes.
To answer even this, reliably, one needs a realistic, mathematical model of the carbon cycle which at a minimum simulates the vertical circulation in the world's oceans and the behavior of the terrestrial biosphere, including the effects of enhanced CO fertilization.
www.gcrio.org /CONSEQUENCES/vol4no1/carbcycle.html   (7741 words)

 NASA Oceanography - The Ocean and the Carbon Cycle
Carbon is also sequestered for long periods of time in carbon reservoirs (sinks) such as deep ocean and ocean sediment.
Carbon dioxide is more soluble in cold water, so at high latitudes where surface cooling occurs, carbon dioxide laden water sinks to the deep ocean and becomes part of the deep ocean circulation "conveyor belt", where it stays for hundreds of years.
The ocean component of the global carbon cycle is a key component of the climate system, regulating on annual to millennial time-scales the uptake, storage, and release to the atmosphere of carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide) and other climate relevant chemical species.
science.hq.nasa.gov /oceans/system/carbon.html   (1303 words)

 The Global Carbon Cycle
CCSP-supported research on the global carbon cycle addresses the scientific questions of how large and variable the dynamic reservoirs and fluxes of carbon within the Earth system are, and how carbon cycling might change and be managed in future years, decades, and centuries.
CCSP research on the global carbon cycle in FY 2006 will continue to address questions of how large and variable the dynamic reservoirs and fluxes of carbon within the Earth system are, and how carbon cycling might change and be managed in future years, decades, and centuries.
NACP and OCCC program interests and objectives converge in addressing carbon dynamics in the coastal oceans adjacent to North America and in the land-sea margins – diverse and variable areas where impacts of changes in the terrestrial environment and climate greatly complicate carbon cycle processes.
www.usgcrp.gov /usgcrp/ProgramElements/carbon.htm   (1018 words)

 Carbon cycle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere of the Earth (other astronomical objects may have similar carbon cycles, but nothing is yet known about them).
The carbon dioxide released is roughly equal to the amount removed by silicate weathering; so the two processes, which are the chemical reverse of each other, sum to roughly zero, and do not affect the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide on time scales of less than about 100,000 yr.
Inorganic carbon, that is carbon compounds with no carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds, is important in its reactions within water.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Carbon_cycle   (1564 words)

 carbon cycle
The movement of carbon, in its many forms, between the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and geosphere is described by the carbon cycle, illustrated in the adjacent diagram.
But this increase of atmospheric carbon (in the form of CO) may stimulate the ocean to increase its uptake of CO What is known is that the carbon cycle must be a closed system; in other words, there is a fixed amount of carbon in the world and it must be somewhere.
Scientists are actively investigating the carbon cycle to see if their data does indeed indicate a balancing of the cycle.
www.cotf.edu /ete/modules/carbon/efcarbon.html   (553 words)

 The Carbon Cycle   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Carbon is the basis of all organic molecules.
The carbon cycle is the process through which carbon is cycled through the air, ground, plants, animals, and fossil fuels.
Carbon is also stored in fossil fuels, such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
library.thinkquest.org /11353/carbon.htm   (428 words)

 The Global Carbon Cycle
Carbon dioxide and other gases (together, known as "greenhouse" gases) in the atmosphere absorb radiation emitted from the Earth, trapping heat in the atmosphere and contributing to the warming of Earth's atmosphere.
The Mauna Loa observations were begun by a pioneer in carbon cycle science, the late Dr. Charles "Dave" Keeling.
Recognizing the integrated nature of the carbon cycle, six federal agencies (DOE, NASA, NSF, NOAA, USDA, and USGS) are coordinating their individual carbon cycle research programs into a partnership, the Carbon Science Cycle Program, to address common research goals outlined in A U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan.
www.oar.noaa.gov /climate/t_carboncycle.html   (644 words)

 CNO cycle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The net result of the cycle is to fuse four protons into an alpha particle plus two positrons (annihilating with electrons and releasing energy in the form of gamma rays) plus two neutrinos which are escaping from the star with some part of energy.
The carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen nuclei serve as catalysts and are regenerated.
Like the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen involved in the main branch, the fluorine produced in the minor branch is merely catalytic and at steady state, does not accumulate in the star.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/CNO_cycle   (411 words)

 Environmental Biology Sequence - Ecosystems
The chief reservoirs for carbon dioxide are in the oceans and in rock.
Carbon from plants or animals that is released to the atmosphere through respiration will either be taken up by a plant in photosynthesis or dissolved in the oceans.
This cycle will occur over and over until at last the phosphorous is lost at the bottom of the deepest parts of the ocean, where it becomes part of the sedimentary rocks forming there.
www.marietta.edu /~biol/102/ecosystem.html   (5677 words)

 carbon cycle. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Inorganic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is converted by plants into simple carbohydrates, which are then used to produce more complex substances.
Nearly all carbon dioxide fixation is accomplished by means of photosynthesis, in which green plants form carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water, using the energy of sunlight to drive the chemical reactions involved.
However, not all of the carbon atoms incorporated by the plant can be returned to the atmosphere by its own respiration; some remain fixed in the organic materials that make up its cells.
www.bartleby.com /65/ca/carboncy.html   (512 words)

 carbon cycle concept from the Astronomy knowledge base   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The carbon cycle can take place only if the necessary C and N nuclei are present, and it requires higher temperatures and is far more temperature-dependent than the proton-proton chain.
During the CNO cycle, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen catalyze the nuclear reaction, so the total number of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen nuclei remains the same.
The CNO cycle powers the hydrogen burning that occurs in main-sequence stars with more than 1.5 solar masses and in giants and supergiants of all masses.
www.site.uottawa.ca:4321 /astronomy/carboncycle.html   (301 words)

 Carbon Cycle, Educational Resources for K-16
Carbon Dioxide Emissions is a similar activity, which illustrates that different countries emit different amounts of carbon dioxide.
Includes an introduction, biological and physical carbon, photosynthesis and respiration, carbon on the land and in the ocean, human role in carbon cycle, NASA missions to study the carbon cycle, and references.
Includes graphics of the carbon cycle, quantitative estimates of carbon contributions from various sources, an easy to understand outline of carbon flux, notes on residence time, graphs on CO 2 in the past and today, and more.
www.uky.edu /KGS/education/carbon_cycle.htm   (420 words)

 EO Library: The Carbon Cycle Page 4
In addition to the natural fluxes of carbon through the Earth system, anthropogenic (human) activities, particularly fossil fuel burning and deforestation, are also releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
Carbon on the Land and in the Oceans: The modern carbon cycle
Measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels (going on since 1957) suggest that of the approximate total amount of 7.1 GtC released per year by human activities, approximately 3.2 GtC remain in the atmosphere, resulting in an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide.
earthobservatory.nasa.gov /Library/CarbonCycle/carbon_cycle4.html   (705 words)

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