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Topic: Cardinal Ruffo

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  Ruffian - LoveToKnow 1911   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Buffo, Fabrizio (1744-1827), Neapolitan cardinal and politician, was born at San Lucido in Calabria on the,6th of September 1744.
Ruffo was placed by the pope among the chierici di camera - the clerks who formed the papal civil and financial service.
Ruffo went to Naples, where he was named administrator of the royal domain of Caserta, and received the abbey of S. Sophia in Benevento in commendam.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Ruffian   (589 words)

 Fabrizio Ruffo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fabrizio Ruffo (September 16, 1744 - December 13, 1827) was a Neapolitan cardinal and politician.
Ruffo was born at San Lucido in Calabria.
Ruffo was placed by the pope among the chierici di camera, the clerks who formed the papal civil and financial service.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fabrizio_Ruffo   (691 words)

 [No title]
RUFFO, FABRIZIO (1744-1827), Neapolitan cardinal and politician, was born at San Lucido in Calabria on the 16th of September 1744.
Ruffo was placed by the pope among the chierici di camera—the clerks who formed the papal civil and financial service.
The account of Ruffo given in Celletta's History of Naples (English translation, Edinburgh, 186o) must be taken with caution.
encyclopedia.jrank.org /correction/edit?locale=en&content_id=57818   (542 words)

 The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church - Biographical Dictionary - Consistory of April 26, 1773
Nephew of Cardinal Giovanni Bandi (1775), and uncle of Cardinal Romoaldo Braschi-Onesti (1786)
Auditor of Cardinal Carlo Rezzonico, nephew of Pope Clement XIII, 1759.
Consecrated bishop of Rome, February 22, 1775, by Cardinal Gianfrancesco Albani, bishop of Ostia and Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Cardinals Henry Benedict Mary Stuart, duke of York, bishop of Frascati, and Carlo Rezzonico, bishop of Sabina.
www.fiu.edu /~mirandas/bios1773-iii.htm   (516 words)

 The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church - Biographical Dictionary - Consistory of September 26, 1791
He was the second son of Litterio Ruffo, duke of Bagnara and 2nd duke of Baranello, and Giustiniana Colonna, princess of Spinoso and marchioness of Guardia Perticara.
Cardinal Giuseppe Maria Capece Zurlo, Theat., archbishop of Naples, tried to avoid the popular uprising; Cardinal Ruffo entered victoriously in Naples on June 15, 1799; he was not able to make prevalent a policy of relative moderation.
Member of the commission of cardinals (together with Aurelio Roverella and Giuseppe Doria), designated by the emperor, that composed the apostolic brief promulgating the decrees of the Council of Paris on September 20, 1811, and persuaded Pope Pius VII, who was in captivity in Savona, to sign it in September 1811.
www.fiu.edu /~mirandas/bios1791.htm   (765 words)

 Pope Pius VI
Pius VI (Giovanni Angelo Braschi) (December 27, 1717 - August 29, 1799), pope from 1775 to 1799, was born at Cesena.
After taking the degree of doctor of laws[?] he went to Ferrara and became the private secretary of Cardinal Ruffo[?], in whose bishopric of Ostia and Velletri[?] he held the post of uditore until 1753.
His skill in the conduct of a mission to the court of Naples won him the esteem of Pope Benedict XIV, who appointed him one of his secretaries and canon of St Peter's.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/po/Pope_Pius_VI.html   (761 words)

 The Bourbon Era (1734-1860) - IL CIRCOLO CALABRESE - Devoted to Calabria   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The Cardinal Ruffo arrived on the 25 of March to face two facts of which he was unaware.
Cardinal Ruffo was undaunted by the many desertions but continued on with regulars and volunteers from Rossano, Santa Severina, and Cerenzia-Cariati aided by the Bishops.
Ruffo, from his arrival in Calabria, enacted some measures of unprecedented weight: the confiscation of all Jacobine wealth, the sequestration of those feudal territories abandoned during the struggle, and the exchange of money for any jail time given to Jacobines, also some reduction in taxes to one half what they were.
www.circolocalabrese.org /library/history/bourbon_era1.asp   (2574 words)

