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Topic: Celts and human sacrifice

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  Sacrifice - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sacrifice of people upon the death of a king, high priest or great leader; the sacrificed were supposed to serve or accompany the deceased leader in the next life.
Human sacrifice has been completely absent at all times in mainstream Hinduism, and is severely condoned and seen with utmost horror by all mainstream Hindus.
Human sacrifice is a common theme in the religions and mythology of many cultures.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sacrifice   (2907 words)

 Human sacrifice   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Sacrifice upon the death of a king, high priest or great leader; the sacrifices were to serve or accompany the deceased leader in the next life.
Human sacrifices were made in the Bronze Age Celtic religions in Europe, and in rituals related to worship of Norse gods (modern Ásatrú and Druidism do not condone such practices).
According to Pliny, human sacrifice was abolished by a senatorial decree in 97 BCE.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/H/Human-sacrifice.htm   (1914 words)

 Human Sacrifice
Human sacrifice is more or less defined here as the ritual killing of a person to appease or coerce a god figure.
In the Middle East, the traditional human sacrifice was usually accomplished with a blade, and the blood of the sacrificed individual was collected as part of the ritual.
The classic example of Aztec sacrifice is immortalized in the image of a robed priest cutting the beating heart out of a living chest at the very apex of a pyramid, blood gleaming in the tropical sun as it ran down the massive stone structure's step-tiers.
www.rotten.com /library/death/human-sacrifice   (1329 words)

 Sacrifice biography .ms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Sacrifice is the practice of offering food, or the lives of animals or people to the gods, as an act of propitiation or worship.
Animal sacrifice is still practiced today by the followers of Santería as a means of curing the sick and giving thanks to the gods.
It is also possible that the human sacrifices at Crete were one off occurances as Knossos did befall an epic tectonic natural disaster around the time at which these sites would have been preserved.
sacrifice.biography.ms   (1248 words)

 [No title]
Celts were quick to take offense at the slightest hint of a slur upon their honor or physical abilities and would contest, even unto death, to defend their reputation.
The Celts were skilled imitators and adept at adapting techniques and methods they learned from other peoples to suit their own purposes.
The Otherworld was as real to the Celts as the natural world, and although humans did not normally visit it prior to their death, stories of such visits - or visits to the natural world by Otherworld folk, were accepted as valid.
www.greyhawkes.com /text/celts.txt   (5727 words)

 Bog Bodies - Bog People   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Under certain conditions, the acidity of the water, the cold temperature and the lack of oxygen combine to tan the body's skin - skeletal preservation is very rare in these bodies, as the acid in the soil is extremely damaging to bone.
Preserved bodies of humans and animals have been discovered in bogs in Britain, Ireland, northern Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark.
Forensic examinations of some bog bodies suggest they were ritually slain and placed in the bog as part of the ritual, possibly as an execution for a crime, as a human sacrifice (See also: Celts and human sacrifice), or even as a primitive method of embalming significant individuals (as with the "mummies" of Cladh Hallan).
www.crystalinks.com /bogbodies.html   (284 words)

 Sacred Ways of Earth: Celts and Druidism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Celts are the people of Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man, and Brittany.
Of course, human sacrafice is absent from the modern reconstruction of Celtic beliefs.
The Celts loved natural beauty, and places of natural beauty were thought to be the habitat of the gods.
students.missouri.edu /~sacredw/celts.html   (986 words)

 1- Gundestrup Cauldron (2- 3C BCE) - Style La Tene - Himmerland, Gundestrup
Human Sacrifice is a fascinating and alluring topic to research and study about in ancient cultures, but may also be an unbelievable and skeptical topic for many as well.
Human sacrifices were sometimes made to this god to insure a successful battle, and the proper way in which human offerings were rewarded to Teutates were through drowning the victims.
The Celts were a very superstitious people and along with several gods and mythologies that played a part in their everyday lives, there were also several annual ceremonies that were very important to the prosperity of the many.
gallery.sjsu.edu /sacrifice/celt.html   (4321 words)

