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Topic: Carbon-based

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In the News (Thu 25 Apr 19)

 Non-carbon biology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Finally, of the varieties of molecules identified in interstellar space as of 1998, 84 are based on carbon and 8 are based on silicon.
Non-carbon biology collectively refers to an assortment of astrobiology theories and hypotheses in which life is based on another element than carbon, which is the fundamental element of all currently known forms of life.
The cosmic abundance of carbon to silicon is roughly 10 to 1. /wiki/Carbon_chauvinism

 9(r) The Carbon Cycle
Carbon is released from ecosystems as carbon dioxide gas by the process of respiration.
Carbon is the major chemical constituent of most organic matter, from fossil fuels to the complex molecules ( DNA and RNA) that control genetic reproduction in organisms.
Carbon dioxide released by volcanoes enters the lower lithosphere when carbon-rich sediments and sedimentary rocks are subducted and partially melted beneath tectonic boundary zones. /fundamentals/9r.html

 silicon-based life
In carbon-based biota, the basic energy storage compounds are carbohydrates in which the carbon atoms are linked by single bonds into a chain.
When carbon is oxidized during the respiratory process of a terrestrial organism (see respiration), it becomes the gas carbon dioxide -a waste material that is easy for a creature to remove from its body.
One theory to account for this is that the first prebiotic carbon compounds formed in a pool of "primordial soup" on a silica surface having a certain handedness. /encyclopedia/S/siliconlife.html

 Carbon-based Compounds
There are many different kinds of hydrocarbons based on different numbers of carbon atoms in the molecules and whether or not any of the carbons are connected by double bonds rather than single bonds.
For example, if a carbon is single bonded to another carbon, it could also be bonded to three hydrogens, but if a carbon is double bonded to another carbon, then it can only bond to two hydrogens.
Since carbon has four valence electons, it can make four single bonds with other atoms by sharing one of its electons and one of the other atoms’ electons with each of those atoms. /courses/bio104/carbon.htm

 raw42 reviews: carbon based lifeforms
carbon based lifeforms is the ambient side project of notch (techno/dance/acid).
much like notch, the carbon based lifeforms project is a cut above average and these sleek, graceful and tranquil beauties are definitely recommended. /reviews/carbon_based_lifeforms.html

 Universe Today Forums -> Carbon Based?
Yes silicone based life might be possible as well as other elements (maybe elements we have yet to discover), but carbon is plentiful in the universe and seems to be the most likely element to be used for life ( to speak).
No, these are ordinary carbon based lifeforms; they have the same type of body chemistry as the rest of life on Earth.
Carbon may be more common in the universe than silicon, but on Earth silicon is actually more abundant. /forum/index.php?showtopic=3332&view=getlastpost

 Bad Astronomy Bulletin Board :: View topic - Carbon Based Life Forms Only?
The Horseshoe Crab is a carbon based life form, because it's basic biochemistry is the same as everything else on Earth, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, often referred to in conglomeration as CHON (remember, we are carbon based, but the oxygen in our blood is carried by iron, not carbon).
That silicon based lifeforms can exist ties in neatly with another theory that of the heat death of the universe(entropy) where the universe will eventually be all the same temperature with no difference between one part of the universe and another.
Some scientists believe that carbon life forms came into being as they spread across a planet and are good at radiating heat, meaning that they lead towards a shorter amount of time until the heat death of the universe. /phpBB/viewtopic.php?p=8256&highlight=

 Carbon-based Nanostructures
Single-wall carbon nanotubes, consisting of a cylindrical tube one atomic layer in thickness, are predicted to be either semiconducting or metallic depending on the diameter and chirality of the nanotube.
Carbon aerogels have a much wider range of size distributions, with nanopores found within the small particles in the carbon aerogel chains, and with mesopores and macropores found between the particles and between clusters of particles.
Among the various activated carbons, all of which have a large concentration of nanopores, it is the activated carbon fibers that have the smallest pore size distribution. /loyola/nano/US.Review/09_02.htm

 Nanocomposites — Carbon-Based Fillers
The nanotubes tend to be of high purity and produce low outgassing during processing and, in comparison with carbon fibre and carbon black reinforced composites, the resultant nanocomposites have a much reduced tendency to shed particulates in use.
The layers consist of graphitic carbon and the tubes typically have an internal diameter of ca.
Although the modulus of carbon nanotubes is very high, this has not yet been translated into big improvements in composite modulus, for reasons which are not fully understood. /details.asp?ArticleID=923

The different kinds of carbon have very similar (but not quite identical) chemical and mechanical properties; the main practical significance of the existence of different isotopes stems from the fact that carbon-14 is radioactive, with a half-life of a few thousand years.
The carbon cycle is crucial to the way the Earth's ecosystem works: Plants absorb the carbon dioxide that makes up around 0.03% of our atmosphere and use the energy of sunlight to build sugar molecules from water and CO, a process known as photosynthesis.
Another form of elemental carbon, the fullerene, was not observed until 1985, although the possibility of its existence had been suggested as long ago as 1966. /carbon.htm

