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Topic: Cellulose nitrate

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In the News (Sun 17 Feb 19)

  KODAK: Storage and Handling of Processed Nitrate Film
Cellulose nitrate has a characteristic acid odor, similar to that of nitric acid.
The nitrate film you have in storage may be middleaged, but if it was properly stored, it may be quite usable.
Nitrate base films have been out of common use so long (since about 1951-52) that expertise in handling them is not commonly offered, but there are facilities that do offer this service.
www.kodak.com /US/en/motion/support/technical/storage_nitrate.jhtml?id=   (0 words)

  Cellulose Summary
Cellulose acetate esters are spun into fine filaments for the manufacture of some fabrics and are also used as photographic film, as a substitute for glass, in the manufacture of safety glass, and as a molding material.
Cellulose is not digestible by humans, and is often referred to as 'dietary fiber' or 'roughage', acting as a hydrophilic bulking agent for faeces.
Cellulose is used within the laboratory as a solid-state substrate for thin layer chromatography, and cotton linters, is used in the manufacture of nitrocellulose, historically used in smokeless gunpowder.
www.bookrags.com /Cellulose   (3044 words)

The nitration cellulose follows the same principle as in the case of glycerin, namely the treatment of cellulose with nitric acid and the introduction of nitro groups in place of hydrogen atoms.
In the nitration of cellulose, on the other hand, a mixture of cellulose nitrate may be obtained, varying nitrogen content and solubility in organic solvents, depending on the composition of the mixed acids and conditions of nitration.
It is common to nitrate 14kg of cotton as one charge for about 30 minutes, with agitation, using about 740kg of mixed acid and maintaining the temperature of 30-35 C. then the whole nitrated cellulose is drowned in excess of water, and thus cleaned, for excess acids.
www.freewebs.com /lpumsun/guncotton.html   (227 words)

 Article - Adhesives from Natural Products
Cellulose nitrate, or nitrocellulose adhesives are not only old relative to years of service, but they are also one of the most versatile adhesives, as witnessed to its well known use as a common household cement for many years.
Cellulose nitrate adhesives adhere well, forming a tough bond to a variety of materials such as glass, leather, metals, cloth, and some plastics.
One of the important uses for cellulose nitrate is bonding of thermoplastics, and it is often referred to as "model cement" from its use in assembling plastic model airplanes.
www.specialchem4adhesives.com /resources/articles/article.aspx?id=247&key=wood_adhesive   (4773 words)

 Applications of Cellulose Nitrate and Cellulose Acetate   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
So, without all that strict hydrogen bonding, the cellulose nitrate and the cellulose acetate can be dissolved in a solvent and cast into films.
It turns out that films made from cellulose nitrate are pretty darn tough and durable, and were used in early movie films.
One of the uses of cellulose acetate is clothing fibers and fabric - otherwise known as "tuxedo taffeta"!
www.pslc.ws /fire/cellulos/applcacn.htm   (246 words)

 JAIC 1991, Volume 30, Number 2, Article 3 (pp. 145 to 162)
Clark summarizes early concepts on cellulose nitrate by indicating that irregular nitration was thought to be due to inhomogeneities in the structure of cellulose or inhomogeneities in the nitrating mix.
After the cellulose nitrate fibers were nitrated to the desired percent nitrogen, the acids were drained away and the mass of cellulose nitrate was “quenched” or rinsed with water.
After the camphor-alcohol is mixed with cellulose nitrate fibers the resultant celluloid plastic has no fibrous orientation of molecules and is called a gel, or as Miles (1955, 206) describes it, after gelation there is “no trace of solid structure” in the celluloid.
aic.stanford.edu /jaic/articles/jaic30-02-003_2.html   (2797 words)

 The Cochineal
Cellulose nitrate, while certainly not a champion of stability, is however much more durable and has better playback sound quality than its soft wax or ethyl cellulose counterparts, which may be part of the reason that instantaneous discs are widely understood to be composed of only that material.
The camphor in cellulose nitrate motion picture films is not a cause of its instability; although the camphor is “tenaciously retained” by the cellulose nitrate in its solvent plasticizer form, the degradation of the cellulose nitrate itself causes failure while sufficient amounts of camphor remain in the film.
Fillers used in cellulose nitrate are very difficult to discuss in terms of their function in the instability of the instantaneous disc because of the diversity of materials utilized.
www.ischool.utexas.edu /~cochinea/html-paper/h-robertson-02-instadiscs.html   (3830 words)