 The Celts: The people history forgot   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Many Celts were blond or red-haired, but the practice of dressing their hair with a sort of lime--water mixture produced a stiff mane that was white or bleached in appearance.
In their defense, however, it must be noted that the Celts, who were after all a primitive people, believed that the head was the receptacle of the soul, hence the importance attached to the taking of heads.
Perhaps the Celts were prevented from overrunning the entire known world only by their own stubborn trait that persisted into historic times -- the refusal of one tribe to accept, even temporarily, the domination of a leader from another tribe in order to present a united front to a common foe.
www.underbridge.com /scathan/archive/1998/04_april/04.1998.celts.html   (4859 words)

 The Aztec Gateway   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Human sacrifice- the term conjures up images of young virgins being marched off to their deaths by savage island cannibals.
By acquiring an understanding of the ideas behind sacrifice, and why it was chosen by many cultures as a method of paying homage to their gods, it is possible to see beyond the initial shock that most feel at the concept, and see that perhaps it isn’t so primitive and meaningless after all.
Human bodies have been found preserved in bogs in Europe, the most famous being the Lindow Man. He was found to have died by being strangled, bludgeoned in the head, and having his throat slit, in consecutive order.
www.amoxtli.org /cuezali/spaper.html   (3538 words)

 human sacrifice --  Britannica Concise Encyclopedia - Your gateway to all Britannica has to offer!
In some ancient cultures, the killing of a human being, or the substitution of an animal for a person, was an attempt to commune with the god and to participate in the divine life.
In ancient Egypt and elsewhere in Africa, human sacrifice was connected with ancestor worship, and slaves and servants were killed or buried alive along with dead kings in order to provide service in the afterlife.
Sacrifice, human or animal, was offered on every important occasion; guinea pigs (more properly cui), llamas, certain foods, coca leaves, and chicha (an intoxicant corn beverage) were all used in sacrifices.
concise.britannica.com /ebc/article-9367541?tocId=9367541   (1010 words)

 Celtic mythology - FreeEncyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
He is described in the Celtic myths as a latecomer to the list of deities, and is always described as having the appearance of a young man. His weapons were the throwing-spear and sling and a festival called the Lughnasa[?] was held in his honour.
The early Celts did not build temples in which to worship their deities, but held certain groves (nemeton) of trees to be sacred and worthy to be places of worship.
Roman writers insisted that the Celts practiced human sacrifice on a fairly large scale and there is peripheral support for this in Irish sources; however, most of this information is secondhand or hearsay.
openproxy.ath.cx /ce/Celtic_mythology.html   (977 words)

 BOG BODY FACTS AND INFORMATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Preserved bodies of humans and animals have been discovered in bogs in Britain, Ireland, northern Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and Denmark.
Unlike most ancient human remains, bog bodies have skin and internal organs due to the unusual conditions of preservation.
Scientists have been able to study their skin, reconstruct their appearance and even determine what their last meal was by their stomach contents.
www.flowergods.com /bog_body   (296 words)

 Celtic Britain - history and culture
The curious thing is that we don't know if the hill forts were built by the native Britons to defend themselves from the encroaching Celts, or by the Celts as they moved their way into hostile territory.
These arts were tremendously important to the Celts, and much of what we know of their traditions comes to us today through the old tales and poems that were handed down for generations before eventually being written down.
From what we know of the Celts from Roman commentators, who are, remember, witnesses with an axe to grind, they held many of their religious ceremonies in woodland groves and near sacred water, such as wells and springs.
www.britainexpress.com /History/Celtic_Britain.htm   (1355 words)