 Carbon-based Nanoelectronics
Carbon nanotubes were suspended in carbon tetrachloride and in magnetic fields of up to 80.0 kOe.
One of the fascinating characteristics of this class of carbon compounds is their dual nature?depending on their diameter, they can function either as conductors or semiconductors.
Because their electrical properties are dependent on diameter, bulk carbon nanotubes are a mixture of metallic and semiconducting materials. /portal/a/c/s/1/feature_pro.html?id=a8efd3fcd22911d5e8e64fd8fe800100

 Carbon Based Games
Carbon Based Games Ltd. are an experienced and professional team specialising in the development of top draw games for Java enabled mobile devices.
Daniel Blackburn, Director of Carbon Based Games Ltd. Commented, “We are extremely pleased with this deal and with the quality of games we have produced to date.
Run by dedicated gamers, Carbon are committed to bringing originality and fun into their games with innovative ideas, designs and implementations. /press.php

 ANALENA "Carbon Based" 12" [12"] - 8.50€ : MOONLEE RECORDS E-store, owned and maintained by Mister Moonlee himself
Carbon Based is their second album, recorded and produced at Kozmo studio, Zagreb, by the members of the band themselves, with the noteworthy assistance provided by members of Lunar, another remarkable and friendly band from Zagreb.
Carbon Based is a statement by a smart and mature band, an honest expression of determination and passion in full force.
Diverse but steady, from bittersweet melodies and blistering hooks to pummeling and aggressive rhythms, ANALENA covers all the bases. /e-store/index.php?main_page=product_info&products_id=233&zenid=37f6c12d5494dedd415e8d32f845dcea

Carbon black is a term used to describe any intense black made from amorphous carbon that has been divided into fine particles.
Carbon Pencils are made from lampblack, which is purer than charcoal and is therefore more consistent in quality.
Charcoal is. an impure form of carbon and is obtained through the incomplete combustion of plant matter, wood, or bone. /carbon-based.htm

 Review: Hydroponic Garden by Carbon Based Lifeforms
The decidedly ambient alter-ego of the Trance genre oriented "Notch", Carbon Based Lifeforms is Johannes Hedberg and Daniel Ringstrom.
The music on Hydroponic Garden (76'33") by Carbon Based Lifeforms is too sophisticated to be popular; as with all music of this ilk, it does not need the validation of a large audience.
Hopefully, Carbon Based Lifeforms will carry on under the light of optimism as they have on Hydroponic Garden - and it's music to quench our modren yearning for enigma. /HydroponicGarden.html

 NAI: Ask an Astrobiologist
Thus the likelihood of a living system to evolve based on silicon is lower based on the sheer rarity of naturally produced silicon compared to carbon.
While carbon is perfectly comfortable in a variety of different structures (rings, long chains, multi-ring chains, and double-bonded carbon catenations), silicon’s analogous structures are comparatively unstable and sometimes highly reactive.
Another chemical property unique to carbon chemistry that silicon lacks is chirality, or “handedness.” All organic carbon molecules may be found naturally in left or right-handed conformations. /astrobio/feat_questions/silicon_life.cfm

 Nanotechnology and the arrival of the Diamond Age
This is the dimension of a typical atom (carbon).
An indisputable prove for the possibillity of total autonomous selfreproduction at the molecular scale is the fact that the whole biology is based on it.
Probably parts containing following atoms : carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen. /~hkl/e_nano1.htm

 Carbon-based nanoelectronics
Our carbon nanoelectronics effort has already demonstrated a first generation of nanoscale channel length pentacene transistors with characteristics considerably improved relative to the previous state of the art ( refs).
Work on carbon nanotubes is focused on optimizing nanotube device performance, controlling nanotube growth, and integrating nanotubes with silicon to create hybrid Si/C systems.
AFM image of a carbon nanotube device made using /Carbonbasednanoelectronics.html

 Alien Lifeforms May Be Inside Earth
Every known living organism, from bacteria to mankind, is based on the chemistry of carbon, which forms the complex molecules such as DNA that are central to our existence.
Silicon has many chemical similarities to carbon, prompting scholars and science fiction writers to dream up new life forms.
Rocks bearing signs of silicon-based organisms may already be sitting in laboratories, he believes, with their significance overlooked. /ets_in_earth.html

 Could life exist somewhere in the universe that is not carbon based?
It is speculated that life can evolve without carbon (silicon is the most speculated because it has similar chemical properties to carbon - relatively light with a half full outer electron arrangement, but it can be argued that silicon based molecules are traditionally very brittle).
Although other elements do form a variety of molecular structures, carbon has a unique tendency to form a very wide variety of long molecular chains and rings that form the basis for organic compounds (with hydrogen and oxygen) that at some level of complexity begin to self-replicate.
However the overiding arguement is probably down to one simple fact - carbon is statistically more abundant to any other element believed to be able to support life in the universe (according to analysis of research samples of interstellar material). /Science/89800

