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# Topic: Carnot heat engine

###### In the News (Sat 18 May 13)

 Carnot heat engine - Trust A Carnot heat engine is a hypothetical engine that operates on the reversible Carnot cycle. The Carnot engine model was graphically expanded upon by Benoit Paul Émile Clapeyron in 1834 and mathematically elaborated upon by Rudolf Clausius in the 1850s and 60s from which the concept of entropy emerged. A heat engine acts by transferring energy from a warm region to a cool region of space and, in the process, converting some of that energy to mechanical work. enwiki-trust.cse.ucsc.edu /index.php/Carnot_heat_engine   (829 words)

 Carnot heat engine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Carnot heat engine uses a particular thermodynamic cycle studied by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in the 1820s and expanded upon by Benoit Paul Émile Clapeyron in the 1830s and 40s. A heat engine is an engine that uses heat to produce mechanical work by carrying a working substance through a cyclic process. Carnot realised that in reality it is not possible to build a thermodynamically reversible engine, so real heat engines are less efficient than indicated by Equation 3. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Carnot_heat_engine   (550 words)

 Heat engine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: ) A heat engine performs the conversion of heat energy to work by exploiting the temperature gradient between a hot "source" and a cold "sink". Heat is transferred to the sink from the source, and in this process some of the heat is converted into work. The carnot heat engine (the ideal imaginary heat engine) has an efficiency equal to (T1 - T2)/T1 where T1 is the absolute temperature of the hot source and T2 that of the cold sink. www.bonneylake.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Heat_engine   (507 words)

 ch.5 definitions Carnot heat engine - A Carnot heat engine is the hypothetical heat engine that operates on the reversible Carnot cycle. Carnot principles - Carnot priciples are two conclusions pertain to the thermal efficiency of reversible and irreversible heat engines: (1) The efficiency of an irreversible heat engine is always less than the efficiency of a reversible one operating between the same two reservoirs. Carnot refregerator or Carnot heat pump - A Carnot refregerator or a Carnot heat pump is a refrigerator or a heat pump that operates on the reversed Carnot cycle. www.ocf.berkeley.edu /~ssoong/me105/definitions/me105_5.html   (985 words)

 Carnot heat engine A heat engine is an engine that uses heat to produce mechanical work by carrying a working substance through a cyclic process. The efficiency η of a heat engine is defined as the ratio of the work done on the surroundings to the heat input at the higher temperature. In reality it is not practical to build a thermodynamically reversible engine, so real heat engines are less efficient than indicated by Equation 3. www.askfactmaster.com /Carnot_heat_engine   (428 words)

 Carnot_Sadi   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Sadi Carnot was born at a time of unrest and political turmoil in France and, due the position of his father, whose fortunes changed dramatically many times, he was brought up in a totally unstable environment of interacting politics and science. Carnot's father was appointed minister of the interior and Sadi Carnot was put in a somewhat difficult position in the military academy with his father in such a prominent position. Carnot continued with his research after the publication of his book and although nothing of this was published, notes that Carnot made as his ideas developed have survived. www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk /~history/Mathematicians/Carnot_Sadi.html   (1584 words)

 Carnot heat engine - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: ) The gas expansion is driven by absorption of heat from the high temperature reservoir. By "TH average", we mean the average temperture at which heat is input; likewise, "TC average" stands for the average temperature at which heat is rejected. Needless to say, for Carnot cycle or its equivalent, the TH average is the hightest temperature available and TC average is the lowest temperature available. encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /carnot_efficiency.htm   (614 words)

 Heat Engines Heat engines such as automobile engines operate in a cyclic manner, adding energy in the form of heat in one part of the cycle and using that energy to do useful work in another part of the cycle. Since the engines usually involve a gas as a working substance, the ideal gas law relates the PV diagram to the temperature so that the three essential state variables for the gas can be tracked through the engine cycle. The engine takes energy from a hot reservoir and uses part of it to do work, but is constrained by the second law of thermodynamics to exhaust part of the energy to a cold reservoir. hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/thermo/heaeng.html   (562 words)

 Carnot Cycle Carnot envisioned a cycle in which a gas is compressed, heated, allowed to expand, and then cooled. Nicklaus Otto invented an internal combustion engine in 1876 that was the predecessor to the modern gasoline engine. Otto’s engine mixed fuel and air before their introduction to the cylinder, and a flame or spark was used to ignite the fuel-air mixture at the appropriate time. www.cogeneration.net /Carnot_Cycle.htm   (740 words)

