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Topic: Centrally planned economy

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In the News (Wed 22 May 19)

  Planned economy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Economies planned by a government, such as the economy of the former Soviet Union, are alternately called command economies.
Pre-modern economies (those existing before the industrial revolution) are more difficult to analyze by today's standards, but a number of them, particularly those of hydraulic empires, may be seen as having been centrally planned as well.
A palace economy may be considered as a subsistence economy augmented with elements of command economy.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Centrally_planned_economy   (1410 words)

 Economy of the Soviet Union - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Soviet Union forged the modern world's first centrally planned economy; and from a notably undeveloped position at the time of the Bolshevik Revolution, the Soviet economy developed into the second largest producer of industrial goods in the world after that of the United States.
With the exception of a brief experiment with regional planning during the Khrushchev era in the 1950s, Soviet planning was done on a sectoral basis rather than on a regional basis.
However, the planning ministries had failed to loosen their control of the enterprise level in time to stem the prolonged stagnation of the 1970s and 1980s, which showed signs of a chronic problem.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Economy_of_the_Soviet_Union   (2588 words)

 Economy of India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Evidence of well planned streets, a drainage system and water supply reveals their knowledge of urban planning, which included the world's first urban sanitation systems and the existence of a form of municipal government.
Central plan expenditure is allocated to development schemes outlined in the plans of the central government and public sector undertakings; central assistance refers to financial assistance and developmental loans given for plans of the state governments and union territories.
The non-tax revenues of the central government come from fiscal services, interest receipts, public sector dividends, etc., while the non-tax revenues of the States are grants from the central government, interest receipts, dividends and income from general, economic and social services.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Economy_of_India   (6235 words)

 Poland the Centrally Planned Economy
Centralized planning ranged from broad, long-range statements of fundamental future development to guidance on the operation of specific enterprises.
The basic planning unit for transformation of the Polish economy was the five-year plan, the first of which began in 1956.
By the late 1960s, the economy was clearly stagnant, consumer goods were extremely scarce, and planners sought new approaches to avoid repetition of the social upheavals of 1956.
www.country-studies.com /poland/the-centrally-planned-economy.html   (1626 words)

Planning in the 1960s vacillated on the question of whether Cuba should concentrate on the production of sugar, on industrialization, or on a balance between the two.
The 1975–80 development plan, approved by at the PCC Congress in December 1975, set specific production goals for Cuban industry and projected an overall economic growth rate of 6% annually; it was announced in 1980 that the actual growth rate was 4%.
The 1986–90 plan envisioned a 5% annual growth and aimed particularly at an increase in exports.
www.nationsencyclopedia.com /Americas/Cuba-ECONOMIC-DEVELOPMENT.html   (626 words)

 The World Factbook 2004 -- Field Listing - Economy - overview   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Plans for the future include upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment, strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, and, in general, further widening the economic base beyond oil and gas.
The economy is predominantly agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on subsistence agriculture.
The economy felt the impact of the global economic slowdown in 2001, particularly in the high-tech export sector; the growth rate was cut by nearly half.
www.brainyatlas.com /fields/2116.html   (16441 words)

 Communism - MSN Encarta
In their Communist Manifesto (1848), Marx and Engels dismissed all of the reformers who had come before them as naive “utopian socialists,” claiming that their plans for communal property could not be achieved in capitalistic societies.
A political revolution was essential, in Marx’s view, because the state is the central instrument of capitalist society.
Other Marxists rejected the revolutionary perspective, holding that public control of the economy could be achieved by peaceful means, such as by electing Marxists to government positions.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761572241/Communism.html   (2717 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Prior to independence in 1962 Algeria's economy had been dominated by agriculture for a millennium and was known as 'the breadbasket of the Roman empire'.
Algiers' efforts to reform its centrally planned economy stalled by the political turmoil erupted in the early nineties.
The government continued its efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector, but unemployment and improving living standards have not successfully dealt with.
www.arab.net /algeria/aa_economy.htm   (278 words)

 Economy - Vietnam - Asia
Under French colonial rule, agriculture continued to occupy the primary place in the national economy, although emphasis shifted to the cultivation of export crops.
The North operated under a highly centralized, planned economy, whereas the South mostly maintained a free-market system that had some government involvement.
After reunification in 1976 the North gradually extended its centrally planned economy throughout the country.
www.countriesquest.com /asia/vietnam/economy.htm   (251 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Baysdell Know the Characteristics of a centrally planned economy including: The central government owns all land and capital The central government makes all economic decisions Each person is arbitrarily assigned a job Know the meaning of competition (An example of competition would be the struggle among various producers for the consumer’s business).
Know the economy of different areas such as China, which has a mixed economy but is still on the side of being centrally planned.
Command economies have several weaknesses, including: 1) There is no incentive for people to work hard 2) It requires a large, decision making bureaucracy 3) It lacks the flexibility to deal with minor problems Economic goals are important because they help people determine if an economic system meets their needs.
www.davison.k12.mi.us /dhs/staff/baysdell/econ/ch2econ.doc   (650 words)

