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Topic: Cell wall

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  Cell wall - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cells interact though plasmodesma(ta), which are inter-connecting channels of cytoplasm that connect to the protoplasts of adjacent cells across the cell wall.
Cell walls of bacteria are primarily used for protection against hostile environments or, in the case of pathogenic bacteria, against the immune system of the host.
The cell walls of bacteria are also vital for containing the high osmotic pressure inside bacterial cells caused by the high concentration of solutes in the cytoplasm.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cell_wall   (1012 words)

 Cell (biology) - MSN Encarta
The smallest cell, a type of bacterium known as a mycoplasma, measures 0.0001 mm (0.000004 in) in diameter; 10,000 mycoplasmas in a row are only as wide as the diameter of a human hair.
Prokaryotic cells are among the tiniest of all cells, ranging in size from 0.0001 to 0.003 mm (0.000004 to 0.0001 in) in diameter.
The extraordinary biochemical diversity of prokaryotic cells is manifested in the wide-ranging lifestyles of the archaebacteria and the bacteria, whose habitats include polar ice, deserts, and hydrothermal vents—deep regions of the ocean under great pressure where hot water geysers erupt from cracks in the ocean floor.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761568585/Cell_(biology).html   (2373 words)

 Cell Wall
The plant cell wall is a remarkable structure.
When the cell is fully grown, it may retain its primary wall, sometimes thickening it, or it may deposit new layers of a different material, called the secondary cell wall.
Despite the rigidity of the cell wall, chemical signals and cellular excretions are allowed to pass between cells.
library.thinkquest.org /C004535/cell_wall.html   (227 words)

 Plant cell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A cell wall made up of cellulose and protein, and in many cases lignin, and deposited by the protoplast on the outside of the cell membrane.
This contrasts with the cell walls of fungi, which are made of chitin, and prokaryotes, which are made of peptidoglycan.
The three distinct types of plant cells are classified according to the structure of their cell walls and features of their protoplast.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Plant_cell   (408 words)

 Cell Wall
The primary purpose of the cell wall is to provide structure and protect the protoplasm from damage caused by moving.
Cell walls in plants are also used to store carbohydrates (they are primarily a carbohydrate polymer called cellulose) and protect from disease.
Fungal cell walls are similar to plant cell walls in that they contain cellulose, but they also contain glucosamine and chitin, both common supplements in herbal remedies for arthritis.
www.iscid.org /encyclopedia/Cell_Wall   (277 words)

 The Bacterial Cell Wall   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The bacterial cell wall is a unique structure which surrounds the cell membrane.
The cell walls of all bacteria are not identical.
It is a phospholipid bilayer construction similar to that in the cell membrane and is attached to the peptidoglycan by lipoproteins.
medic.med.uth.tmc.edu /path/00001438.htm   (455 words)

 Cell walls   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Cell walls are the feature of almost all plant cells.
The secondary wall is thick and rigid being composed of parallel layers of cellulose microfibrils.
The primary walls of adjacent cells are "cemented" together by a common layer, the middle lamella, which consists of pectin, a complex carbohydrate and some protein.
www.botany.uwc.ac.za /sci_ed/grade10/cells/walls.htm   (172 words)

 Botany online: Cell Wall
The structure of cell walls could well be compared to that of reinforced concrete: the scaffolding substance, cellulose in plants, iron in concrete is embedded in an amorphous ground substance, the matrix.
The early stage of the new cell wall is the cell plate, a lamella-like structure in the former equatorial plane of the mitotic apparatus.
While the primary wall structure is the same in nearly all cell types and species, are cell type and species-specific differences typical for the secondary cell wall.
www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de /b-online/e26/26.htm   (396 words)

 Life Science Safari - Cell Wall
The cell wall is a rigid structure outside the cell membrane
The cell wall is a rigid structure outside the cell membrane that supports and protects the cell (for plants, fungi, and some protists and bacteria).
The cell wall is made of tough cellulose fibers and other materials made by the cell.
vilenski.org /science/safari/cellstructure/cellwall.html   (61 words)

