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Topic: Cellulose acetate

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In the News (Sat 17 Aug 19)

  Plant histology: The cellulose acetate method
We believe that the cellulose acetate method is destined to prove as successful with hard woody tissues as the Venetian turpentine method has proved with unicellular and filamentous forms; but, it must be confessed that investigators have been unsuccessful in their experience with cellulose acetate.
Cellulose acetate does not injure the finer details of structure, and, on that account, will be superior to hydrofluoric acid, when students have solved the present uncertainties in regard to it.
It was found that the length of time of immersion in the solution of cellulose acetate necessary for softening the tissues varied with the hardness of the wood, the minimum time for soft woods being two days; for woods such as oak and beech, at least six days are required.
www.publicbookshelf.com /public_html/Methods_in_Plant_Histology/cellulose_g.html   (617 words)

  Cellulose acetate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cellulose acetate is used as a film base in photography, and as a component in some adhesives; it is also used as a synthetic fiber.
Cellulose acetate (triacetate) photographic film was introduced in 1934 as a replacement for the unstable and highly flammable cellulose nitrate film stock that had previously been standard.
Cellulose acetate or acetate rayon fiber (1924) is one of the earliest synthetic fibers and is based on cotton or tree pulp cellulose ("biopolymers").
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cellulose_acetate   (685 words)

 Cellulose Encyclopedia Article @ NaturalResearch.org   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Cellulose is not digestible by humans, and is often referred to as 'dietary fibre' or 'roughage', acting as a hydrophilic bulking agent for faeces.
Cellulose is used within the laboratory as a solid-state substrate for thin layer chromatography, and cotton linters, is used in the manufacture of nitrocellulose, historically used in smokeless gunpowder.
Cellulose can be assayed using a method described by Updegraff in 1969, where the fiber is dissolved in acetic and nitric acid, and allowed to react with anthrone in sulfuric acid.
www.naturalresearch.org /encyclopedia/Cellulose   (648 words)

 Chapter 8 Sources in Cellulose Acetate Lamination Research and Practice
Lamination using cellulose acetate plastic sheets was thus recommended as a modern replacement for the traditional methods using silk or Japanese paper for strengthening and protecting deteriorated paper.
Cellulose acetate lamination, like the traditional methods of lamination, strengthened the document, allowed it to be handled with reduced risk of further damage, and increased its thickness.
Cellulose acetate lamination differed from the traditional methods in other ways as well: lamination required less craft skill, was faster, and, since the plastic was completely transparent, it did not interfere in any direct way with reading the treated document.
palimpsest.stanford.edu /byauth/roggia/barrow/chap08.html   (2462 words)

 Acetate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Acetate, or ethanoate, is the anion of a salt or ester of acetic acid.
The acetate ion has the formula CH, and is the conjugate base of acetic acid.
Acetate can also refer to cellulose acetate, especially fibers or other derived products such as the acetate disc used in audio record production.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Acetate   (219 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Cellulose acetates are used in lacquers and protective coatings for various substrates such as paper, glass, metal, leather, and wood.
Cellulose acetate flake consumption is presented for four regions in 1997 and 2002.
Cellulose acetate demand is flat or declining in developed regions and growing slightly in developing regions, resulting in little overall growth.
www.chemsystems.com /newsletters/perp/Jun04_N03S1.cfm   (1881 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
As a carbohydrate, the chemistry of cellulose is primarily the chemistry of alcohols; and it forms many of the common derivatives of alcohols, such as esters, ethers, etc. These derivatives form the basis for much of the industrial technology of cellulose in use today.
Cellulose acetate is soluble in organic solvents such as acetone and can be spun into fiber or formed into other shapes.
Although cellulose is sufficiently stable toward hydrolysis to allow it to be dyed, finished and laundered, it is susceptible to hydrolysis by acids and, to a lesser extent, by alkalis.
www.fibersource.com /f-tutor/cellulose.htm   (1994 words)

 EPA: Federal Register: Cellulose Acetate; Tolerance Exemption
Cellulose Acetate conforms to the definition of a polymer given in 40 CFR 723.250(b) and meets the following criteria that are used to identify low-risk polymers.
Cellulose acetate is not a cationic polymer, nor is it reasonably expected to become a cationic polymer in a natural aquatic environment.
Cellulose acetate is not a biopolymer, a synthetic equivalent of a biopolymer, or a derivative or modification of a biopolymer that is substantially intact.
www.epa.gov /docs/fedrgstr/EPA-PEST/1995/August/Day-23/pr-381.html   (1400 words)

 Olympus Microscopy Resource Center: Polarized Light Microscopy Gallery - Acetate Fibers
Acetate is an important man-made cellulose-based fiber that does not wrinkle easily when worn, is somewhat stain-resistant, and is easy to care for.
Acetate fiber was first produced by Camille and Henri Dreyfus, two Swiss brothers whose research efforts began in 1904 in a shack behind the house of their father.
Manufactured from a renewable resource, acetate fiber is fashioned from the cellulose of softwood trees that is exposed to acetic acid and acetic anhydride before it is undergoes a partial hydrolysis to form a substance that can be easily dissolved in acetone.
www.olympusmicro.com /galleries/polarizedlight/pages/acetatefibersmall.html   (282 words)

