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Topic: Caudal

In the News (Wed 24 Apr 19)

  BioMed Central | Full text | Prenatal diagnosis of Caudal Regression Syndrome : a case report
Caudal regression is a rare syndrome which has a spectrum of congenital malformations ranging from simple anal atresia to absence of sacral, lumbar and possibly lower thoracic vertebrae, to the most severe form which is known as sirenomelia.
Caudal regression syndrome is an uncommon malformation in the general population, but occurs in about one in 350 infants of diabetic mothers, representing an increase of about 200-fold over the rate seen in the general population [2].
Orthopedic, gastrointestinal, genitourinary and cardiac anomalies are associated with caudal regression syndrome [11].
www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2393/1/8   (1291 words)

 Caudal epidural block versus other methods of postoperative pain relief for circumcision in boys
Circumcision is a commonly performed surgical procedure in boys and caudal analgesia is frequently used to minimize discomfort of penile surgery postoperatively.
Published randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials in which postoperative analgesia by caudal epidural block is compared with a non-caudal method of analgesia, in boys whose mean age is between 28 days and 16 years, having elective surgery for circumcision.
Although the need for rescue analgesia is reduced in the early postoperative period when caudal is compared with parenteral analgesia,evidence from trials may no longer reflect current practice and is limited by small numbers and poor methodology.
www.cochrane.org /reviews/en/ab003005.html   (583 words)

  Caudal Regression Syndrome,Caudal Dysplasia,Caudal Dysplasia Sequence,Sacral Agenesis, Congenital,Sacral Regression   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Caudal Regression Syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by abnormal development of the lower spine end of the developing fetus.
Caudal regression syndrome describes a spectrum of congenital malformations that range from simple anal atresia to absence of the sacral, lumbar and possibly lower thoracic vertebrae, to the most severe form with fusion of the lower extremities, also known as sirenomelia, or "mermaid syndrome".
Caudal regression syndrome is a rare congenital defect, characterized by the absence of the sacrum, and defects of variable portions of lumbar spine, associated with anomalies from different systems.
www.icomm.ca /geneinfo/crs.htm   (1327 words)

Caudal to the chiasm are the optic tracts, which are part of the ventral surface of the brain.
Caudal to the vestibulocochlear nerve you may see another light tuft of nerves that are made up of the glossopharyngeal nerve(IX) blending into the more caudal vagus nerve (X).
Carefully separate the caudal part of the cerebellum from the medulla; as you lift the cerebellum the arachnoid will rupture, and you should be able to see yet another membrane (or fragments of it); this is the tela chorioidea, forming the posterior roof of the 4th ventricle.
www.neurophys.wisc.edu /phys675lab/sheep_brain_dissection.htm   (3658 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Caudal to the focal lesion, white matter degeneration is limited to the descending spinal cord tracts in the ventral funiculi and deep portions of the lateral funiculi.
This pattern of noninflammatory degeneration of ascending neurons cranial to the spinal cord injury and descending neurons caudal to the injury is explained by wallerian degeneration of the axon and its myelin that occurs in the segment of the neuron separated from its cell body.
Trotter EJ, deLahunta A: Caudal cervical vertebral malformation-malarticulation.
cal.vet.upenn.edu /saortho/chapter_63/63mast.htm   (10832 words)

 Caudal Epidural Anaesthesia (page 1)
Caudal anaesthesia has been used for many years and is the easiest and safest approach to the epidural space.
However in the very young a caudal block may be adequate to carry out urgent procedures such as reduction of incarcerated hernias, allowing return of normal bowel function prior to surgical repair.
It is this difference that gives rise to the predictability of caudal local anaesthetic spread in children and its unpredictability in adults.
www.nda.ox.ac.uk /wfsa/html/u08/u08_011.htm   (813 words)

 Livebearers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The caudal fin is straight-edged with a vertical fl band followed by a green band.
Its caudal fin is dark orange, as is the dorsal fin.
Its caudal fin is edged with fl, and the dorsal fin has fl vertical stripes.
www.aqualink.com /catalogs/xlivebea.html   (1568 words)

