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Topic: Cathinone

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In the News (Fri 19 Apr 19)

 [No title]
Low doses of cathinone (up to 1.25 mg/kg) failed to provoke stimulation of locomotion; on the contrary small; but significant decreases were observed with 1.25 mg/kg after 30 min and with 0.62 mg/kg at the end of 3 h.
Cathinone seems to be contained only in young leaves (Schorno, personal communication), which would explain why only the tops of the plant are used by khat chewers.
The general profile of the stereotyped behaviour produced by cathinone, as well as by carbine, in high doses was shown to be very similar to that evoked by amphetamine and different from that of apomorphine.
www.unodc.org /unodc/bulletin/bulletin_1980-01-01_3_page007.html?print=yes   (3516 words)

 Cathinone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Internationally, cathinone is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.
Cathinone differs from amphetamine by possessing a ketone oxygen atom (C=O) on the β (beta) position of the side chain.
The biophysiological conversion from cathinone to cathine is to blame for the depotentiation of Khat leaves over time; Fresh leaves have a greater ratio of cathinone to cathine than dried ones, therefore holding a more psychoactive potential.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cathinone   (282 words)

 The Cathinone Page
The term cathinone was originally applied to the (-)enentiomer (shown), with the (+)isomer being refered to as (+)cathinone.
Thus, studies with cathinone must be cautiously interpreted.
During this time, cathinone was viewed by pharmacologists as an exotic new substance.
www.phc.vcu.edu /Feature/oldfeature/cat/cat.html   (1287 words)

 Welcome to the Heart Views Website
Cathinone is amphetamine-like substance that release endogenous catecholamines from peripheral and central neurones.
Cathinone is the dependence-producing constituent of khat leaves which re-inforces the khat chewer to repeat the habit again11.
Cathinone and amphetamine induce dopamine release from central dopaminergic nerve terminals and this increases the activity of dopaminergic pathways.
www.hmc.org.qa /heartviews/VOL5NO3/review_article.htm   (1723 words)

Cathinone is the primary active ingredient in the Khat plant.
The leaves (containing cathinone and cathine) of the Khat plant are chewed for their euphoric and stimulant effects.
Cathinone is currently in Schedule I of the 1971 Convention of Psychotropic Substances.
www.tpub.com /maa/74.htm   (1451 words)

 KHAT (Street Names: Khat, Qat, Kat, Chat, Miraa, Quaadka)
Cathinone (alpha-aminopriopiophenone), which is the principal active stimulant, is structurally similar to d-amphetamine and almost as potent as a CNS stimulant.
Cathinone levels are highest in the freshly cut khat plant.
Cathinone and cathnine are in Schedules I and IV of the Controlled Substances Act, respectively.
www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov /drugs_concern/khat.htm   (889 words)

Cathinone, as it came to be named, is an alkaloid chemically similar to amphetamine.
Cathinone is not found throughout the khat plant.
As the leaves age, cathinone is converted to cathine, a compound with less amphetamine-like properties.
faculty.ucc.edu /biology-ombrello/POW/khat.htm   (505 words)

 USCA1 Opinion 03-1310
Cathinone is the major psychoactive component of the plant Catha edulis (khat).
It is simply too much of a stretch to assume, on the basis of this limited pattern, that a person of ordinary intelligence would jump to the conclusion that, despite the clear prohibition on "material containing cathinone," khat containing cathinone is excluded from coverage.
There is no evidence that the appellant had ever heard of cathinone, let alone that he was aware that khat contained it.
www.ca1.uscourts.gov /cgi-bin/getopn.pl?OPINION=03-1310.01A   (5144 words)

 Khat, What is Khat? About its Science, Chemistry and Structure
In 1975 Cathinone (?-ketoamphetamine) a monoamine alkaloid was found in the shrub and is probably the main contributor to the stimulant effect.
Cathinone is closely related to cathine, ephedrine, and other phenethylamines.
Cathinone is not very stable and breaks down to produce cathine and norephedrine.
www.3dchem.com /molecules.asp?ID=230   (233 words)

 Khat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In 1975, the related alkaloid cathinone was isolated, and its absolute configuration was established in 1978.
Cathinone is not very stable and breaks down to produce cathine and norephedrine.
Cathine is in Schedule IV and cathinone is in Schedule I of the U.S. Controlled Substance Act.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Khat   (1290 words)