 La San-Felice et Emma Lyonna
Cardinal Ruffo, however, is appointed Viceroy, and returns to Cortone, on the toe of the Italian boot, and raises a rag-tag royalist army composed of feudal retainers, brigands, and wannabe looters.
By June 1799, Cardinal Ruffo is at the gates of Naples, and is joined by military contingents from Russia, Austria, and Turkey, allied against France.
In Dumas' account, the courageous, competent, and honorable men on both sides, such as General Championnet, Cardinal Ruffo, and Admiral Caricciolo, fighting either for their country envisaged in the person of the King, or for their country envisioned as "the people" wind up persecuted or dead, while the inept, corrupt, and criminal survive and prosper.
www.cadytech.com /dumas/work.php?key=125   (1708 words)

 Parthenopaean Republic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Ruffo, supported by the Russian and Turkish ships under command of Admiral Ushakov, now marched on the capital, whence the French, except for a small force under Méjean, withdrew.
While the vessels were being prepared for the voyage to Toulon all the hostages in the castles were liberated save four; but on 24 June 1799 Nelson arrived with his fleet, and on hearing of the capitulation he refused to recognise it except in so far as it concerned the French.
Ruffo indignantly declared that once the treaty was signed, not only by himself but by the Russian and Turkish commandants and by the British captain Foote, it must be respected, and on Nelson’s refusal he said that he would not help him to capture the castles.
enc.qba73.com /link-Parthenopaean_Republic   (1118 words)

 Domenico Cirillo - LoveToKnow 1911   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
On the French occupation of Naples and the proclamation of the Parthenopean republic (1799), Cirillo, after at first refusing to take part in the new government, consented to be chosen a representative of the people and became a member of the legislative commission, of which he was eventually elected president.
On the abandonment of the republic by the French (June 179 9), Cardinal Ruffo and the army of King Ferdinand IV.
After a short siege they surrendered on honourable terms, life and liberty being guaranteed them by the signatures of Ruffo, of Foote, and of Micheroux.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Domenico_Cirillo   (354 words)

 Pope Pius VII: Proceedings of the Conclave that led to his election.
Among the Neapolitan prelates was one Cardinal Ruffo, belonging to a princely Sicilian house and a devoted adherent of the Braschi.
As to the Zelanti, Ruffo's unedifying life at the court of Queen Marie Caroline horrified them, and they would have nothing whatever to do with him; being a Sicilian he was naturally mistrusted by Austria, so that for one reason or another most of his colleagues cold-shouldered him.
Ruffo was well aware that his open sponsoring of any candidate would be sufficient to ruin his chances with the majority of his colleagues, and that he himself would have to keep severely in the background if his efforts were to be crowned with success.
www.pickle-publishing.com /papers/triple-crown-pius-vii.htm   (4134 words)

 Around Naples Encyclopedia 23
Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo (1744—1827) (photo, below) figures prominently in the history surrounding the short-lived Neapolitan (or Parthenopean) Republic of 1799; he was the one who formed and led the loyalist Army of the Holy Faith in its campaign to retake the kingdom of Naples from the forces of the Revolution.
Ruffo became a member of the papal civil and financial service and was created a cardinal in 1791, though he had never been a priest.
Clemency was not to be, and Ruffo was then genuinely outraged when his guarantee was violated by the King of Naples, Ferdinand (certainly at the behest of Queen Caroline), who had the refugees removed from ships in the harbor, returned to prison, and put on trial.
faculty.ed.umuc.edu /~jmatthew/naples/blog23.htm   (12805 words)

 Ruffo, Fabrizio - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
RUFFO, FABRIZIO [Ruffo, Fabrizio], 1744-1827, Neapolitan general, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
Possibly exceeding his authority, he promised the republicans full immunity from reprisals and obtained their surrender in June, 1799.
Even before Naples capitulated, Admiral Horatio Nelson appeared with his fleet, called the cardinal to task for his leniency, and revoked the terms of surrender.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-ruffo-f1a.html   (240 words)