 TheFetus.net - Caudal regression syndrome -Sandra R Silva, MD & Philippe Jeanty, MD, PhD
Definition: Caudal regression syndrome is a rare congenital defect, characterized by the absence of the sacrum, and defects of variable portions of lumbar spine, associated with anomalies from different systems.
Pathogenesis: Disruption of the maturation of the caudal portion of the spinal cord complex prior to 4 weeks gestation, leading to motricity deficits and neurologic impairment, varying from incontinence of urine and feces to complete neurologic loss.
Caudal regression syndrome and sirenomelia in ultrasound of fetal syndromes - Churchill Livingstone — New York — 1998, 250-254.
www.thefetus.net /page.php?id=94   (803 words)

 Roleof Caudal, Pudendal and Paracervical blocks
Caudal epidurals in labour have become less popular because better perineal analgesia can be achieved by the use of epidural infusions and primigravidae are more likely to receive an epidural block.
If used for perineal anaesthesia only, caudal block is a useful, safe technique for experienced anaesthetists provided that the volume of local anaesthetic is limited to a maximum of 10 mls, injected slowly (with multiple aspirations).
In most Australian hospitals, caudal blocks are being used less frequently in labour as the number of spinals has increased ( Table 2.1).
www.manbit.com /OA/c2.htm   (740 words)

 Radiology of the Equine Lungs and Thorax
The dorsal caudal projection (A) is most representative of the systemic lung and combined with the ventral caudal projection (C) the majority of pulmonary and thoracic disease is seen.
A left lateral radiograph of the dorsal caudal quadrant of the thorax of a foal with an unusual cardiac anomaly and pulmonary edema.
The pulmonary veins are seen as they return to the caudal margin of the heart, converging into the cardiac opacity in the angle formed by the CVC ventrally and the pulmonary arteries dorsally.
www.ivis.org /special_books/Lekeux/tucker/chapter_frm.asp?LA=1   (10170 words)

 Differential pattern of spinal sympathetic outflow in response to stimulation of the caudal medullary raphe -- Larsen ...
the medullary raphe, on the midline, 1 mm caudal to the obex,
the dorsal surface at 0-2 mm caudal to the obex (on the midline)
Caudal ventrolateral medullary neurons are elements of the network responsible for the 10-Hz rhythm in sympathetic nerve discharge.
ajpregu.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/279/1/R210   (6337 words)

 Proteolipid Protein Gene Mutation Induces Altered Ventilatory Response to Hypoxia in the Myelin-Deficient Rat -- Miller ...
Neurons were stained throughout the caudal brainstem at the level of the area postrema in the wild-type rat ( A) and MD rat ( B).
Myelination and expression of PLP in neurons in the caudal medulla
In the caudal medulla, at the level of the area postrema, NMDA NR -reactive neurons were observed in the nucleus tractus solitarius, hypoglossal nucleus, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus ( A).
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/23/6/2265   (5700 words)

 Extent and Role of Multisegmental Coupling in the Lamprey Spinal Locomotor Pattern Generator -- Miller and Sigvardt 83 ...
output of the rostral and caudal regions of the spinal cord.
Rostral and caudal mean phase variability increased together until 16 segments were blocked, at which point the increase in the caudal variability was significantly greater than that for the rostral end ( P < 0.027).
Buchanan, J. Identification of interneurons with contralateral, caudal axons in the lamprey spinal cord: synaptic interactions and morphology.
jn.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/83/1/465   (7777 words)

 Developmental Aspects and Mechanisms of Rat Caudal Hypothalamic Neuronal Responses to Hypoxia -- Horn et al. 81 (4): ...
Developmental aspects and mechanisms of rat caudal hypothalamic neuronal responses to hypoxia.
Caudal hypothalamic slices of both neonatal and juvenile rats were prepared as in the preceding section.
Because the characteristics of this response in caudal
jn.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/81/4/1949   (5535 words)