 Qualification of cellulose nitrate membranes for lateral-flow assays (IVDT archive, Jan 02)
Until the 1950s, the major uses for such microporous cellulose nitrate membranes were filtration applications that were based on the membranes’; ability to retain microorganisms and particles from fluids, especially for the purpose of sterilization and microbiological testing of liquids and air.
The binding of protein molecules to cellulose nitrate occurs almost immediately, and although the actual mechanism is not yet completely understood, it seems to depend mainly on hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions that are caused by the nitrate dipole.
The commercial-scale use of cellulose nitrate membranes for immobilization purposes started at the end of the 1980s with the introduction of flow-through and lateral-flow immunochromatographic tests based on antibodies, which are commonly known as rapid IVD tests.
www.devicelink.com /ivdt/archive/02/01/002.html   (3717 words)

 [No title]
At first, cellulose nitrate film was used mostly for still photography, but it was also used for x-ray film and motion picture film into the early 1950's.
Nitrate film to be discarded should be collected daily from the work area, and removed to a unused room.
Duplicate cellulose nitrate negatives and properly dispose of the original negatives according to the local fire code, NFPA and the DOT.
www.uic.edu /spha/glakes/harts1/HARTS_library/nitroflm.txt   (1396 words)

 Film base - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nitrate film base was the first transparent flexible plasticized base commercially available, thanks to celluloid developments by John Carbutt, Hannibal Goodwin, and Eastman Kodak in the 1880s.
Unfortunately, nitrate also had the drawback that it was extremely flammable (being essentially the same chemically as guncotton) and decomposed after several decades into a no less flammable gas, leaving the film sticky and goo-like.
Despite the dangers of the nitrate film base being known practically since its development, it was used in virtually all major motion pictures prior to 1952, when Kodak completed a four year conversion program to the sole manufacturing of acetate base film stocks.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Film_base   (1168 words)

 Nitrocellulose - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through, for example, exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.
Today nitrate film projection is usually highly regulated and requires extensive precautionary measures including extra projectionist health and safety training.
Color negative film was never manufactured with a nitrate base, nor were 8 mm or 16 mm motion picture film stocks.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cellulose_nitrate   (1263 words)

 The Cochineal
Cellulose in the form of cotton linters was treated with nitric acid to form cellulose nitrate (Neblette 1942).
Cellulose acetate, also called “safety” film, was manufactured in the same way as cellulose nitrate except the cellulose was treated with acetic anhydride (Neblette 1942).
Cellulose nitrate is regularly described as a highly unstable medium and the expectation is that it will be the most deteriorated material within a collection.
www.gslis.utexas.edu /~cochinea/html-paper/j-jamison-04-survey.html   (6650 words)

If cellulose nitrate is ignited and allowed to burn freely in excess air, the gases given off are colourless and are chiefly nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapour, none of which is poisonous or explosive.
However, all nitrate film deteriorates with age and the deterioration is increased by chemical contamination and improper storage conditions.
However, if cellulose nitrate films must be kept for some period of time until they can be copied, they should be carefully examined throughout their length prior to being stored in a vault.
www.unesco.org /webworld/ramp/html/r9214e/r9214e04.htm   (1237 words)

 SPI: About the Industry: History of Plastics
Parkesine was obtained by dissolving cellulose nitrate in a minimum of solvent.
Next to cellulose nitrate, the most important material in the early history of plastics was formaldehyde.
Similar in structure to cellulose nitrate, it was found to be safer to process and use.
www.plasticsindustry.org /industry/history.htm   (0 words)

 TopSearch10 - Search Results - cellulose nitrate   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
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cellulose-nitrate.tbl.sytes.net   (0 words)

He was aware of the earlier work on cellulose nitrate - particularly that by Parkes and Spill and of the beneficial effect of incorporating camphor.
His crucial contribution was the use of heat and pressure - heat melted the camphor making it into a solvent for the cellulose nitrate.
Celluloid became the generic name for cellulose nitrate plastics and its use for knife handles, washable collars and cuffs, toys, table tennis balls, etc became widespread.
www.plastiquarian.com /celluloi.htm   (383 words)

 UNESCO CII - WebWorld
Cellulose nitrate - the material that made cinema possible, and which has caused so much pleasure and so much pain to film archivists - will be honoured and commemorated by a book to be published for the Congress of the International Federation of Film Archives (FIAF) to be held in London in the year 2000.
A different category of nitrate fire anecdote concerns films where a fire in the cutting room is supposed to have affected the timing of completion or otherwise to have influenced the shape of the finished film - a phenomenon we have named ‘Nitrate Auteur’.
Bearing in mind the afterlife of nitrate in film archives, we are also looking for portraits of archivists, pictures of preservation staff at work, internal or external views of archive film vaults (perhaps with famous visitors, though such additions are not essential), and pictures of containers or vehicles used for film transport.
www.unesco.org /webworld/highlights/fiaf_nitrate_book_180399.html   (1317 words)