 What Are Fullerenes?
Sometimes these are mistakenly called a "new form of carbon"; in fact, fullerenes have been found to exist in interstellar dust as well as in geological formations on Earth.
Although we've known about carbon as long as we've known about fire, we are still discovering new aspects of this element every decade.
In pure scientific terms, fullerenes are fascinating because they show unusual properties for carbon materials. /~kimall/Fuller/fullerenes.html

 Carbon Based Corporation - News
Carbon Based's focus is on putting out the best lab interpretive reports in the world and giving the HCP a scientific tool to facilitate their patients achieve optimal health.
Carbon Based uses the latest in encryption techniques to assure HEPA compliance.
These are just some of the benefits and reasons for working with Carbon Based Corporation and using CellMate™ Interpretive Reports. /modules/news/article.php?storyid=76

 Relating to carbon tax; creating new provisions; amending ORS 458.510; appropriating money; prescribing an effective date; and providing for revenue raising that requires approval by a three-fifths majority.
Imposes tax on each fuel supplier and utility based on amount of carbon in carbon-based fuel that is sold by fuel supplier to consumers in state or that is used to produce carbon-generated electricity supplied by utility to consumers in state.
Each year, the office shall recalculate and report to the department the average amount of carbon used in the production of one kilowatt of electricity supplied by the utility to take into account any changes in the ratio of carbon-based fuel groups used in the generation of the electricity.
(2) 'Carbon-based fuel group' means a group of carbon-based fuels that contain similar levels of carbon. /03reg/measures/hb2700.dir/hb2788.intro.html

 Carbon Based Games
Carbon Based Games have announced they are working on an exciting new racing game with a difference.
Headers, Carbon Based Games first game for Java enabled phones, has shipped to multiple vendors and is available for download.
Carbon Based Games have signed a publishing deal with The Games Kitchen Ltd. The first games to be publsihed under this deal will be Headers and Slot Car Racing.

 6 Carbon
The large tipless carbon is a bulb made in the late teens [1910's] as the carbon was nearly at the end of its life cycle and having reached its greatest efficiency point before being replaced forever by tungsten.
It showed a ratio of silicon and carbon consistent with silicon carbide on the inside of the dendrite, with a small component of oxygen found on the surface (and no doubt responsible for the bluish film).
Pyrolytic graphic is the same as regular graphite (sheets of hexagonally bonded carbon atoms), but in pyrolytic graphite the sheets are all arranged in the same direction, in a flat pancake. /PeriodicTable/Elements/006

 Carbon Based Lifeform Reviews
Both Carbon Based Lifeform and Lodus create abrasive, but enjoyable electronica that sounds like it would fit in on a Brave New Waves playlist, or a Tigerbeat 6 sampler.
Oh yeah, the man behind Carbon Based Lifefom is also in House of Wires.
I was quite surprised with the quality of this low budget release. /reviews.html

 Food Science Department - Purdue University
The full name for the cluster of carbon atoms is Buckminsterfullerene, after the American architect R. Buckminster Fuller.
First found in a meteorite in 1969, Buckyballs are the third naturally occurring pure carbon molecules known.
His design for the geodesic dome is much like the shape of Buckyballs, also known as fullerenes. /news/showarticle.cfm?id=47

 Carbon Calculator
Experts state that, in the UK, emissions of carbon dioxide must be reduced by 60% - or more if other nations increase their use of fossil fuels.
Your carbon dioxide emissions are estimated at 8467 kg per year.
8467 kg are approximately equivalent to the carbon dioxide emissions arising from any one of the following: 169340 hours use of a personal computer. /carbonlife.htm

 Corn-Based Carbon Adsorbent Tested At Illinois Power Plant
Based on the results of those bench-scale tests, two activated carbons — a corn-based material and a commercial product — were selected for full-scale testing.
The technology demonstration tested a commercial activated carbon and a corn-derived activated carbon developed by researchers at the Illinois State Geological Survey and the UI.
In previous work, the UI and Survey scientists tested the suitability of activated carbons derived from sources such as used tires and pistachio shells. /releases/2001/09/010904072345.htm

 Research : The Expert is In!
If there is carbon based life, then you're going to have available lignite and charcoal at least.
One is using the energy in sunlight to metabolize CO2 (that is CARBON dioxide) to provide energy for the plant, releasing oxygen as a byproduct.
It captures photons and redistributes the energy by flipping around a bunch of carbon carbon double bonds, and this provides the redox potential necessary to convert CO2 and H2O to O2 and CH2O. /rumormill/index.htm?z=148304&mz=153091

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