 Caudal Block
Sacral Hiatus is more difficult to identify and the caudal space is more difficult to enter with increasing age as the sacral bones begin to fuse.
The caudal epidural space is the lowest portion of the epidural system and is entered through the sacral hiatus.
Drugs used for Caudal injection should come from single use ampoules and be preservative free.
www.pitt.edu /~regional/Caudal/caudal_block.htm   (1032 words)

 Damsel Fish Index
The caudal fin is has fl lobes and a colorless center.
The pelvic, pectoral and anal fins are brown and the dorsal fin is edged in brown.
The caudal fin and tail base is bright yellow with a colorless edge.
www.aqualink.com /catalogs/ydamsel.html   (1482 words)

 Caudal Regression   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Urodynamic Evaluation of Children with the Caudal Regression Syndrome, Boemers et al, The Journal of Urology, Vol.
MR of the Caudal Regression Syndrome:Embryologic Implications, Nievelstein et al, American Society of Neuroradiology, June 1994.
Caudal Regression Syndrome: The Urologic Implications, Rubenstein et al, The Journal of Urology, Vol 114, December 1975.
www.pullthrough.org /ptnn24.html   (782 words)

 MT2 Melatonin Receptors Are Present and Functional in Rat Caudal Artery -- Masana et al. 302 (3): 1295 -- Journal of ...
P-labeled antisense oligonucleotides specific for the MT melatonin receptor to rat caudal artery sections in the absence (A) or presence of unlabeled heterologous MT (C) or homologous MT sense oligonucleotides.
P-labeled antisense oligonucleotides specific for the MT melatonin receptor to rat caudal artery sections in the absence (B) or presence of unlabeled heterologous MT (D) or homologous MT sense oligonucleotides.
Hybridization signal specific for the MT melatonin receptor was found in the three layers of the rat caudal artery.
jpet.aspetjournals.org /cgi/content/full/302/3/1295   (4661 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The caudal cruciate ligament passes caudodistally to the medial aspect of the popliteal notch of the tibia ( Fig.
The caudal cruciate ligament functions to prevent caudal displacement of the tibia on the femur and, in conjunction with cranial cruciate ligament, limits excessive internal rotation of the tibia on the femur.
The caudal horn of the lateral meniscus is also attached to the lateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle by means of the femoral ligament of the lateral meniscus.
cal.vet.upenn.edu /saortho/chapter_80/80mast.htm   (8943 words)

 [No title]
The level of activation caused by mouse Cdx2 (P43241) is affected by phosphorylation at serine 60 via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway [1].
Caudal family proteins are involved in the transcriptional regulation of multiple genes expressed in the intestinal epithelium, and are important in differentiation and maintenance of the intestinal epithelial lining.
Caudal proteins always have a homeobox DNA binding domain (IPR001356).
www.ebi.ac.uk /interpro/IEntry?ac=IPR006820   (180 words)

 Subcutaneous Tunneling of Caudal Catheters Reduces the Rate of Bacterial Colonization to That of Lumbar Epidural ...
Subcutaneous Tunneling of Caudal Catheters Reduces the Rate of Bacterial Colonization to That of Lumbar Epidural Catheters -- Bubeck et al.
untunneled caudal catheters, 11% in tunneled caudal catheters,
of tunneled and untunneled caudal epidural catheters and lumbar
www.anesthesia-analgesia.org /cgi/content/abstract/99/3/689   (230 words)

 Developing with lethal RA levels: genetic ablation of Rarg can restore the viability of mice lacking Cyp26a1 -- ...
with spina bifida, imperforate anus, agenesis of the caudal
Cyp26a1 and Rarg are co-expressed in embryonic caudal tissues
sacral and 15 ossified caudal vertebrae, whereas wild-type littermates ( Fig.
dev.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/130/7/1449   (5743 words)