 Body Heat This ``insensible perspiration'' consists of water diffusing through the skin; sweat glands keeping the skin of the palms and soles pliable; and the expulsion of water-saturated air from the lungs [Gillies (ed.), 1965]. This self-regulation causes the location of the heat pump to become the coolest part of the body, further diminishing the returns of the Carnot engine unless a wetsuit is employed as part of the design. As a rough estimate, assuming even heat dissipation over the body, a maximum of 0.20-0.32 W could be recovered conveniently by such a neck brace. web.media.mit.edu /~testarne/TR328/node2.html   (460 words)

 Carnot heat engine   (Site not responding. Last check: ) A heat engine is an engine that uses heat to produce mechanical work bycarrying a working substance through a cyclic process. The Carnot heat engine uses a particular thermodynamiccycle studied by Nicolas Léonard SadiCarnot in the 1820s. The efficiency η of a heat engine is defined as the ratio of the work done on the surroundings to the heat inputat the higher temperature. www.therfcc.org /carnot-heat-engine-39339.html   (418 words)

 HW #4 Heat is supplied to the heat engine at a steady rate of 1200 kJ/min. The key equations are the definition of the thermal efficiency of a heat engine and the equation for the thermal efficiency of a Carnot Heat Engine. The key equations are the definition of the COP of a heat pump and the equation for the COP of a Carnot Refrigeration Cycle. courses.washington.edu /cheme260/Homework/hw4.htm   (975 words)

 Sadi Carnot Carnot devised an ideal engine in which a gas is allowed to expand to do work, absorbing heat in the process, and is expanded again without transfer of heat but with a temperature drop. This series of operations, known as Carnot's cycle, shows that even under ideal conditions a heat engine cannot convert into mechanical energy all the heat energy supplied to it; some of the heat energy must be rejected. Carnot graduated from the Ecole Polytechnique in 1814 but, before he graduated, Carnot and other students from the Ecole Polytechnique fought unsuccessfully with Napoleon to defend Vincennes. www.corrosion-doctors.org /Biographies/CarnotBio.htm   (867 words)

 Carnot heat engine   (Site not responding. Last check: ) A heat engine is an engine that uses heat produce mechanical work by carrying a working through a cyclic process. The efficiency η of a heat engine is defined the ratio of the work done on surroundings to the heat input at the temperature. Carnot's theorem states that No engine operating between two heat reservoirs be more efficient than a Carnot engine between the same reservoirs. www.freeglossary.com /Carnot_heat_engine   (658 words)

 Photon steam engines (April 2003) - Physics World - PhysicsWeb The first heat engines were responsible for the industrial revolution, but behind the scenes they were also fuelling the development of thermodynamics. Carnot's conceptual heat engine operated in cycles such that there is no change in the internal energy of the working fluid - such as steam - during a cycle. Furthermore, extracting work from a quantum Carnot engine does not violate the second law of thermodynamics because the quantum coherence also costs extra entropy, which ensures that the overall entropy of the system is always increasing. physicsweb.org /article/world/16/4/6   (1171 words)

 heat --  Encyclopædia Britannica The latent heat associated with melting a solid or freezing a liquid is called the heat of fusion; that associated with vaporizing a liquid or a solid or condensing a vapour is called the heat of vaporization. Heat is a form of energy that is transferred from one body to another because of a difference in temperature. For many home refrigerators the amount of heat extracted is equal to about six times the mechanical energy required to extract the heat, and the heat discharged is about seven times the... www.britannica.com /eb/article-9039732   (770 words)

 Stirling engine   (Site not responding. Last check: ) The Stirling engine, also known as the hot air engine, is a heat engine of the external combustion piston engine type. When the gas is heated, because it is in a sealed chamber, the pressure rises and this then acts on the power piston to produce a power stroke. Robert Stirling's innovative contribution of 1816 was what he called the 'Economiser' now known as the regenerator which acts to retain heat in the hot portion of the engine as the air passes to the cold part and thus improve the efficiency. www.worldhistory.com /wiki/S/Stirling-engine.htm   (1713 words)

 Carnot heat engine   (Site not responding. Last check: ) The Carnot heat engine uses a particular thermodynamic cycle studied by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in the 1820s and expanded upon by Thomas Benoit in the 1840s and 50s. Although Carnot's cycle is not practical to build, the expression of Carnot efficiency can find usefulness if TH and TC are replaced by "TH average " and "TC average" in the expression. Needless to say, for Carnot cycle or its equivalent, the TH average is the highest temperature available and TC average is the lowest temperature available. 6118.mallforeverything.com   (624 words)

 Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot   (Site not responding. Last check: ) carnot lazare marguerite ipomoea batatas marguerite&o=0&qsrc=19 nicolas nicolas anelka alejandro nicolas chietino Carnot cycle Applet showing the physics processes of a Carnot heat engine by Fu-Kwun Hwang of the National Taïwan Normal University. Carnot Posey Home Bed and breakfast inn, originally the circa 1845 antebellum home of Confederate General Carnot Posey. www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Lazare_Nicolas_Marguerite_Carnot.html   (264 words)

 Carnot, Lazare Nicolas Marguérite - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Carnot, Lazare Nicolas Marguérite   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Minister of the interior during the hundred days, he was proscribed at the restoration of the monarchy and retired to Germany. Carnot joined the army as an engineer, and his transformation of French military technique in the revolutionary period earned him the title of ‘Organizer of Victory’. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. encyclopedia.farlex.com /Carnot%2c+Lazare+Nicolas+Margu%e9rite   (187 words)

 Heat Engine   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Heat engine is defined as a device that converts heat energy into mechanical energy or more exactly a system which operates continuously and only heat and work may pass across its boundaries. The operation of a heat engine can best be represented by a thermodynamic cycle. In case of a reverse heat engine the second law of thermodynamics is as follows: It is impossible to transfer heat from a cooler body to a hotter body without any work input i.e. www.taftan.com /thermodynamics/HENGINE.HTM   (218 words)

 Carnot Cycle The most efficient heat engine cycle is the Carnot cycle, consisting of two isothermal processes and two adiabatic processes. When the second law of thermodynamics states that not all the supplied heat in a heat engine can be used to do work, the Carnot efficiency sets the limiting value on the fraction of the heat which can be so used. In order to approach the Carnot efficiency, the processes involved in the heat engine cycle must be reversible and involve no change in entropy. hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/thermo/carnot.html   (374 words)

 Heat Engine Baseline   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Engine Below is working OK.: Engine operation OK (n/nc =.94), Valve 1 and Two Work OK. The Qh and Qc meter are reading correctly. I am also aware that a engine operating near absolute zero could not function, but I felt operation with radiator near absolute was theoretically interesting. In test bed heat is supplied by a calibrated electrical boiler heater. www.science-ebooks.com /phy/heat_engine_baseline.htm   (274 words)

 Heat engine   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Heat is heat transfertransferred to the sink from the source, and in this process some of the heat is converted into energywork/. Research has shown that "hot" processes such as welding and high-speed machining can generate ultrafine particles (particles with a diameter less than 100 nanometers) that may be harmful to workers' health. A home on Brittany Lane had two of its bedrooms destroyed by flames and suffered heavy smoke and heat damage throughout from a fire reported at 2:40 p.m. www.infothis.com /find/Heat_engine   (684 words)

 Carnot Cycle (Heat Engine) The efficiency of the heat engine will be displayed. Yellow bar within the gas volume is proportional to heat flow (In). Yellow bar within the piston region is proportional to heat flow (Out). www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw /java/carnot/carnot.html   (718 words)

 Heat engine, refrigeration and heat pump cycles approximating the Carnot cycle and apparatus therefor (US5027602) Heat engine, refrigeration and heat pump cycles approximating the Carnot cycle and apparatus therefor These process approximations, in addition to isothermal heat addition and rejection, enable Carnot heat engine, refrigeration and heat pump cycles to be approximated. (c) expanding the heated working fluid provided by step (b) in an expander to produce a work output while the working fluid, during at least an initial portion of the expansion, is in the form of a mixture of fine droplets of saturated liquid in saturated vapour; www.delphion.com /details?pn=US05027602__   (635 words)

 PowerPedia:Stirling Engine - PESWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: ) The Stirling engine was invented in 1816 by the Rev. Robert Stirling (wp (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Stirling)) who sought to create a safer alternative to the steam engines (wp (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/steam_engine)) of the time, whose boilers (wp (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/boiler)) often exploded due to the high pressure of the steam and the primitive materials of the time. The Stirling Engine was originally designed to deal with a 19th Century problem; the fact that steam engines had a tendency to explode due to their need for high-pressures to operate. Stirling Engines lost favor in the 20th Century as they were overshadowed by new engine technologies such as the internal combustion engine and the electric motor. peswiki.com /index.php/PowerPedia:Stirling_engine   (1232 words)

 Experiment 6 - Heat Engine & Carnot Cycle   (Site not responding. Last check: ) A heat engine is a device for converting heat into work. In our case, air (also known as the working substance) is caused to undergo a series of pro cesses called a cycle in which the end of a cycle occurs when the working substance returns to its original state. Using the above conversion factor convert you heat engine cycle angular position to height using the fact that the initial position of the piston corresponds to zero degrees. physics.usask.ca /~gorin/ep271/exp6_carnot.htm   (671 words)

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