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Topic: Cellular differentiation

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In the News (Fri 18 Jan 19)

  Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology - Molecular and Cellular Biology - Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, ...
The Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology is recognized internationally for research in regulation of gene expression, hormone action, cancer biology, molecular genetics, and gene therapy.
Molecular and Cellular Biology faculty also participate in the Learning and Memory Research Center in association with the Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, and the NCI designated Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center.
Research interests of the large, multidisciplinary faculty focus on the molecular basis of gene regulation and the regulation of normal and abnormal cellular differentiation and growth in many animal and transgenic mouse models.
www.bcm.edu /mcb   (303 words)

  Cellular differentiation article - Cellular differentiation developmental biology cells genetic stem cells ...
Cellular differentiation is a concept from developmental biology describing the process by which cells acquire a "type".
A cell that is able to differentiate into all cell types is known as totipotent.
In cytopathology the level of cellular differentiation is used as a measure of cancer progression.
www.what-means.com /encyclopedia/Cellular_differentiation   (187 words)

 Cellular differentiation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A cell that is able to differentiate into many cell types is known as pluripotent.
During differentiation, certain genes are turned on, or become activated, while other genes are switched off, or inactivated.
Differentiation can involve changes in numerous aspects of cell physiology; size, shape, polarity, metabolic activity, responsiveness to signals, and gene expression profiles can all change during differentiation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cellular_differentiation   (701 words)

 Multicellular organisms
With the evolution of cellular differentiation, kingdoms were made of some protist groups; yet we know virtually nothing as to why this transition was closed to all but a few taxa." (Buss, 1987, p.
It helps in achieving differentiated multicellularity that all of the cells are identical twins in terms of chromosomal genes (implying a shared control).
This node is implemented by differential propagation of the seeds produced by the germ cells.
pespmc1.vub.ac.be /MULTICEL.html   (377 words)

 Cellular differentiation: importance in hepatocarcinogenesis and modulator role of ß-carotene   (Site not responding. Last check: )
This review focuses the relationship between oval cell differentiation and the cellular origin of hepatic cancer, as well as the recent studies on the action of ß-carotene in cellular differentiation.
Oval cells proliferate in the liver during the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis, with the capability to differentiate to both hepatocytes and biliary duct cells, as demonstrated by in vivo models of hepatic cellular differentiation.
Moreover, it has been observed in in vivo models of hepatocarcinogenesis and of cellular differentiation, that the carotenoid reduces the number of oval cells at the end of the experimental period.
www.inca.gov.br /rbc/n_46/v04/english/article4.html   (259 words)

 The Mammalian Respiratory System and Critical Windows of Exposure for Children's Health
Cellular differentiation of the lungs continues throughout the lifespan of all species; however, this process is most evident during the fetal and early postnatal periods.
Cellular differentiation begins in the proximal airways and progresses in a radial fashion down the growing airways.
Cellular differentiation, cellular proliferation, and cellular physiological function of the lungs are continually changing during gestational and postnatal growth.
ehp.niehs.nih.gov /members/2000/suppl-3/457-462pinkerton/pinkerton-full.html   (5431 words)

 Cellular Differentiation and Homeostasis
One objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that the attractors of such networks constitute the cell types of an organism, while differentiation is precisely a route (gene expression program) from one attractor into the basin of attraction of another attractor and subsequent flow to that new attractor.
Using early differentiation cell surface markers (CD11b) and flow cytometry, we have constructed loci on the dose-duration plane such that a given locus corresponds to a fixed percentage of differentiated cells, as shown in Figure 1.
Given several different treatments that place the cells on the same locus, the differentiating cells, which are live-sorted, are being profiled at different time points with microarrays in order to determine whether they follow distinct paths of differentiation.
www.systemsbiology.org /cellular_differentiation_and_homeostasis   (615 words)

 Planar and Vertical Signals Control Cellular Differentiation and Patterning in the Mammalian Cochlea -- Montcouquiol ...
The basal-to-apical gradient of cellular differentiation is not dependent on planar cues.
Cellular differentiation and patterning in the cochlea is autonomous by E12.5
and the subsequent basal-to-apical gradient of cellular differentiation
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/23/28/9469   (8223 words)

 Cellular Differentiation in Photodynamic Therapy   (Site not responding. Last check: )
This is a proposal to use cellular differentiation as a way to modify ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of cancer and other hyperproliferative diseases.
Differentiation therapy is the principle of converting cells to a more differentiated state in order to enhance the response to specific therapies.
Further, PPIX accumulates in the differentiated cells largely as a result of increased transcription of coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO), one of the heme-synthetic enzymes.
www.dartmouth.edu /~pdt/p1.html   (405 words)