 1799 - Captain Foote at Naples
To this the cardinal replied, that he himself knew nothing of what was going on, that he stood in great need of the aid of the Russians ; and repeated, that it was they who conducted the treaty.
On the 20th Captain Foote received from the cardinal a plan of a capitulation already signed by him and the chief of the Russians, with a request that he, Captain Foote, would affix his signature to it.
On the same afternoon, at a conference held on board the flag-ship, at which were present Cardinal Ruffo, and Sir William and Lady Hamilton, the cardinal maintained inflexibly, that the treaty ought to be kept sacred.
www.pbenyon.plus.com /Naval_History/Vol_II/P_275.html   (310 words)

 1799 - Captain Foote at Palermo   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
On the 14th the fortified rock of Rivigliano, and on the 15th the important fortress of Castel-à-Mare, capitulated to the Seahorse and squadron.
Captain Foote had all along done so, and now acquainted the cardinal with the reply which he had received to his letter, and his intention of immediately attacking the fort.
In this the cardinal appeared heartily to concur ; but, on the 19th, after the naval attack had commenced ; Captain Foote, to his surprise, received a letter from the cardinal, requesting him to cease hostilities, and not to recommence them while the flag of truce was flying, as a negotiation had taken place.
www.pbenyon.plus.com /Naval_History/Vol_II/P_274.html   (363 words)

 Parthenopean Republic - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
In February, Cardinal Ruffo, at the head of royalist troops, landed in Calabria and attempted to oust the French.
Military reverses in N Italy prompted the evacuation by the French of Naples in May, and in June the republic fell.
Admiral Horatio Nelson, whose role in the victory was crucial, ignored Cardinal Ruffo's generous convention with the surrendering revolutionists and started the brutal reprisals that were continued by the restored king.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-parthr1ep.html   (313 words)

 Trafalgar Day - Nelson: a counterrevolutionary adventurer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The king sent Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo, a wealthy and influential prelate, to Calabria to organize the "Christian army of the Holy Faith" (Esercito Cristiano della Santa Fede).
Ruffo was desperate to come to terms with the Republicans for the evacuation of the castles, although the queen had issued express orders that no terms be offered to the rebels.
But Cardinal Ruffo as well as the Russian and Turkish commanders had endorsed the conditions of capitulation, and captain Foote had signed for Britain on June 22.
www.marxist.com /trafalgar-nelson-adventurer211005.htm   (7000 words)

 Napoleon Bonaparte Internet Guide - admiral Nelson
Ruffo wanted to end the destruction in the city being done by his own troops and by the
Cardinal Ruffo threatened to withdraw his troops if Nelson didn't honor the treaty.
The Cardinal begged Nelson "not to stain his glory." Ruffo, who had reconquered his ungrateful sovereign's kingdom, was forced to resign in disgust.
www.napoleonbonaparte.nl /html/body_nelson_s_honor.html   (1167 words)

 Tosca - Background
In June Cardinal Ruffo occupied Naples in the name of King Ferdinand, and in September the Bourbon troops entered Rome.
When Cardinal Ruffo fled to Calabria to organize an army against the Republicans, he allied himself with outlaw bands active in the country.
He was a natural ally for Ruffo, and was instrumental in the crushing of the Parthenopean Republic.
opera.stanford.edu /Puccini/Tosca/backgd.html   (2220 words)

 VITAL SIGNS: HISTORY -- The Italian Counterrevolution by Alberto Carosa   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The confrontation between the two sides reached its peak in early 1999, when the San Carlo Opera House in Naples opened its season with Eleonora, an opera starring Vanessa Redgrave as the main female protagonist of the 1799 French-backed revolution in Naples against the Bourbons.
Cardinal Ruffo’s victory remains one of the most significant events in the series of popular uprisings against the French invaders and their Italian accomplices.
They contend that Cardinal Ruffo pledged to save the lives of those revolutionaries who had surrendered, but Lord Nelson disavowed the prelate’s pledge and hanged them all.
www.chroniclesmagazine.org /Chronicles/October2000/1000Carosa.htm   (874 words)