 Search Tuna Report for The Celts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Celts By the start of the Middle Ages, the Celts had been struck on two fronts by two very powerful cultures, Rome in the south, and the Germans, who were derived from Celtic culture, from the north....
THE CELTS Around the year 500 BC, Hecataeus wrote of the trading center Massilia (Marseilles) as being located in the land of the Ligurians, near the land of the Celts....
Altramar Program: "Crossroads Of The Celts" For the most part, the Celts recorded their "laughing, weeping, and sleeping" music in memories, not manuscripts, but the vibrant oral tradition of the medieval Celts comes alive, as Altramar weaves together the diverse threads of voices and instruments, story and song, pagan and Christian, cleric and bard....
searchtuna.com /ftlive/709.html   (4731 words)

The theology of sacrifice remains an issue, not only for religions that continue to practice rituals of sacrifice, but also for those religions that have animal sacrifice in their scriptures,
Minotaur (set in the labyrinth at Knossos) provides evidence that Human sacrifice was commonplace.
Human sacrifice is a common theme in the religions and
www.findthelinks.com /religion/sacrifice.htm   (1098 words)

 REL 600 Sacrifice
The term "sacrifice" appears widely in both contemporary political and religious cultures and in academic discussions of religion, anthropology, and philosophy.
This research seminar will trace the idea of sacrifice along two vectors: the cultural vector which we will pursue backwards from modern to ancient Near Eastern cultures, and the theoretical vector which we will analyze forwards from 19th-century to contemporary theorists of sacrifice.
“Sacrifice, Descent and the Patriarchs.” Vetus Testamentum 38 (1988): 52-70.
www.aarweb.org /syllabus/syllabi/w/watts/1JM9J/REL600s.html   (1701 words)

 Celts and human sacrifice   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Celts practiced human sacrifice on a limited scale as part of their religious rituals.
The Lindow man is the best example: a human sacrifice from the 1st or 2nd century CE, preserved in a peat bog in near perfect condition.
The evidence for sacrifice is fairly incontrovertible: he was throttled, clubbed around the head and had his throat slit.
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/celts_and_human_sacrifice   (170 words)

 BBC - History - Bodies for the Gods: The Practice of Human Sacrifice   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Yet the Romans had double standards; although human sacrifice had ended in Rome a century earlier, gladiatorial games and feeding people to lions were regular sport, whilst many thousands of conquered Celts in Gaul were victims of Roman atrocities, such as cutting off their hands and feet and leaving them to die slowly.
By accusing the Celts of practicing human sacrifice, the Romans thought they had an excuse for their own unlicensed cruelty.
The Romans reserved their comments about sacrifice to the Celts and Germans, with no reference to such practices in the British Isles.
www.bbc.co.uk /history/ancient/prehistory/human_sacrifice_02.shtml   (472 words)

 The Celts
By the start of the Middle Ages, the Celts had been struck on two fronts by two very powerful cultures, Rome in the south, and the Germans, who were derived from Celtic culture, from the north.
This may or may not be true; there is some evidence of human sacrifice among the Celts, but it does not seem to have been a prevalent practice.
In the process of emigrating to the island, the Celts pushed the native populations north—these refugee tribal groups would become the cultural ancestors of the Picts, a mysterious culture that dominated Scotland until the Irish invasions.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~dee/MA/CELTS.HTM   (3792 words)

 Human sacrifice   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Here's the short answer: yes, the Celts do appear to have performed human sacrifice as part of their religious rituals.
Lindow man was almost certainly a ritual sacrifice; he was strangled, hit on the head, and had his throat cut, in quick order, then surrendered to the bog.
As for the evidence of Welsh and Irish tales about human sacrifice, the second branch of the Welsh Mabinogi tells of Efnisien jumping into the cauldron which brought the dead to life again, in an act of self-sacrifice which destroyed his life, and the cauldron.
www.digitalmedievalist.com /faqs/sacrific.html   (766 words)