 Acetic Anhydride/Cellulose Acetate - Process Evaluation / Research Planning (PERP) - share, nexant, size, developments, ...
Cellulose acetates are used in lacquers and protective coatings for various substrates such as paper, glass, metal, leather, and wood.
Cellulose acetate flake consumption is presented for four regions in 1997 and 2002.
Cellulose acetate demand is flat or declining in developed regions and growing slightly in developing regions, resulting in little overall growth.
nexant.ecnext.com /coms2/gi_0255-3045/Acetic-Anhydride-Cellulose-Acetate.html   (1834 words)

 Making Rayon Fiber
Steeping: Cellulose pulp is immersed in 17-20% aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at a temperature in the range of 18 to 25° C in order to swell the cellulose fibers and to convert cellulose to alkali cellulose.
The orange cellulose xanthate crumb is dissolved in dilute sodium hydroxide at 15 to 20° C under high-shear mixing conditions to obtain a viscous orange colored solution called "viscose", which is the basis for the manufacturing process.
Cellulose acetate is a soft, supple fiber of low modulus and low sticking point of 180oF and thus, can be used as a binder fiber in the manufacture of nonwovens[8].
www.mindfully.org /Plastic/Cellulose/Rayon-Fiber.htm   (2855 words)

 Northeast Document Conservation Center — A Short Guide to Film Base Photographic Materials
Nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, and nitrous dioxide are all released as gases from the decomposition of cellulose nitrate.
When acetate base film is stored in a poor environment at high heat and humidity, or exposed to acidic vapors from nearby degrading film, cellulose acetate undergoes chemical reactions within the plastic support to form acetic acid.
The deterioration of both cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate negatives is highly dependent on temperature and relative humidity.
www.nedcc.org /resources/leaflets/5Photographs/01ShortGuide.php   (3688 words)

 Cellulose Acetate
Although cellulose acetate was first prepared in 1865 by the French chemist Paul Schützenberger, it was not until 1894 that the first industrial process for its manufacture was patented in the UK by Charles Cross and Edward Bevan.
Cellulose acetate (CA) in combination with plasticizers, such as diethyl and dimethyl phthalate, produces a plastics material which can be heat softened and forced under pressure into a cool mould.
Ironically, cellulose triacetate which was unsuccessful initially, returned to favour when a suitable, relatively non-toxic solvent (dichloromethane) became available in the 1940s.
www.plastiquarian.com /ca2.htm   (593 words)

 Cellulose Acetate
At about the same time, Little in the US and Bronnert in Germany simultaneously produced cellulose acetate filaments, which were in actual fact cellulose triacetate, which differs in that it is does not easily dissolve on common solvents.
Another technique for producing cellulose acetate involved treating cotton with acetic acid, using sulfuric acid as a catalyst.
Cellulose acetate fibres are used for textiles and clothing by many of the top designers in the world.
www.azom.com /details.asp?ArticleID=1461   (401 words)

 Spartech PEP | Cellulose Acetate Sheet & Film Manufacturer
Cellulose Acetate sheets of world class optical quality are used for safety-ware such as faceshields, health care visors, goggles, sports visors, sunglasses, etc. For over 50 years, PEP has been the largest supplier of these materials worldwide.
Cellulose Acetate Butyrate and Cellulose Propionate sheets are produced for the optical sports (ski-goggles) and recreation (swimming goggles) markets, as well as the drawing template industry.
Cellulose Acetate, Cellulose Butyrate and Cellulose Propionate, as well as Ethyl Cellulose are produced in rolls ranging in gauge from 0.005" to 0.025".
www.spartech.com /PEP/cellulose.html   (373 words)

 CA - cellulose acetate   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Cellulose acetate (CA) is used for transparent, translucent and opaque objects (e.g.
Cellulose acetate is an amorphous thermoplastic material belonging to the cellulosic resin family.
Use: Cellulose acetate is inflammable and burns with a yellowish flame producing a smelling smoke.
www.designinsite.dk /htmsider/m0981.htm   (144 words)

 Carbohydrates - Cellulose
Cellulose is a linear polysaccharide polymer with many glucose monosaccharide units.
Humans are unable to digest cellulose because the appropriate enzymes to breakdown the beta acetal linkages are lacking.
Cellulose: Beta glucose is the monomer unit in cellulose.
www.elmhurst.edu /~chm/vchembook/547cellulose.html   (648 words)

 Acetate Fiber - Acetate Staple Fiber, Acetate Filter Tow Fiber, Acetate Textile Filament Fiber   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
After it is formed, cellulose acetate is dissolved in acetone for extrusion.
As the filaments emerge from the spinneret, the solvent is evaporated in warm air (dry spinning), producing fine filaments of cellulose acetate.
Acetate is adversely affected by acetone and other organic solvents, such as nail polish remover and perfumes containing these solvents.
www.fibersource.com /f-tutor/acetate.htm   (376 words)