 Cell Wall Genomics - Techniques
A secondary concern in cell wall isolation is to not lose some of the less tenaciously held components, such as acidic and neutral pI proteins and water-soluble pectins.
Thus, cell wall isolation techniques vary depending on whether the carbohydrates or the proteins/active enzymes are the target material.
The cell wall milieu is mildly acidic and buffered between pH 4.5-5.5, depending on growth status.
cellwall.genomics.purdue.edu /techniques/1.html   (833 words)

 Plant Cell Wall Basics
In addtion we are studying the role of the cell wall as a source of biological active molecules and as a barrier to plant pathogens.
Thus, cell wall structure and organization is of interest to the plant scientist, the food processing industry and the nutritionist.
Primary walls isolated form higher plant tissues and cells are composed predominantly of polysaccharides together with lesser amounts of structural glycoproteins (hydroxyproline-rich extensins), phenolic esters (ferulic and coumaric acids), ionically and covalently bound minerals (e.g.
www.ccrc.uga.edu /~mao/intro/ouline.htm   (993 words)

 What is a Cell
The simplest of cells, and the first types of cells to evolve, were prokaryotic cells—organisms that lack a nuclear membrane, the membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a cell.
The cells may be adjacent to one another because they did not separate after cell division or because they remained enclosed in a common sheath or slime secreted by the cells.
Prokaryotic cells have three architectural regions: appendages called flagella and pili—proteins attached to the cell surface; a cell envelope consisting of a capsule, a cell wall, and a plasma membrane; and a cytoplasmic region that contains the cell genome (DNA) and ribosomes and various sorts of inclusions.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /About/primer/genetics_cell.html   (8545 words)

 Bacterial Cell Model
DNA in the bacterial cell is generally confined to this central region.
Though it isn't bounded by a membrane, it is visibly distinct (by transmission microscopy) from the rest of the cell interior.
This layer of polysaccharide (sometimes proteins) protects the bacterial cell and is often associated with pathogenic bacteria because it serves as a barrier against phagocytosis by white blood cells.
www.cellsalive.com /cells/bactcell.htm   (454 words)

 Cell wall - Simple English Wikipedia
A cell wall is the wall of a plant cell.
It is also there to make the cell strong, to keep its shape and to control the growing of the cell and plant.
In a plant cell, the cell wall is made of cellulose, pectin and hemicellulose.
simple.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cell_wall   (139 words)

 Cell Wall Genomics - Purdue University
Cell Wall Genomics is a resource for plant biologists interested in mutants of cell wall-related genes in Arabidopsis and maize.
Cell walls of Arabidopsis and maize mutants are screened for spectroscopic phenotypes or “spectrotypes”, by infrared spectroscopies at Purdue University.
Cell wall gene families of Arabidopsis, rice and maize are compared.
cellwall.genomics.purdue.edu   (363 words)

 Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Cell Walls
Cell walls are around to help a plant keep its shape.
A cell wall is not a fortress around the delicate plant cell.
But even when the plant cell loses water, the basic shape is maintained by the cell walls.
www.biology4kids.com /files/cell_wall.html   (322 words)

 Plant Physiology - Cell Walls:  Structure & Function
The wall proteins also have a structural role since: (1) the amino acids are characteristic of other structural proteins such as collagen and gelatin; and (2) to extract the protein from the wall requires destructive conditions.
In the plant cell wall, the "cords" are analogous to the cellulose microfibrils and they provide the structural strength of the wall.
The cell wall is made during cell division when the cell plate is formed between daughter cell nuclei.
employees.csbsju.edu /ssaupe/biol327/Lecture/cell-wall.htm   (2623 words)

 The Cell Wall   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The cell wall is a rigid multi-layered structure found in plant and bacterial cells, designed to hold the cells together and protect the cell from injury.
The cell wall is composed of four layers.
Lipids are also on the external surface of the cell wall to protect the wall from injury.
www.fi.edu /qa97/biology/cells/cell1.html   (216 words)