 Did Witches Sacrifice Human Beings?
There is a great deal of evidence that these sacrifices were both voluntary and involuntary in nature and that the sacrificed were intermediaries that took the petitions of their people directly before the Gods of their clan.
There is the theory that reports of sacrifice was predominantely early christian propaganda to defile the humanity of Druids and Witches.
Witches and Druids today perform no such sacrifices as was referred to by Caesar and not only do we not believe in sacrifice, we do not advocate the killing of any living being unless in self defense or for sustenance of life.
www.tylwythteg.com /tylwythteg/sacrifice.html   (530 words)

 Celtic War Queen Who Challenged Rome   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Though the Celts did practice human sacrifice, most of their sacrifices consisted of symbolic deposits of such valuable objects as jewelry and weapons into sacred wells and lakes.
For Boudica and her people, news of the destruction of the druidic center on Mona, the razing of the sacred groves and the slaughter of druids must have been deeply painful.
The torque, the characteristic ornament of the Celtic warrior chieftain, was a metal band, usually of twisted strands of gold that fit closely about the neck, finished in decorative knobs worn at the front of the throat.
www.thehistorynet.com /mh/blceltic_war_queen/index1.html   (1506 words)

 Celtic Workshop - Human Sacrifice
The matter of human sacrifice by the Celts and the Druids is a topic that creates, at once, a sense of horror and wonder for us in this modern age.
Searles: In some religions, sacrifice is an act performed to influence the gods.
Assuming a willing sacrifice exists (and religions have been founded on just that basis), the person to be sacrificed should build as much power within himself as possible prior to the actual sacrifice and he should practice "loading up" on power and releasing it beforehand.
www.summerlands.com /crossroads/library/human_sacrifice.htm   (7201 words)

 What We Don't Know About the Ancient Celts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Celts do not seem to have had a hierarchy of divinity in the sense of a coherent pantheon dwelling in some remote place.
Sacrifices may have occurred at the central pit with the others being sealed so that sacrificial animals placed within could decompose.
It is unclear whether the human burials represent sacrifice or merely deposition near town.
www.conjure.com /whocelts.html   (7630 words)

 Human Sacrifice in The Summerlands   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The matter of human sacrifice by the Celts and the Druids is a topic that creates, at once, a sense of horror and wonder for us in thismodern age.
In our present age, separated from the phenomena of death as we are, even animal sacrifice shocks our senses.
The much more controversial subject of human sacrifice is almost beyond our comprehension.
www.summerlands.com /crossroads/library/humansac.htm   (134 words)

Posidonus traveled extensively throughout Celtic lands and recorded abhorrence with their practice of human sacrifice and the displaying of decapitated heads of their enemies.
Julius Caesar (100-44) noted the Celt have a custom of sharing one woman among groups of ten to twelve men usually among brothers and among the sons of brothers.
The Celts referred to this as the friendship of the thighs.
www3.telus.net /public/dgarneau/euro27.htm   (2922 words)

This BBC Celtic site for Welsh children highlights several negative elements regarding the Celts: headhunting, human sacrifice and that history was written by the Romans (focusing on "Celtic illiteracy").
Today, many organized institutions are attempting to disregard the Celts as a global influence.
Organizations such as the BBC question whether the Celts (ancestors to the Brittish people under common traditions and language) ever existed as a single group in Britian.
www.celticlife.org /celticism   (218 words)

 Ending Human Sacrifice - Christian History & Biography - ChristianityTodayLibrary.com
It seems that at some point in the development of every culture, human sacrifice becomes unthinkable, and animals are from then on substituted for human victims.
Believing that the human head was the seat of the soul, they displayed proudly the heads of their enemies in their temples and on their palisades; they even hung them from their belts as ornaments, used them as footballs in victory celebrations, and were fond of employing skull tops as ceremonial drinking bowls.
They also sculpted heads—both shrunken, decapitated heads and overbearing, impassive godheads—and a favorite motif was the head of a tri-faced god, for three was their magical number, and gods and goddesses often manifested themselves as three.
www.ctlibrary.com /ch/1998/Issue60/60h016.html   (441 words)

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