 Connecticut case on Khat
In this case, the commissioner found the substances cathinone and cathine to have met this requirement.
He claims that the statute fails to define the offense with sufficient definiteness to enable ordinary people to understand what conduct is prohibited and, therefore, violates the due process clause [*16] of the fourteenth amendment to the United States constitution and article first, § 8, of the constitution of Connecticut.
The defendant contends that cathinone and cathine are relatively new words, which makes it difficult for him to define them to determine whether khat is a controlled substance.
www.cognitiveliberty.org /dll/khat_connecticut_case.htm   (2887 words)

 UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1980 Issue 3 - 007
Both isomers of cathinone and cathine markedly inhibited the food intake of rats at intracerebroventricular doses of 300 and 500 μg per animal.
The flexor reflex of the hind limb of the spinal rat elicited by hind-paw stimulation was enhanced by intravenous administration of amphetamine at 1 mg/kg.
Both isomers of cathinone were found to be as potent as amphetamine in this test, while cathine proved to be less potent than cathinone [ 12].
www.unodc.org /unodc/bulletin/bulletin_1980-01-01_3_page008.html   (3799 words)

 RaveSafe Information on Qat (Kat)
The active ingredient was isolated in the late 1970's as Cathinone and it was just a matter of time before a synthesised version was made.
Cathinone is a natural occurring amphetamine and ephedrine-like substance, Methcathinone is a much more potent form.
For leaf chewers, the leaves have to be fresh since during the maturation and decomposition of the kat leaves, Cathinone is converted to the less powerful cathine.
www.ravesafe.org /drugz/kat.htm   (755 words)

 British-Yemeni Society: The impact of qat-chewing on health: a re-evaluation
Cathinone is currently believed to be the main active ingredient in fresh qat leaves.
These observations support the suggestion that cathinone is the constituent that is mainly responsible for the increasing arterial blood pressure and pulse rate parameters during qat chewing.
A common complaint of qat chewers is constipation, probably caused by a combination of the astringent properties of the qat tannins and the sympathomimetic properties of cathinone (1).
www.al-bab.com /bys/articles/hassan05.htm   (2797 words)

 Lycaeum > Leda > The chemistry of khat
Thus, the pharmacological data obtained with it are to some extent valid for cathinone, and this is supported by preliminary data from pharmacological research currently being carried out in several laboratories [49].
In addition to cathinone, the purified chloroform extract was found to contain some minor components and, with one exception, these compounds reacted with ninhydrine, suggesting their amine character.
The Dragendorff-positive compound was isolated from the combined mother liquors of cathinone oxalate, and its probable chemical structure (20) was deduced from its spectral characteristics [38].
leda.lycaeum.org /?ID=16634   (4958 words)

As the leaves mature or dry, cathinone is converted to cathine which significantly reduces its stimulatory properties.
Cathinone is approximately 10 more times more potent than cathine and is only present in fresh leaves.
Cathine, the secondary active ingredient in Khat, does not lose much of its potency with age as with cathinone.
www.streetdrugs.org /khat.htm   (241 words)

 [No title]
Newsgroups: alt.drugs.chemistry The synthesies for cathinone and its derivates wich were presented in these newsgroups, only uses (nor)ephedrine (I haven't read another one).
Because of the cathinones chemical instability (and the plants, wich were extracted, weren't fresh.
The active ingredient in the khat leaves is cathinone, which has the same structural relationship to methcathinone that amphetamine has to methamphetamine.
www.intellicandy.com /oldschool/chemcandy/methcathinone.txt   (3794 words)

 Psychoactive and Addictive Substances   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Cathinone is a Schedule I substance that produces a euphoric effect similar to amphetamine in that it stimulates the central nervous system.
Because the potency of the cathinone in the khat is reduced as the plant material dries, shipment by air is the most common method of transport.
In 1975, the alkaloid cathinone (L(S)-(-)-alpha-aminopropiophenone) was isolated and its absolute configuration was established in 1978.
drugandhealthinfo.org /page06.php?ID=64   (2485 words)

 The Identification of Cathinone in Khat (Catha edulis): A Time Study
Previous studies on the khat plant (Catha edulis) illustrated the importance of using freshly harvested young shoots and leaves such that cathinone, the principal active component and Schedule I controlled drug contained within the plant, could be suitably isolated and identified.
This study demonstrates that by air drying the young khat shoots at ambient temperature, cathinone may be detected in khat samples that have been harvested for more than 10 days.
Cathinone and cathine are both specifically determined and differentiated by vapor phase infrared detection, which is the method of choice in relation to mass spectrometry.
www.astm.org /JOURNALS/FORENSIC/PAGES/2482.htm   (232 words)

