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Topic: Case grammar

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In the News (Sun 19 Nov 17)

  Bug in xcud7 historical clarity, case grammar
I apologize for not seeing this much earlier; this is submitted as a because of that.
Case WORD linebreak in linebreak case_list case_item_ns Esac
Case WORD linebreak in linebreak Esac ; (These aren't really changed, but for reference...) case_list : case_list case_item
www.opengroup.org /austin/mailarchives/ag-review/msg01070.html   (208 words)

Case grammar uses semantic case analysis to find the link between syntactically distinct sentences.
Case grammar allows a word to have the same semantic role, despite having a different syntactic designation.
The case grammar approach is supported by normal readers difficulties with ambiguous sentences where the ‘obvious’ syntactic structure results in an unintelligible sentence.
www.rpi.edu /~verwyc/Cognote8.htm   (859 words)

 Russian Grammar - Nouns: Accusative Case - Russian Language Lessons
The Russian accusative case is used for the object of a sentence, in this case the word “dog”.
The accusitive case is also used after the prepositions “в” (to, into) and “на” (on, to) when they indicate motion towards somthing.
For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases, depending on weather the object is animate or not.
www.russianlessons.net /grammar/nouns_accusative.php   (242 words)

 Guide to Grammar and Writing
Charles developed The Guide to Grammar and Writing in 1996, originally to help his students write reports and research papers.
The Guide to Grammar and Writing rapidly took on a life of its own, mushrooming into a wildly popular site, with upwards of 30,000 hits per day from all over the world.
The Guide to Grammar and Writing is sponsored by the Capital Community College Foundation, a nonprofit 501 c-3 organization that supports scholarships, faculty development, and curriculum innovation.
grammar.ccc.commnet.edu /grammar   (456 words)

  Pronoun Case
Objective case: pronouns used as objects of verbs or prepositions.
In compound structures, where there are two pronouns or a noun and a pronoun, drop the other noun for a moment.
Use the subjective form after a form of the verb to be.
owl.english.purdue.edu /handouts/grammar/g_proncase.html   (234 words)

  Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for grammar
The term is also used in the grammar of some languages (e.g., Sanskrit, Finnish) for a case of separation, e.g., from the house.
The term is used in the grammar of other languages, but the phenomenon referred to may not closely resemble a Latin genitive; thus a Latin genitive will be translated by a number of different cases in Finnish.
In traditional grammar, a term for the main VERB and any auxiliary or combination of auxiliaries that precedes it: can spell ; may have cried ; should be paid ; might have been transferred.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=grammar&StartAt=51   (823 words)

 [Case (grammar)] | [All the best Case (grammar) resources at karaoke.velocityincome.com]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor.
While all languages distinguish cases in some fashion, it is only customary to say that a language has cases when these are codified in the morphology of its nouns — that is, when nouns change their form to reflect their case.
Nominative-accusative (or simply accusative): The argument (subject) of an intransitive verb is in the same case as the agent (subject) of a transitive verb; this case is then called the nominative case, with the patient (direct object) of a transitive verb being in the accusative case.
karaoke.velocityincome.com /Case_(grammar)   (1409 words)

 Polish Grammar   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The objective of this lesson is to understand, what is a noun case, which noun case to use in a sentence, to prepare you for how to read the Polish grammar case tables.
A case is the context the noun is used in the sentence.
Cases have many functions, but they mostly allow the speaker to convey ideas with fewer words, as the endings on the words tell the listener what the sentence is about.
www.polishgrammar.com /Polish-Grammar-1L.html   (745 words)

 Chien-ching Mo. Lithuanian Syntax: A Case Grammar Description   (Site not responding. Last check: )
By the way, to forewarn the uninitiated: case grammar does not deal with the so-called surface cases, such as the nominative, genitive, accusative, etc. They are interested in the cases in the deep structure of the language.
Factitive (f), the case of the object or being resulting from the action or state identified by the verb, or understood as a part of the meaning of the verb.
A Case Grammar Classification of Lithuanian Verbs; 4.
www.lituanus.org /1982_2/82_2_08.htm   (918 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Case grammar refers to a system of grammatical forms (typically affixes) that express predicate-argument structure.
For example, in Latin there are 6 cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, genetive, dative, ablative, marked by inflections of nouns, adjectives and verbs.
Grammar arises for optimising communication: It helps to maximise expressiveness and minimise effort or the risk of misunderstanding.
www.ling.ed.ac.uk /evolang2002/ABSTRACTS/steels.txt   (444 words)