 The Vigliena's Episody
On June 13th 1799, those "sanfedistas" of the Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo, they went from Calabria toward the Capital to reconquer the throne for the Borbons, they arrived to the doors of the city.
The Cardinal's militias, on the other hand, gathered the cream of the Calabrian delinquency, taken of those galleys and incited, with an overlapped publicity to kill and to loot.
They faced, therefore, fellow citizens, but of very diverse origins; the respective bosses, also, they represented two opposed worlds: the one Cardinal and the conservatism and the priest and the liberation.
www.toscani.com.ar /viglienaus.htm   (737 words)

 Vigorito Genealogy History - References   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
On the withdrawal of the French troop King Ferdinand asked Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo to recover Naples.
Ruffo's army ("Army of the Holy Faith") consisted of Russians, Turks, and English as well as bands of peasants and brigands.
By the time Ruffo's army reached Naples it was 40,000 men strong.
pirate.shu.edu /~vigorimi/genealogy/sec_millen2000_AD.html   (2300 words)

 Amazon.com: "Fabrizio Ruffo": Key Phrase page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Royalist forces under Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo, a courtier rather than a priest, acting under the orders of the king, had been put ' A number of...
and in the summer of 11799 the `Parthenopean Republic' was overwhelmed by Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo's `Christian Army' of peasants, which ransacked Naples.
Further south, the queen's envoy Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo led his raggle-taggle Christian Army of the Holy Faith up the boot of Italy, in a bloody campaign to oust...
www.amazon.com /phrase/Fabrizio-Ruffo   (551 words)

 Amazon.com: "Cardinal Ruffo": Key Phrase page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
See all pages with references to Cardinal Ruffo.
On his way he called at Palermo where he was told that Cardinal Ruffo's men...
It is to avoid an indefinite continuation of this bloodshed that Cardinal Ruffo, on June 23, makes terms with the enemy.
www.amazon.com /phrase/Cardinal-Ruffo   (465 words)

 Parthenopean Republic
Five months after its formation on 29 January 1799, the Neapolitan Republic was teetering under the combined onslaught of Cardinal Ruffo's popular, royalist army of Sanfedisti recruited from the bellicose peasants and bandits of Calabria, and the Lazzaroni, poor, unemployed, but devotedly royalist Neapolitans.
The monarchs' reaction was to despatch Cardinal Ruffo to Calabria to drum up a popular army with which to retake Naples.
Events in France had shown them that they were on fundamentally different sides to the reformers whose flag was now fluttering from the bastions of Naples.
faculty.ed.umuc.edu /~jmatthew/naples/Parthenopean_Republic.html   (734 words)

 Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum
On June 20, 1799, during Nelson's absence, the forts Nuovo and Uovo accept the conditions of a capitulation endorsed by Cardinal Ruffo as well as the Russian and Turkish commanders.
He falls out with Cardinal Ruffo, the king's governor, who, like the Russians and the Turks, clings to the capitulation.
The following day Nelson promises not to take action against the conditions of the agreement, but he prevents the departure of the capitulants, who have laid down their weapons and boarded their ships.
www.dsm.de /Pubs/23_10.htm   (808 words)

 Naples : S.Lucia and Castel dell'Ovo
Castel dell'Ovo has always marked the political and historical changes in the city of Naples: in 1733 it was besieged and bombed by the Bourbons, who replaced the Austrians (who had been governing Naples after the Spaniards for about thirty years, during the war for the Spanish Succession).
In 1799 it was occupied by the revolutionary Jacobins and then conquered again by the cardinal Ruffo di Calabria, who guided the troops supporting the Bourbon's restoration.
After the unification of Italy (and until 1963) the castle has been military centre for the Italian government.
www.capriweb.com /Napoli/SantaLucia/sluceng4.html   (946 words)

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