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Topic: Caucasian languages

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In the News (Thu 23 May 19)

  Numbers in Over 5000 Languages
Their ears may not be attuned to the language; or there may be dialectal variation, or even sound change.
There is nothing inherent in the language variety to tell us what it is. Linguists sometimes use "language" to refer to a mutually intelligible group of dialects (but note that intelligibility can be partial).
For non-African languages, a macron indicates length and is indicated :.
www.zompist.com /numbers.shtml   (926 words)

  NationMaster - Encyclopedia: South Caucasian languages   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Svan language (lushnu in Svan, svanuri in Georgian), with approximately 15,000 native speakers in the north-western mountainous region of Georgia.
The Svan language (ლუშნუ ნინ, lushnu nin in Svan; სვანური ენა;, svanuri ena in Georgian) is a language spoken in Northwest Georgia.
Georgian is the official language of the republic of Georgia (spoken by 90% of the population of this country), and the main language for literary and business use for all Kartvelian speakers in Georgia.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/South-Caucasian-languages   (1801 words)

 Caucasian languages — FactMonster.com
The Caucasian languages take their name from the Caucasus Mountains, on the slopes of which their original homeland is believed to have been located.
It is a modern representative of the language of the ancient Colchians, of whom the celebrated mythological figure Medea was one.
In general, the Caucasian languages have inflection and tend to be agglutinative in that different linguistic elements, each of which exists separately and has a fixed meaning, are often joined to form one word.
www.factmonster.com /ce6/society/A0810910.html   (406 words)

 Northwest Caucasian languages
The Northwest Caucasian languages or Abkhaz-Adyg languages are a group of languages spoken in the Caucasian part of Russia, in Turkey and in Abkhazia (Autonomous Republic of Georgia).
The basis behind this theory is that, during language evolution, vowel features such as labialisation, pharyngealisation or frontness are removed from the vowels in a root and reassigned instead to the consonants which surround them.
The North-West Caucasian languages are currently undergoing some study as to whether they may share a phyletic link with the Indo-European family, at a time depth of about 12,000 years before the present.
www.guajara.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/n/no/northwest_caucasian_languages_1.html   (736 words)

 Caucasian Languages
The indigenous languages of the Caucasus are known for their complex consonant systems (including ejectives and pharyngeals), complex morphology, and ergativity (identical case or other coding on subjects of intransitive verbs and direct objects of transitives; distinct coding on subjects of transitives).
At present and for all known history and known prehistory, languages with large numbers of speakers have both lowland and highland ranges and a generally elongate vertical distribution; these are economically advantageous and/or culturally prestigious languages that have spread uphill.
Languages with small numbers of speakers, including several one-village languages, are mostly found in the highlands.
popgen.well.ox.ac.uk /eurasia/htdocs/nichols/nichols.html   (1343 words)

 AllRefer.com - Caucasian languages (Language And Linguistics) - Encyclopedia
The Caucasian languages take their name from the Caucasus Mountains, on the slopes of which their original homeland is believed to have been located.
It is a modern representative of the language of the ancient Colchians, of whom the celebrated mythological figure Medea was one.
In general, the Caucasian languages have inflection and tend to be agglutinative in that different linguistic elements, each of which exists separately and has a fixed meaning, are often joined to form one word.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/C/CaucasLan.html   (461 words)

 Caucasus Foundation
Along with the consonants that occur in all the Caucasian languages, the Abkhazo-Adyghian languages are characterized by different sets of labialized consonants (formed by rounding the lips), strong (hard or tense) consonants, half-hushing consonants, and velarized consonants (formed with the back of the tongue approaching the soft palate).
The consonant systems of the Nakh languages are relatively simple, coinciding, on the whole, with those of the South Caucasian languages (apart from a number of pharyngeal consonants characteristic of all the Nakh languages and a lateral sound peculiar to Bats).
All the Caucasian languages have a series of stops of three types--voiced, voiceless aspirated, and glottalized (i.e., pronounced, respectively, with vibrating vocal cords; with vocal cords not vibrating but with an accompanying audible puff of breath; and with accompanying closure of the glottis [space between the vocal cords]).
www.kafkas.org.tr /english/kultur/diledebiyat.html   (2513 words)

 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Northwest Caucasian languages have been suggested as being related to the Northeast Caucasian languages and both are often merged under the blanket term "North Caucasian languages"; several linguists, notably Sergei Starostin, posit a phylogenetic link between these two families.
Some consider the proposed North Caucasian family to be a member of the Dene-Caucasian macrofamily; however, the Dene-Caucasian hypothesis is itself unproven and highly controversial, and attempts to categorize Abkhaz as a Dene-Caucasian language are thus premature.
Also, sometimes the North Caucasian families are grouped with the South Caucasian languages into a pan-Caucasian or Ibero-Caucasian macrofamily, but these have not been shown conclusively to be related and are widely considered to be a geographically based convention.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Abkhaz_language   (1039 words)