 Cathinone (Khat) and Methcathinone (CAT) in Urine Specimens: A Gas Chromatographic–Mass Spectrometric Detection ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The concentrations were measured by using amphetamine-d6 as internal standard for cathinone and methamphetamine-d9 as internal standard for methcathinone, and were linear over the range of 25–5000 ng/mL for cathinone and 12.5–5000 ng/mL for methcathinone.
The overall recoveries of cathinone and methcathinone were 86 and 78%, respectively.
To verify that the drugs are not metabolites of over-the-counter medications, cathinone and methcathinone were tested in urine specimens collected from individuals who ingested phenylpropanolamine and pseudoephedrine.
www.jatox.com /abstracts/2001/october/525-paul.htm   (250 words)

 Togdheer Online - Khat
The drug cathinone is found in the plant KHAT (Catha edulis).
Cathinone acts as a stimulant to the central nervous system, similar to the effects of amphetamines.
Cathinone may be packaged in plastic bags or wrapped in banana leaves.
www.togdheer.com /khat/cathinone.shtml   (331 words)

 Cathinone - Drug information from Medic8.com
Cathinone (β-ketoamphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (Khat).
Cathinone differs from amphetamine by possessing a ketone oxygen atom (C=O) on the β (beta) position of the side chain.
The biophysiological conversion from cathinone to cathine is to blame for the depotentiation of Khat leaves over time; Fresh leaves have a greater ratio of cathinone to cathine than dried ones, therefore holding a more psychoactive potential.
www.medic8.com /medicines/Cathinone.html   (337 words)

 Maya Ethnobotanicals - View Herb -> Catha edulis (Khat / Ikhambi)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Cathinone, the most potent active principle of Khat, is chemically unstable.
However the federal government appears to be treating Khat as equivalent of Cathinone, one of the chemical constituents in the plant.
Cathinone is Schedule I in the United States, making it illegal to buy, sell or possess.
www.maya-ethnobotanicals.com /product_info.phtml/herbid_318/category_stimulants   (507 words)

 Khat: a potential concern for law enforcement FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,The - Find Articles
The main psychoactive ingredients in khat are cathinone (chemically similar to amphetamine) and cathine.
For instance, the amount of cathinone in khat plants from Kenya may reach 14 percent, while levels in plants from Yemen may be as low as 3.3 percent.
Cathinone stimulates an excessive production of dopamine, which controls feelings of pleasure and happiness, in the human brain.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m2194/is_8_73/ai_n6232021   (870 words)

 Drug Free Workplace - Drugs of Abuse - METHCATHINONE
Methcathinone is one of the more recent drugs of abuse in the United States and was placed into Schedule I of the CSA in 1993.
Known on the streets as "Cat," it is a structural analogue of methamphetamine and cathinone.
Clandestinely manufactured, methcathinone is almost exclusively sold in the stable and highly water soluble hydrochloride salt form.
www.drugfreeworkplace.com /drugsofabuse/METHCATHINONE.htm   (314 words)

 Shaman Australis Botanicals
Catha edulis is consumed for it's stimulating properties, which are mostly due to the alkaloid cathinone.
Cathinone (and also the synthetic methcathinone) are quite unstable in any form other than as a 'strong acid salt' and as such extraction is virtually impossible without total destruction.
The traditional consumption of khat with coffee is not surprising, as cathinone has a similar synergy with caffeine as ephedrine and caffeine - a classic 'herbal ecstasy' mixture.
shaman-australis.com.au /shop/index.php?cPath=21_26_65   (1049 words)

 CORK Bibliography: Khat
Its intoxication is difficult to diagnose and cure properly for two reasons: (i) target consumers are usually "well-educated people" aware of the risks and precautionary measures and (ii) intoxication by cathinone derivatives of synthetic or natural (derived from the khat) origin induce misleading symptoms.
Data synthesis: Data from various studies on cathinone was compared for common themes with regards to its action and similarity with the known mechanism of action of amphetamine.
Maximum concentrations of cathinone, cathine, and norephedrine in urine samples from the study were 2.5, 20, and 30 mg/L, respectively, whereas in authentic cases the concentrations were much higher.
www.projectcork.org /bibliographies/data/Bibliography_Khat.html   (4800 words)

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