 Mouths & Caudal Fins   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The caudal, or tail, fin is responsible for propulsion in most bony fish.
Fish with continuous caudal fins (dorsal, caudal, and anal fins attached) are able to swim in and around cracks and crevices.
Fish with lunate caudal fins tend to be the fastest fishes and maintain a rapid speed for long durations.
www.seaworld.org /aquademics/tetra/scienceworksheet5.htm   (111 words)

 Embryonic Gut Anomalies in a Mouse Model of Retinoic Acid-Induced Caudal Regression Syndrome : Delayed Gut Looping, ...
F: Saggital vibratome section through the caudal extremity of the gut in the anorectal region shown with arrow in D showing normally developed rectum after immunostaining with Hoxb5.
Caudal extremity of the large intestine as in I shown by an asterisk.
of the caudal ileum adjacent to the cecum.
ajp.amjpathol.org /cgi/content/full/159/6/2321   (6152 words)

 Continuous caudal anesthesia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
An important breakthrough in the management of childbirth pain was the introduction of continuous caudal analgesia in 1942 by W.B. Edwards and R.A. Hingson who taught at Philadelphia General Hospital.
Continuous caudal analgesia-anesthesia could be given to control pain during the various stages of labor, delivery, or Caesarean section.
It was administered into the sacral canal through a silver malleable needle to which a rubber tubing and syringe were connected.
www.obgyn.upenn.edu /History/caudal.html   (92 words)

 Two tcf3 genes cooperate to pattern the zebrafish brain -- Dorsky et al. 130 (9): 1937 -- Development
caudalizing activity gradient in the anterior neural plate.
of the caudalizing activity gradient in the neurectoderm.
Arrowheads in E define the caudal limit of pax6 in the forebrain and rostral limit of pax6 in the hindbrain.
dev.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/130/9/1937   (6980 words)

 External Livebearer Anatomy Refresher
Some fishes, for instance lack certain fins or have an extra one (such as the adipose fin of tetras, which is between the dorsal and caudal fins).
The accompanying illustration should assist in locating many of the various parts (please note that it's of a goldfish which is NOT a livebearer and NOT in the family Pociliidae).
caudal peduncle - section of body between the vent and the caudal fin.
www.interaktv.com /fishanat/basic_fish_anatomy.html   (814 words)

 The Human Tail, and Other Tales of Evolution by David Menton
Ledley strongly implied that this growth (called a caudal appendage) was essentially a "human tail," though he admitted that it had virtually none of the distinctive biological characteristics of a tail!
In fact, the caudal appendage Ledley described is merely a fatty outgrowth of skin that wasn't located in the right place on the back to be a tail!
Still, Ledley saw his caudal appendage as providing compelling proof for the evolution of man from our monkey-like ancestors.
www.gennet.org /facts/metro07.html   (1142 words)

 Definition of caudal - Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
Learn more about "caudal" and related topics at Britannica.com
Find more about "caudal" instantly with Live Search
See a map of "caudal" in the Visual Thesaurus
www.m-w.com /cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=caudal   (60 words)

 Fin Rot Regeneration
Tattered appearance to dorsal, anal, and caudal fins is due to "fin rot" which developed
Discus was treated for degenerating fins at that time - lesions healed and fish regained health quickly and grew to ~5.5" total length but it never lost the tattered appearance to its fins.
caudal fin split to ~1.5cm from caudal peduncle - "forked"
article.dphnet.com /cat-02/fin-rot-1.shtml   (84 words)

 The Caudal homeodomain protein activates Drosophila E2F gene expression -- Hwang et al. 30 (23): 5029 -- Nucleic Acids ...
Incubation was in the dark at 37°C. Potential Caudal recognition sequences in the 5'-flanking region of the Drosophila E2F gene
Radiolabeled double-stranded E2F-Cad oligonucleotides were incubated with 20 µg of GST-Cad in the presence or absence of the indicated competitor oligonucleotides.
Mlodzik,M. and Gehring,W.J. (1987) Expression of the caudal gene in the germ line of Drosophila : formation of an RNA and protein gradient during early embryogenesis.
nar.oupjournals.org /cgi/content/full/30/23/5029   (4125 words)

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