 North Caucasian languages
The Northeast Caucasian languages are characterised by extraordinary complexity in the noun: the example of Tabasaran has been noted, where a series of locative cases intersect with a series of suffixes designating motion with regard to the location, producing an array of some 48 locative suffixes (often incorrectly described as noun cases).
However, the verbal complex in the Northwest Caucasian phylum is astonishing in its complexity: the subject, the direct object, the indirect object, benefactive objects and most local functions are expressed in the verb.
The extremes of phonology found in these languages - Ubykh (Northwest) has 80 consonants, and Archi is thought to have 76 - as well as the grammatical extremes in the languages appear to back this up, but the issue is still contentious.
www.xasa.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/n/no/north_caucasian_languages.html   (286 words)

 Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > South Caucasian languages
The South Caucasian languages or Kartvelian languages are a family of languages, spoken mainly in Georgia
There is some ongoing work on the possible genetic relationship between speakers of South Caucasian languages and the Basque language, and some recent theories propose a phyletic link between Proto-South Caucasian and Proto-Indo-European.
While the South Caucasian languages share SOV word order with Basque, as well as an ergative case, the application of the ergative is somewhat different between the two families.
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/so/South_Caucasian_languages   (150 words)

 Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Caucasian languages
The family of Caucasian languages comprise two unrelated families of languages, spoken in the Caucasus, Eastern Europe, together with representatives of Indo-European and Altaic.
Generally, the former are spoken south of the Caucasus and the latter north of the Caucasus watershed.
All of these language families are characterised by an ergative system; also, they tend to be verb-focused, with much information about nouns encoded in the verb.
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/ca/Caucasian_languages   (284 words)

 Science Fair Projects - Northeast Caucasian languages
The Northeast Caucasian languages, also called East Caucasian, Caspian, or Dagestan, are a family of languages spoken mostly in Dagestan, Northern Azerbaijan and Georgia.
This family is known for the complex phonology (up to 60 consonants or up to 30 vowels in some languages), stop consonants, noun classes, ergative sentence structure, and large number of noun cases, including several locative cases.
Some scholars see affinities between the Northeast Caucasian languages and the Hurro-Urartian languages, an extinct language family of the Ancient Near East which comprises only two languages, Hurrian and Urartian, and place them together in the Alarodian family.
www.all-science-fair-projects.com /science_fair_projects_encyclopedia/Northeast_Caucasian_languages   (390 words)

 South Caucasian languages - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The South Caucasian languages, also called the Kartvelian languages, are spoken primarily in Georgia, with smaller groups of speakers in Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan, Russia, Ukraine and other countries.
Georgian is also the secondary spoken language and the main literary language for Svan and Megrelian speakers, and for the Laz in Georgia.
They are believed to have split off from a single proto-Kartvelian language, probably spoken in the region of present-day Georgia and Northern Turkey in the 3rd-2nd millenniums BC.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/South_Caucasian_languages   (473 words)

 Languages : Caucasian Family
The Caucasian Family family is named after the Caucas Mountains between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
The languages are dominated by difficult consonant clusters.
Note that in the USA the word Caucasian is used to mean "white Anglo-Saxon" rather than people from the Caucus mountains.
www.krysstal.com /langfams_caucas.html   (210 words)

 Pimsleur languages
The Chinese language, spoken in the form of Standard Mandarin, is the official language of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China on Taiwan, as well as one of four official languages of Singapore, and one of six official languages of the United Nations.
Italian is the official language of Italy and San Marino, and is an official language in Ticino and Grigioni cantons of Switzerland.
Standard Swedish is the national language that evolved from the Central Swedish dialects in the 19th century and was well-established by the beginning of the 20th century.
pimsleur.english-test.net /pimsleur-languages.html   (6049 words)

 Project on Endangered Languages in South Caucasus: UNESCO-CI
Due to the assimilation of small ethnic groups, their languages are endangered and soon this and their cultural legacy could disappear.
Unfortunately these alone cannot preserve and relate the natural and audio specificity of the language (accents, intonation, pronunciation) or adequately convey to the public their importance as examples of humanities patrimony.
This project will then support the survival and preservation of endangered languages in the Caucasian region by capturing sound recording of Abkhazian, Bats and Laz native speakers, thereby preserving the linguistic and cultural heritage for future generations.
portal.unesco.org /ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=16588&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html   (599 words)

 Caucasian Language Family
Caucasian languages are usually grouped into geographically based groups.
Even though many of these languages have sizable populations of fluent speakers, the combination of bilingualism in Russian, restrictions imposed by former Soviet government policies, and lack of educational and employment opportunities in these languages may signal the end of the road for many of them.
Most Caucasian languages have a wealth of consonants including velar, uvular, pharyngeal, and glottal and ejective sounds.
www.nvtc.gov /lotw/months/march/CaucasianLanguageFamily.html   (547 words)