 8 Case theory
Universal Grammar allows case, just like tense, to be expressed either synthetically (as suffixes on nouns) or analytically (by means of prepositions or other syntactic heads that take an entire noun phrase as their argument).
Before addressing our main concern---how objective case is licensed on the embedded subject her, we digress briefly to provide an independent piece of evidence in favor of the structure in (35), which is based on the distribution of expletive there.
Case licensing is a relationship between a head and an 'outside' noun phrase (that is, a noun phrase distinct from any projections of the case-checking head).
www.ling.upenn.edu /courses/ling150/ch8.html   (6654 words)

 LINGUIST List 9.1813: Cook: Case Grammar Applied   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The actual goal of the discussed monograph is twofold: for the grammar - to present a method for sentence semantics which describes the meaning underlying each simple sentence; for the lexicon - to present a method for further defining each sense of each verb / predicate in terms of semantic classes (case-frame-based typology).
The case frame is understood as a configuration of one to three cases that are required by the meaning of the verb (or more generally, the predicate).
Covert case roles, which are required by the meaning of the predicate, are sometimes (as in the case of partially covert (deletable) case roles) or always (as in the case of totally covert (coreferential and lexicalised) case roles) missing in the surface structure.
linguistlist.org /issues/9/9-1813.html   (1933 words)

 Case in XTAG
The English XTAG grammar adopts the notion of case and the case filter for many of the same reasons argued in the GB literature.
However in the XTAG grammar, noun cases are checked against the case values assigned by the verb during the unification of the feature structures.
Case assignment from the verb is more like the GB approach than the requirement of a SPEC-head relationship in Minimalism.
www.cis.upenn.edu /~xtag/tech-report/node24.html   (212 words)

 JavaScript 2.0   (Site not responding. Last check: )
case to calling a superconstructor to allow passing a variable number of arguments to a superconstructor.
Revised the lexical and syntactic grammar and semantics.
Renamed the parser grammar to the syntactic grammar and the lexer grammar to the lexical grammar for consistency with ECMAScript Edition 3.
www.mozilla.org /js/language/js20   (3965 words)

 Learn English - English Grammar - Case
You cannot really go wrong here, we have shed most of our cases and as a result English is easier than many other languages because nouns and some indefinite pronouns (anyone, someone, everyone, and so on) only have a distinctive case form for the possessive.
In nouns the first two cases (subjective and objective) are indistinguishable, and are called the common case.
One result of this simplicity is that, the sense of case being almost lost, the few mistakes that can be made are made often, even by native speakers, some of them so often that they are now almost right by prescription.
www.learnenglish.de /grammar/casetext.htm   (179 words)

 case grammar
Case Grammar is a theory of grammatical analysis, created by the American...
A fundamental hypothesis of case grammar is that grammatical functions,...
Case grammar is a model widely used by field linguists for studying actual human languages.
www.startupaudio.it /search/Case-grammar.htm   (479 words)

 Verbal Case Frames in English and Tibetan
While the case analysis of these verbs can be determined from their other syntactic behavior, as demonstrated by Fillmore, this construction provides the most direct evidence for correct analysis.
Thus the surface morphosyntax of these predicates directly reflects the case analysis in which the lexically specified argument of the verb is a Theme, with the zero-marking characteristic of Themes in Tibetan, and the NP corresponding to the English object is a Loc, and case-marked as such.
The nature of branding is such that in the case of this event category each of these schemas entails the other, so that the two lexicalizations are not only truth-conditionally but even image-schematically equivalent, but the actual lexicalizations are not semantically identical.
www.uoregon.edu /~delancey/papers/caseframes.html   (3213 words)

 Event Construal and Case Role Assignment
A fundamental problem which has prevented the development of a widely-accepted generative case grammar is the lack of a principled basis for determining the semantic content of case roles, and thus for identifying the roles played particular arguments of clauses.
The generative conception of Case Grammar is regarded in many quarters as discredited on grounds of the apparent difficulty of developing a limited set of semantically-definable categories in terms of which morphosyntactic facts can be systematically explained.
The function of oblique case roles is to allow reference within a clause to actors from the scenario that do not have one of the core roles in the event schema which underlies the clause.
www.uoregon.edu /~delancey/papers/bls91.html   (5225 words)

 Tatari Faran Grammar: Case System
The conveyant case is used to indicate motion, patient, or that which is conveyed by the verb.
The choice of case in a sentence is determined semantically, and is independent of whether the corresponding NP is the subject NP.
One might be tempted to think at this point that the conveyant case is equivalent to the English notion of “subject”; however, this is not the case.
conlang.eusebeia.dyndns.org /fara/cases.html   (1200 words)

