The northwest-southeast-trending Caucasus Mountains extend from the eastern shores of the Black Sea to the southwest coast of the Caspian Sea.
On the south slopes of the Caucasus Mountains and in the valleys immediately south of the mountains are the three political entities of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan.
The light blue, elongated lake in the valley immediately south of the mountains near the southeastern edge of the photograph is Lake Mingechaur in Azerbaijan; the darker blue lake in the next valley to the south is Lake Sevan in Armenia.
Brzezinski gave this Keynote Address at a recent conference entitled, "The Caucasus: Choosing Conciliation over Confrontation." This event was sponsored by the U.S.-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce and was held in Washington, D.C., on March 26, 1997.
Our task as Westerners in regard to the Caucasus must be to ascertain that the forces of national identity are channeled into constructive directions that, over time, contribute to regional cooperation which will strengthen the identity, continuity and survival of these nations.
In the case of the Caucasus, however, these republics still remain extremely vulnerable to external pressures in spite of their independence.
Climate throughout the region is variable, with annual rainfall ranging from as little as 150 millimeters in the eastern part of the hotspot on the Caspian Coast to more than 4,000 millimeters in the coastal mountains along the Black Sea.
There are two refugia of Tertiary flora in the region: the Colchis in the catchment basin of the Black Sea, and the Hyrcanian in the extreme southeastern end of the Caucasus on the Caspian Sea coast.
The Caucasus form a chain of high, alpine mountains separating the Republic of Georgia from that of Russia to the north.
This is the most important and best developed valley in the Caucasus, partly because of the mineral wealth located near Tyrnyauz and partly on account of Elbrus and the hundreds of magnificent mountains which comprise it's watershed.
Unlike the Alps the snow in the Caucasus is virtually guaranteed, there is good powder to be found late into the season and the season is long.
This settlement was an important administrative and economic centre in the north of the Urartu Kingdom.
A number of accidental finds in various parts of the Caucasus, relating to the last centuries BC and first centuries AD, reveal an obvious connection between these regions and Oriental and Western cultures.
The most valuable objects are a textile showing Bahram Gur (burial ground at the site of Moshchevaya Balka, Kuban Region), and a fragment of a pile carpet found in a burial ground near the town of Kislovodsk.
The Caucasus is a biological refuge zone in which species found nowhere else are native, and it is known for its ecological and biological diversity.
It probably dispersed in the southeastern foothills of the Caucasus, near the Caspian Sea and in present-day Azerbaijan.
The indigenous languages of the Caucasus are known for their complex consonant systems (including ejectives and pharyngeals), complex morphology, and ergativity (identical case or other coding on subjects of intransitive verbs and direct objects of transitives; distinct coding on subjects of transitives).
The Regional Environmental Centre for the Caucasus(Site not responding. Last check: )
REC Caucasus assists the Caucasus states in solving environmental problems and supports in building the civil society through promotion of public participation in the decision-making process, development of free exchange of information and encouragement of cooperation at national and regional level among NGOs, governments, businesses, local communities and all other stakeholders.
The founding document of REC Caucasus - its Charter - was signed in September, 1999 by the governments of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and the European Union.
Later in 1999 the Foundation Charter of the Regional Environmental Centre for the Caucasus was signed by European Union and the countries of the South Caucasus represented by the authorized delegates of the ministries of environments.
The workshop encouraged and facilitated continued cooperative activities among the library associations in the South Caucasusregion at this critical early stage of development and helped librarians work together to promote the role of libraries in society in ensuring an informed citizenry.
ALA and the three South Caucasus library associations are seeking additional support from the U.S. State Department and other funders to sustain and expand their activities.
ALA organized a three-day regional workshop "Strengthening Library Associations in the South Caucasus: a Regional Workshop" that was held in Tbilisi, May 5-8, 2001 in collaboration with the Armenian Library Association, the Azerbaijan Library Association, and the Association of Information Specialists (Georgia).
Anatolia and the Caucasus, 80002000 B.C. | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art(Site not responding. Last check: )
The Shulaveri-Shomu and other Neolithic/Chalcolithic cultures of the Southern Caucasus use local obsidian for tools, raise animals such as cattle and pigs, and grow crops, including grapes.
At least in the Caucasus Mountains, these people probably herd cattle.
In the best known of these elite tombs, a person is buried under a canopy held up by poles topped by gold and silver bull figurines that appear similar in artistic conception to some standards from the burials of Alaca Höyük in Central Anatolia.
Energy priorities of the Caucasus countries, therefore, are two-fold: to diversify their energy supplies; and to cash in on transit revenues as their neighbors develop export facilities which traverse their territory.
In the Southern CaucasusArmenia remains a close ally of Russia, whereas Georgia and Azerbaijan increasingly cooperate with NATO and other international organisations, distancing themselves from Russia.
Georgia and Azerbaijan on NATO's role in the Caucasus at the meeting of the EAPC on December 15th, 2000 and references to NATO in the
In the Caucasus - and generally in the Caspian area - the objective of the U.S. until recently was primarily to maintain access to the region, particularly to its oil and gas resources, while at the same time avoiding involvement in regional conflicts or direct confrontation with other major powers.
The major threats to biodiversity in the region are illegal logging, fuel wood harvesting, and the timber trade; overgrazing; poaching and illegal wildlife trade; overfishing; infrastructure development; and pollution of rivers and wetlands.
As a result, CEPF investment in the Caucasus is focused on conserving the hotspot's globally threatened species, the majority of which are found in specific sites in five target conservation corridors: Greater Caucasus, Caspian, West Lesser Caucasus, East Lesser Caucasus, and Hyrcan.
It is possible that the Mountain Jews are descendants of Persian-Jewish soldiers who were stationed in the Caucasus by the Sasanian kings in the fifth or sixth century to protect the area from the onslaughts of the Huns and other nomadic invaders from the east.
It is thought that the Jewish Tats of the Caucasus are their direct descendants; however, this remains not very likely because the Tats speak an Iranian language.
And most of the Khazars who remained in the Caucasus after the 10th century are known to have been forced into Islam, leaving us with the more likely scenario that the Turkic groups of the North Caucasus who are Muslims, such as Karachays and Kumukhs, are partly descended from the Khazars.