 ArcNews Spring 2006 Issue -- Preserving the World's Dying Languages with GIS
With languages such as Mandarin Chinese and English, taken together, currently being spoken by almost 1.5 billion people throughout the world, it is difficult to imagine them as linguistic communities within the village or tribal context.
The number of languages is too great, and the map scale and page size restrict the amount of printed information that can be included on the map and still remain intelligible to the reader.
The university hopes to expand the database to include all the languages currently spoken in the Caucasus, which would allow comparative historical studies of the area, such as tracing the traditional migratory patterns of the people of the region through their languages.
www.esri.com /news/arcnews/spring06articles/preserving-the-worlds.html   (923 words)

 Ossetic language
Ossetic or Ossetian (in Ossetic: or) is a language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia.
In contrast with Ossetian, the Iranian languages of the Caucasus Jewish refugees from Persia Tati and Persian settlers Talyshi are IE flexitive type languages.
The closest genetically related with agglutinating Ossetian language are Kartvellian languages, with which Ossetian is sharing phonetics, morphology, lexicon, semantics and syntax, but claimed to be the IE flexitive Yaghnobi language of Tajikistan, the only other living member of the Northeastern Iranian branch.
www.dejavu.org /cgi-bin/get.cgi?ver=93&url=http%3A%2F%2Farticles.gourt.com%2Fen%2FOssetic   (1334 words)

 caucasian languages
The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called Pontic, Abkhaz-Adyghe, or Circassian, are a group of languages spoken in the Caucasus region,...
Nichols: An overview of languages of the Caucasus ·; The Caucasian Languages EB Caucasus Foundation: North Caucasian languages...
Caucasian languages Group of languages spoken in the Caucasus region that are not members of any language families spoken elsewhere in the world.
www.startupaudio.it /search/Caucasian-languages.htm   (276 words)

 Evertype: The Alphabets of Europe
The exclusion of such languages from this report is not intended to imply any bias whatsoever against such “immigrant” languages or their speakers.
For each language, first the name of the language is given in English, followed by the original name of the language in its natural spelling, with a transliteration into Latin letters in parentheses where the original language does not use the Latin script.
In some cases, especially in the case of the “lesser-used” languages, this information may have been inferred from the preferred quotation marks used by a “dominant” language in the area in which the “lesser-used” language is found.
www.evertype.com /alphabets   (3504 words)

 North-West Caucasian@Everything2.com
A language family in the Caucasus Mountains, in the far south of European Russia and a neighbouring region of Georgia.
One striking feature of NWC is that the languages are very rich in consonants and very poor in vowels.
Adyge even has pharyngeal stops, which I have never heard of in a language: there is no phonetic symbol for them in the IPA and I certainly couldn't produce them myself.
www.everything2.com /index.pl?node=North-West%20Caucasian   (768 words)

 Science Fair Projects - Ibero-Caucasian languages
The Ibero-Caucasian group would also include the extinct languages Hattic, Hurrian and Urartian, which have been connected by some linguists to the Northwest and Northeast families.
The name "Iberian" refers to Caucasian Iberia, a kingdom centered in Eastern Georgia which lasted from the 4th century BC to the 5th century AD, and is not related to the Iberian Peninsula.
Because of its historical connections to the country of Georgia, the use of "Iberian" to refer to the four language families is deprecated by some speakers of those languages.
www.all-science-fair-projects.com /science_fair_projects_encyclopedia/Ibero-Caucasian_languages   (353 words)

They are usually classified into three groups: Northwestern, or Abkhazo-Adyghian; Northeastern or Dagestanian (possibly of common ancestry with the Northwestern group); and Southern or Kartvelian, the leading member of which is Georgian, the language of Georgia and neighboring areas.
Caucasian languages tend to be agglutinative in type and show some inflection, but the three groups vary strikingly in their grammar and word formation.
In general these languages are characterized by combinations of consonants, especially of gutturals and sibilants, that are difficult to pronounce.
www.history.com /encyclopedia.do?vendorId=FWNE.fw..ca072000.a#FWNE.fw..ca072000.a   (469 words)

 Euskal Herria Journal | Basque Language and Culture   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Basque is the sole surviving non-Indo-European language in Western Europe, it is classified as a language isolate.
Estonian, Finnish and Saami (Lapp) are languages belonging to the Finnic branch of Finno-Ugric, Hungarian represents Ugric.
Remember there is no single language family „Caucasian“, but that we have to distinguish sharply between the South Caucasian language family on the one hand and the North Caucasian family on the other hand.
www.ehj-navarre.org /blessons/mowstr.html   (6025 words)

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