 Loss of intragenomic DNA repair heterogeneity with cellular differentiation.
The influence of terminal differentiation on UV-induced DNA damage and its repair in transcriptionally active and inactive genomic sequences was investigated using the murine 3T3-T proadipocyte cell culture system.
As a result of 3T3-T cell differentiation, lipoprotein lipase and beta-actin expression was modified, whereas adenosine deaminase and dihydrofolate reductase expression was not affected.
For undifferentiated stem cells, the rate and extent of dimer repair was higher in the actively transcribed adenosine deaminase and dihydrofolate reductase genes than in the inactive lipoprotein lipase or 70-38 fragments, the greater difference being observed in the first 8 h post-UV irradiation.
www.ihop-net.org /UniPub/iHOP/gp/46013.html   (238 words)

 The cellular aging of rat fibroblasts in vitro is a differentiation process.   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The cellular aging of rat fibroblasts in vitro is a differentiation process.
Cellular aging of diploid rat fibroblasts in vitro occurs as the result of a three-stage differentiation sequence, taking place in the morphologically recognizable differentiating cell compartment of the fibroblast stem cell system.
In cell strains with the genetic background Lewis, the cellular differentiation state, the major histocompatibility complex composition (H-1) and the H-1 complex-controlled expression of endogenous type C viruses determine the ultimate fate of the senescent cell, leading either to cellular degeneration or to cellular neoplastic transformation.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_510926.html   (126 words)

 Cellular differentiation as a means to enhance photodynamic therapy
Cellular differentiation as a means to enhance photodynamic therapy
We have found that the effectiveness of this form of PDT can be greatly enhanced by preconditioning cells with hormones (androgens, vitamin D, or methotrexate) that alter the state of differentiation of the cells, allowing higher levels of the protoporphyrin to build up.
This is translational research, applying molecular and cellular approaches to the clinical problem of how to improve cancer therapy.
www.lri.ccf.org /bme/maytin/lab/photodynamic.php   (406 words)

 Carnegie Institution Academic Catalog
The techniques of molecular biology, genetics, biophysics, physiology, immunology, and ultrastructural analysis are used to study developmental stages of differentiation, growth, and morphogenesis in a variety of organisms.
Although research now concentrates at the molecular and cellular levels, the department was originally set up in 1914 to study human embryo development.
Douglas Koshland - The analysis of factors that mediate mitotic chromosome condensation and sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis and meiosis to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism of chromosome structure and the principles that govern chromosome evolution.
carnegieinstitution.org /Academic_Catalog-2004/embryology.html   (1237 words)

 Cellular Growth, Differentiation, and Control of Gene Expression - EMF Science Review Symposia Theoretical Mechanisms ...
To identify key cellular effects of EMF on growth, differentiation, and control of gene expression.
To identify gaps in the experimental findings related to possible EMF effects on key cellular events (growth, differentiation, and control of gene expression) and in the extrapolation of in vitro results to possible in vivo health effects of EMF.
To consider the quality of the scientific methods employed in studying the effects of EMF on key cellular events (growth, differentiation, and control of gene expression) and to evaluate the need for (further) replication of some of these studies.
www.niehs.nih.gov /emfrapid/html/Symposium1/3apndx2.html   (871 words)

 Cellular differentiation and I-FABP protein expression modulate fatty acid uptake and diffusion -- Atshaves et al. 274 ...
The effect of cellular differentiation on fatty acid uptake and intracellular diffusion was examined in transfected pluripotent
Cloning of a rat adipocyte membrane protein implicated in binding or transport of long-chain fatty acids that is induced during preadipocyte differentiation.
Differential influence of rat liver fatty acid binding protein isoforms on phospholipid fatty acid composition: phosphatidic acid biosynthesis and phospholipid fatty acid remodeling.
ajpcell.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/274/3/C633   (6861 words)

 cellular differentiation. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. 2002   (Site not responding. Last check: )
There are more than 250 general types of cells in the human body.
Differentiation is the process that takes place inside an embryo that determines which genes are expressed and hence what type of cell will result.
‡ The ability of embryonic stem cells to undergo differentiation into any cell in the body is what makes them a focus of modern research.
www.aol.bartleby.com /59/21/cellulardiff.html   (197 words)