 KODAK: Storage and Handling of Processed Nitrate Film   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Cellulose nitrate has a characteristic acid odor, similar to that of nitric acid.
The nitrate film you have in storage may be middleaged, but if it was properly stored, it may be quite usable.
Nitrate base films have been out of common use so long (since about 1951-52) that expertise in handling them is not commonly offered, but there are facilities that do offer this service.
kodak.com /US/en/motion/support/technical/storage_nitrate.jhtml?...   (2365 words)

 National Film Preservation Foundation - Nitrate Degredation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Cellulose nitrate film stock was in commercial use through the early 1950s, when it was replaced by cellulose acetate plastic "safety film."
Nitrate degradation is a slow chemical process that occurs because of two factors: the nature of cellulose nitrate plastic itself and the way that the film is stored.
The lesson from nitrate that applies to all the major deterioration problems is that "nurture" (a good environment) can win over "nature" (the inherent rapid degradation of plastics and dyes under poor storage conditions).
www.filmpreservation.org /preservation/nitrate.html   (225 words)

 Northeast Document Conservation Center — A Short Guide to Film Base Photographic Materials
Nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, and nitrous dioxide are all released as gases from the decomposition of cellulose nitrate.
Another complicating factor is that the specific gravities for cellulose nitrate and the cellulose acetates fall within a fairly broad range which may cause materials to behave differently.
The deterioration of both cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate negatives is highly dependent on temperature and relative humidity.
www.nedcc.org /resources/leaflets/5Photographs/01ShortGuide.php   (3688 words)

 your photos restored & edited
Cellulose Nitrate is extremely flammable, especially when in a deteriorated condition.
The many fires caused by Cellulose Nitrate film lead to the development of Cellulose Acetate film during the 1920's, which.even when deteriorated does not have the flammable character of Cellulose Nitrate and it became known as "Safety" film.
Ideally, Cellulose Nitrate material should be stored separately, isolated from other types of film but this is often impractical due to the difficulty of identifying the base material.
www.friendlymouse.com /oldneg.htm   (747 words)

 JAIC 1991, Volume 30, Number 2, Article 3 (pp. 145 to 162)
With cellulose nitrate, this reaction is very slow and results in the reduction of the average molecular chain length of the cellulose nitrate molecule (Miles 1955, 268).
Basic pigments added to cellulose nitrate lacquers were found to increase the rate of deterioration through nitrate loss in accelerated aging (Hercules 1955, 44–48).
Isolation of cellulose nitrate from celluloid for optical identification is problematic in that when cellulose nitrate is gelled by camphor it loses its original structure and, hence, many of its original optical characteristics.
aic.stanford.edu /jaic/articles/jaic30-02-003.html   (6252 words)

 Nature of Materials: Film   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Because nitrate film is very unstable, it should be identified and appropriate steps taken to segregate it from other types of film.
Used mainly for 16-millimeter film after about 1923, cellulose acetate is made from various forms of cellulose fiber combined with acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and, as a catalyst, sulfuric acid.
Cellulose diacetate was first made by Kodak, from 1925 to 1940, and Agfa continued to make it until 1955.
www.librarypreservation.org /preservation/film.htm   (382 words)

 Asha Cellulose
Ethyl cellulose is made by reacting ethyl chloride with alkali cellulose.
Cellulose molecule is a chain of ß -anhydroglucose units joined together by acetal linkages.
Ethyl cellulose is more resistant to alkali than cellulose esters, viz, cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate, cellulose butyrate.
www.ashacel.com /general.htm   (267 words)

 Introduction to Film Stocks
Cellulose diacetate is produced by treating cotton or wood fibers with acetic anhydride, glacial acetic acid and sulfuric acid.
Cellulose triacetate was thought to have the advantage that it demonstrated the same physical properties as nitrate, in terms of its durability, flexibility, tensile strength, while being chemically stable and fire resistant.
As in the case of nitrate, acetate decomposes more rapidly at high temperatures and humidity, while lower temperatures and relative humidity can retard, if not completely stop, the decomposition process, as all film bases are subject to decomposition from the moment of their manufacture.
www.cinema.ucla.edu /tank/stockshorak.htm   (6923 words)

 Early Synthetic Polymers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Cellulose nitrate is also a thermoplastic, and was quickly used to make the balls for the world's pool halls.
Cellulose nitrate was also used to make an early polymer containing composite material, safety glass.
Once it was discovered that cellulose nitrate fibers were also smooth, and could be used to produce cloth with a silk-like sheen, cellulose derivatives were seen as a possible cheap replacement for expensive silk.
pslc.ws /macrog/early.htm   (772 words)

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