Analytic grammar facilitates the laboriously learnt second-language, painfully acquired in isolation or small groups, much more than the mother-tongue absorbed amid the varied life of a speech community; the analytic sentence parses itself for the benefit of the busy or discouraged student.
This is the grammar of context itself: where a thing is immediately obvious there is no need to define the subject (article, noun etc.) in terms of relationship or action (verb, adverb) with or towards the object (preposition, adjective, noun etc.).
As we have seen, synthetic grammar is the most technically advanced, but isn't compatible with a minimal grammar which doesn't require parts of speech to be defined.
bahai-library.com /books/lango/lang03.html   (1530 words)

 German Grammar: German Cases - Grammatik der deutschen Sprache: Kasus
Cases are used in German to signify the functions of nouns and pronouns sentences.
Cases are applied to nouns and pronouns when they are used in a sentence to demonstrate what grammatical role they play in the sentence.
• The case of a noun is shown via the definite or indefinite article that precedes it, if any.
www.vistawide.com /german/grammar/german_cases02.htm   (191 words)

 German Grammar - Grammatik der deutschen Sprache - German Cases - Definite articles - Indefinite articles - Possessive ...
The case of a noun or pronoun signifies its function in the sentence, that is, whether it is acting as the subject or an object, or whether it is acting in some other capacity.
To identify the case of a noun, one normally must look at the determiners that precede it, words like the, a, an, this, every, etc. These words are called articles.
These endings are vestiges of an older system of case inflection in which the nouns themselves altered their suffixes to signify case.
www.vistawide.com /german/grammar/german_cases.htm   (593 words)

 Gilkesh language: Grammar: The Sentence   (Site not responding. Last check: )
This determines the case inflection of the noun or nouns in the sentence.
Gilkesh nouns are inflected primarily by tone and secondarily by case markers.
This is in contrast to Indo-European languages such as Latin, Greek, and German, in which the thing given is considered the direct object (taking the accusative case) and the receiver is considered the indirect object (taking the dative case).
asher813.typepad.com /gilkesh_language/2006/12/grammar_the_sen.html   (339 words)

 Amazon.co.uk: Modern Grammars of Case: Books: John M. Anderson   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Part I offers a critical history of modern grammars of case, focussing on the last four decades and setting this in the context of earlier, including ancient, developments.
The latter include questions relating to the idea of an ontologically-based grammar, particularly the degree to which syntactic categories and relationships are grounded in meaning, and the notion of linguistic creativity.
This involves a consideration of the way in which cases may be identified, and whether their distribution is determined through semantics.
www.amazon.co.uk /Modern-Grammars-Case-John-Anderson/dp/019929707X   (629 words)

Adaptive Grammar explains this slot, as the first element in the "topic gradient", a resonant neural activation ordering which adapts in STM to the pragmatic demands of the communicative environment, and which is the linguistic product of a series of adaptations of fundamental vertebrate neural design.
Although agreement, nominative case, agency and topicality are considered to be the basic features of a subject, it seems that only the latter is a steadily common feature shared by the subjects of the languages of the world.
In all the other cases, NPs have their theta-roles licensed in the "base position" (the so-called Deep Structure), and their cases also licensed first in DS, and then --if the case is not licensed in the DS-- the NP must "move" to a Spec position of some "functional head" where the case is licensed.
www.georgetown.edu /users/koutsome/Elac98.htm   (3255 words)

 Dr. Dobb's | Give Them What They Want | June 29, 2001
A use case is most effectively stated from the perspective of the user as a set of present-tense verb phrases in active voice.
In the case of C3 (a Y2K mainframe payroll replacement project), the Gold Owner "inexplicably" pulled the plug in February 2000, when, after four years of labor, it became apparent that the program (no doubt chock-full of cool features) was paying only one-third of the employees.
A use case is also likely to have at least one path that the actor takes more frequently than the one specified by the basic course.
www.ddj.com /dept/architect/184414740   (2475 words)

 Universal Grammar and Linguistics
Universal grammar, therefore, is part of the knowledge that resides in the human mind of a person who knows a language.
For Chomsky and his fellow linguists argue that universal grammar is not learned by mimicry or lessons or examples and correction, but is instead innate in the mind of every human being, a part of our genetic endowment, like the basic structure of our livers or spleens.
As in other cases it may contain hidden resources that come to be recognized and used as the contingencies of life and experience permit, so access to this endowment may change over time.
www.zmag.org /ZMag/grammar.htm   (4464 words)

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