 The cytoplasmic basis of cellular differentiation--redressing the injustice done to the cytoplasm. Kothari ML, Mehta LA ...
The riddle of cellular differentiation continues to defy the conceptual and experimental ingenuity of all-logists.
The imposition by the cytoplasm, of a differentiating field, on the nucleus, activates widely scattered areas of the nucleus, beyond the coarser chromosomal, and the finer genetic barriers, thus accounting for the invention[2] of such apologetic terms as polygenes, split genes, jumping genes, and so on.
The cytoplasm, while differentiating the nucleus, activates only those areas o£ the nuclear DNA as are specifically needed to produce a cell type-say, an epidermal cell.
www.jpgmonline.com /article.asp?issn=0022-3859;year=1984;volume=30;issue=4;spage=199;epage=206;aulast=Kothari   (2784 words)

 Rapid Induction of Histone Hyperacetylation and Cellular Differentiation in Human Breast Tumor Cell Lines following ...
the induction of cellular differentiation and apoptosis (3-5).
Cellular differentiation manifested as the accumulation of lipid
The processes of cellular differentiation and cell cycle progression are interdependent.
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/275/45/35256   (5631 words)

 Citebase - High-dimensional switches and the modeling of cellular differentiation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Many genes have been identified as driving cellular differentiation, but because of their complex interactions, the understanding of their collective behaviour requires mathematical modelling.
Intriguingly, it has been observed in numerous developmental contexts, and particularly hematopoiesis, that genes regulating differentiation are initially co-expressed in progenitors despite their antagonism, before one is upregulated and others downregulated.
The coexistence of antagonistic factors at low levels, early in the differentiation process or in pluripotent stem cells, could be an intrinsic property of the interaction between those factors, not requiring a specific regulatory system.
citebase.eprints.org /cgi-bin/citations?id=oai:arXiv.org:q-bio/0410017   (377 words)

 Regulation of Cellular Differentiation in Filamentous Cyanobacteria in Free-Living and Plant-Associated Symbiotic ...
Heterocyst differentiation is inhibited by the presence of a
The string of differentiating cells (dark) is resolved by competitive interaction to a single heterocyst (thick envelope).
inducer of hormogonium differentiation in the laboratory is
mmbr.asm.org /cgi/content/full/66/1/94   (9544 words)

 The human papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein can uncouple cellular differentiation and proliferation in human keratinocytes ...
and reactivating cellular DNA synthesis in the suprabasal, differentiated
Differentiation-dependent up-regulation of the human papillomavirus E7 gene reactivates cellular DNA replication in suprabasal differentiated keratinocytes.
Induction of differentiation in human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cells activates p21, WAF1/CIP1, expression in the absence of p53.
www.genesdev.org /cgi/content/full/11/16/2101   (6149 words)

 Cellular Differentiation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
With this knowledge in hand, it may someday be possible to replace cells that are lost in spinal cord injuries or neurodegenerative disorders.
A classic family of helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors are the myogenic proteins, which are well known for their role in the differentiation of muscle cells.
Xebf2 operates at early stages of neuronal differentiation, upstream of NeuroD, whereas Xebf3 is a target of NeuroD and plays a role in terminal neuronal differentiation.
www.hms.harvard.edu /armenise/old_site/4a_cell.htm   (1128 words)

 Avalanche of Bifurcations and Hysteresis in a Model of Cellular Differentiation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Cellular differentiation in a developing organism is studied using a discrete bistable reaction-diffusion model.
Differentiation starts at the signal receiving surface, but under certain conditions it travels through the whole domain of cells.
When the signal diminishes, hysteresis is observed: differentiation and de-differentiation occur at separate parameter values.
flux.aps.org /meetings/YR97/BAPSMAR97/abs/S1080012.html   (159 words)

 The relation between Determination and Differentiation
To explain certain phenomenon which appear during the first stages of ontogenesis, we must introduce the notion called cellular determination The state of determinate cell is an intermediate one, which follows to the state of a pluripotent cell and which precedes the state of differentiated cell.
In the following stage the cells of type A, spread in the cellular population, which has resulted from the repeated divisions of the pluripotent cells, will migrate one to another (on the base of receptors).
The process of cellular differentiation is a sequential one and it is realized step by step, every realized stage making up the beginning for a new stage, and the activation of the divers sets of genes, which have appeared during the evolution in a chronological order, is based on this process.
www.geneticengineering.org /ideas/brehar2.html   (486 words)

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