 BioMed Central | Full text | Cellulose acetate phthalate, a common pharmaceutical excipient, inactivates HIV-1 and ...
Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), a pharmaceutical excipient used for enteric film coating of capsules and tablets, was shown to inhibit infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and several herpesviruses.
A cellulose chain consisting of one cellotetraose unit (composed of four 1,4-linked β-D-glucose units) was created in Quanta [22] and 50% of the hydroxyl groups at positions 2- and 3- were modified to acetyl ester and 25% of the hydroxyl groups at position 6 were modified to phthaloyl ester [1,23].
Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) is a pharmaceutical excipient which has been used for over four decades for enteric film coating of tablets and capsules.
www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2334/1/17   (4432 words)

 ACETATE MICROFILM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Since acetate was the most common film base from the mid-1920s into the early 1980s, if your organization holds microfilm produced during this time period it is almost certainly acetate-based.
Acetate is not used in the image creation process and is not present in the image, or emulsion, layer of the film.
Acetate film base is a modified form of cellulose with an inherent tendency to degrade.
www.archives.nysed.gov /altformats/accessible/pub15/ns_mgr_pub15_accessible.html   (1741 words)

 Guidelines for surveying cellulose acetate collections
Lavédrine showed that by estimating the suspected level of decay as a percentage of the collection, it was possible to calculate the sample size needed to produce survey results with a 95% confidence interval and +/-5% precision rate (the results would be the same plus or minus 5%, 95% of the time).
Cellulose acetate film can be identified in a number of ways.
As a general rule of thumb cellulose acetate acquired or produced between 1950s to mid 1980s is almost always acetate (it is generally accepted that film produced from 1990 onwards will not - or at least should not - be acetate).
www.bl.uk /about/collectioncare/acetate/camfsurvey.html   (702 words)

 Welcome to Acetate World web site   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Cellulose acetate is a man made fibre of natural origin with specific characteristics which allow the production of beautiful, practical and comfortable fabrics, whether used on its own or mixed with other natural, artificial or synthetic yarn or fibres.
Acetate yarns were first to be used by the textile industry in the early 20's.
The characteristics of acetate yarns make it possible to meet the requirements of mass production items, such as linings, as well as the production on exclusive fabrics in the more demanding markets of "niche" products.
www.acetateworld.com /sx_general/mx00_00x.asp?lng=0&lv1=2   (116 words)

 cellulose acetate --  Encyclopædia Britannica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
It forms a cellulose acetate solution that is extruded through fine holes...
Cellulose, a complex carbohydrate that is the basic structural component of the plant cell wall, is the most abundant polymer on earth.
The film on which images are made is a strip of cellulose acetate that is coated with a light-sensitive emulsion that retains images (see photography).
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9022029?tocId=9022029   (681 words)

 Cellulose acetate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Acetate movie film was introduced in the 1950s as a replacement for the unstable and inflammable cellulose nitrate film stock that had previously been standard.
The unit is the fundamental repeating structure of cellulose and has three hydroxyl groups which can react to form acetate esters.
Australian National library associations working group on preserving acetate collections (http://www.nla.gov.au/anica/about-anica.html)
www.tupelo.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Cellulose_acetate   (661 words)

 Sterlitech Cellulose Acetate (CA) Membrane
Sterlitech CA (Cellulose Acetate) membrane filters are composed of pure cellulose acetate modified to offer researchers the lowest binding filters available.
Because of their unique strength and extremely low binding characteristics, Sterlitech CA (Cellulose Acetate) filters are ideal for protein and enzyme filtrations, tissue culture media sterilization, cold sterilization, biological fluid filtration and other filtration applications where maximum recovery of proteins is critical.
Sterlitech CA (Cellulose Acetate) membranes are manufactured using a unique impregnation process that is internally supported by an inert polyester web eliminates cracking, tearing, breaking and distortion when handled or creased.
www.sterlitech.com /products/membranes/celluloseAcetate/celluloseacetate.htm   (173 words)

 Javier Gutierrez   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
This compound is obtained by treating cellulose with acetic anhydride (or acetic acid).
The powder form of Cellulose Acetate was invented in the 1850’s by the French scientist Franchimont.
Cellulose is one of natures more abundant polymers (cellulose is a polymer made up of thousands of Glucose compounds).
mason.gmu.edu /~jgutier2/burda.html   (250 words)

 Microbial Cellulose: R. M. Brown, Jr.
Cellulose can be thought of as a giant carbon "sink" because carbon incorporation into cellulose remains in the product for a rather lengthy time, sometimes for thousands of years.
Cellulose from such major land plants as forest trees and cotton is assembled from glucose which is produced in the living plant cell from photosynthesis.
Identification of a new gene in an operon for cellulose biosynthesis in Acetobacter xylinum.
www.botany.utexas.edu /facstaff/facpages/mbrown/position1.htm   (3017 words)

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