 Dr. Tritz: Bacteria
The lag phase is a period of adjustment necessary for the replenishment of the cell's pool of metabolites to a level commensurate with maximum cell synthesis.
During this state, the mass and the volume of the cell increase by the same factor in such a manner that the average composition of the cells and the relative concentrations of the metabolites remain constant.
The cell wall lies immediately external to the plasma membrane; it is the interface with the external environment in those organisms lacking a capsule, otherwise it is overlaid with the capsule.
www.kcom.edu /faculty/chamberlain/Website/Lects/Bacteria.htm   (2925 words)

 cell wall
Water is absorbed by osmosis causing the cell to expand and develop an internal hydrostatic pressure (wall pressure) that acts against the cellulose wall.
Humans cannot digest the cellulose of the cell walls; they possess neither the correct gut micro-organisms nor the necessary grinding teeth.
The cell walls of bacteria and fungi are not made of cellulose, but are just as strong.
www.tiscali.co.uk /reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0031201.html   (392 words)

 [No title]
Yeast cells were broken with glass beads in LY buffer containing 2% SDS, and the cell lysate was centrifuged (in a microcentrifuge, 1min, 10,000rpm, room temperature).
The washed cell walls were incubated with laminarinase (Sigma L5144) at a final concentration of 0.25unit/ml twice for 1h each at 37°C as described previously (24, 39).
The composition of guard cell walls in sugar beet leaves (Beta vulgaris L.) was studied by using histochemical staining and immunocytochemical detection of cell wall antigens.
espanol.lycos.com /info/cell-wall.html?page=2   (309 words)

 Plant Cell Wall   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Although there are many misconceptions about the cell wall's function, it is actually an important part of the cell's structure.
The plant cell wall does many imperative functions in order for the cell to be successful.
The cell wall is closely related to the cell membrane.
sun.menloschool.org /~birchler/cells/plants/cell_wall   (204 words)

 Cornell News: plant cell wall book   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In his own laboratory, Rose and his colleagues focus on the structure, function and metabolism of plant cell walls and also their pivotal role in fending off pathogens.
"Cell walls represent a major frontier in plant biotechnology, reflected in their importance in a broad range of plant-derived products, contributing to the food, fiber and material science industries," he said.
And it also addresses the following topics: the composition and structure of plant primary cell walls, biophysical characteristics of plant cell walls, molecules as probes for cell-wall analysis, plant cell-wall biosynthesis, expansion of the plant cell wall, cell-wall disassembly and plant cell walls in the post-genomic era.
www.news.cornell.edu /releases/Dec03/CellWallBook.bpf.html   (337 words)

 Plant Cell Wall   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
This cell wall, is generally made up of pollysacharides, and in the plants case, usually cellulose.
Unfortunately this part of the cell is often considered inactive, and not a major part of the overall function of the cell, this is simply untrue.
The cell wall is a wall that allows for the circulation and distribution of water, minerals, and other small nutrient molecules into and out of the cell.
sun.menloschool.org /~cweaver/cells/c/cell_wall   (330 words)

 The Plant Cell   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Plant cells are eukaryotic and have many of the structures found in animal cells.
The rigid cell wall of plants is made of fibrils of cellulose embedded in a matrix of several other kinds of polymers such as pectin and lignin.
The cell walls of parenchyma and meristems are uniform in thickness.
home.comcast.net /~john.kimball1/BiologyPages/P/PlantCell.html   (394 words)

 Thickness of a Cell Wall
The cell wall is usually present in plant and bacteria cells.
The plant cell walls are different in their thickness, but usually they are less than 100 µm thick.
The gram positive cell wall is usually between 20 and 80 nm thick while the gram negative cell wall is usually between 5 and 10 nm thick.
hypertextbook.com /facts/2003/AlonaVorobyov.shtml   (367 words)

 Cell Wall
The delicate membrane of early life had to be surrounded by a strong wall, to stop the membrane breaking.
Bacteria have cell walls made of peptidoglycan, a large polymer of amino acids and sugar molecules.
Plant cells are surrounded by a rigid wall made of chains of glucose molecules (making cellulose) and chains of other sugar molecules (making polysaccharides), together with glycoproteins.
www.historyoftheuniverse.com /cellwal.html   (210 words)

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