 Socialism, by Robert Heilbroner: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: Library of Economics and Liberty
Socialism—defined as a centrally planned economy in which the government controls all means of production—was the tragic failure of the twentieth century.
At its apex was Gosplan, the highest state planning agency, which established such general directives for the economy as the target rate of growth, the allocation of effort between military and civilian outputs, between heavy and light industry, or among various regions.
In theory such an order book should enable planners to reconstitute a working economy each year—provided, of course, that the nuts fitted the bolts, the girders were of the right dimensions, the grain output was properly stored, the tractors operable, and the cotton, cardboard, and coal of the kinds needed for their manifold uses.
www.econlib.org /library/Enc/Socialism.html   (1870 words)

 Planned economy - Article from FactBug.org - the fast Wikipedia mirror site
A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce and how they are to be priced and allocated, and may include state ownership of the means of production.
Since most known planned economies rely on plans implemented by the way of command, they have become widely known as command economies.
That is, corporations are essentially minature centrally planned economies and seem to do just fine in a free market.
www.factbug.org /cgi-bin/a.cgi?a=7843   (1072 words)

 Planned economy - Search Results - MSN Encarta
economic policy, amount of planning in various economies, city planning, Communism and Socialism, economic development, examples of planned...
Marx and Engels conceived of communism as a society of abundance, equality, and free choice.
Under Salazar’s New State regime Portugal and its overseas possessions became a unitary state with a planned economy.
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/search.aspx?q=Planned+economy   (123 words)

 Vietnam Economy
The shift away from a centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented economic model improved the quality of life for many Vietnamese.
While the country has moved toward a more market-oriented economy, the Vietnamese Government still continues to hold a tight rein over major sectors of the economy, such as the banking system and state-owned enterprises.
The December 10, 2001, entry-into-force of the Bilateral Trade Agreement (BTA) between the U.S. and Vietnam is a significant milestone for Vietnam's economy and for normalization of U.S.-Vietnam relations.
www.traveldocs.com /vn/economy.htm   (1082 words)

 centrally planned economy | Sprol
Massive water projects like the centralized hot water and heating system in Kiev were a hallmark of a centrally planned economy.
Central planning transformed an agrarian peasant economy into a 'superpower' in three generations, completely wrecking the environent in the process.
They plan to bring 9,500-14000 homes, front porches, a centralized business district, lofts, and a variety of new architectural styles to the community to create a different feel for the traditional master planned subdivision.
www.sprol.com /?s=centrally+planned+economy   (5891 words)

 NationMaster - Chinese Economy statistics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving the economy from a sluggish, inefficient, Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented system.
Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, China in 2003 stood as the second-largest economy in the world after the US, although in per capita terms the country is still poor.
Another long-term threat to growth is the deterioration in the environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially in the north.
www.nationmaster.com /country/ch/Economy   (685 words)

 Finance & Development, September 2000 - Poland's Transformation
This plan was designed to stabilize the economy, promote structural reforms, and put the country on the right path to becoming a market economy.
Poland benefited from the difficult but effective introduction of truly market-driven mechanisms into the economy and became the first country in the region to rebound from transformational recession and exceed GDP levels seen before postcommunist reforms.
A moderate recovery during 1992-94 was followed by robust growth (the fastest in Central Europe) during 1995-99 that was driven by a rapid expansion of the new private sector.
www.imf.org /external/pubs/ft/fandd/2000/09/balcerow.htm   (1617 words)

 Market Economy
This is the opposite of a centrally planned economy, in which government decisions drive most aspects of a country's economic activity.
Market economies work on the assumption that market forces, such as supply and demand, are the best determinants of what is right for a nation's well being.
While most developed nations today could be classified as having mixed economies, they are often said to have market economies because they allow market forces to drive most of their activities, typically engaging in government intervention only to the extent that it is needed to provide stability.
www.investopedia.com /terms/m/marketeconomy.asp   (279 words)

 Economy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The authorities have switched to a system of household responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment.
The government has struggled to (a) collect revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned enterprises many of which had been shielded from competition by subsides and had been losing the ability to pay full wages and pensions.
Popular resistance, changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened China's population control program, which is essential to maintaining growth in living standards.
www.studentorg.umd.edu /ccc/Economy.htm   (593 words)

 Economy & Economic Structure of Vietnam   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Like China, Vietnam has made a rapid transition from a command economy to one that is heading for open-market free trading.
In spite of considerable efforts to industrialise the country especially in the north, Vietnam’s economy is still dominated by agricultural production.
Since then a number of measures have been taken to gradually turn the country’s centrally-planned economy into a market economy.
www.sadec.com /Profile/viet07.html   (368 words)

 Mongolia: A Centrally Planned Economy in Transition - ADB.org   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Mongolia: A Centrally Planned Economy in Transition - ADB.org
Published for the ADB by Oxford University Press (OUP) in 1992, this book is based on the findings of the ADB's first economic mission to Mongolia.
The book provides a comprehensive review and analysis of the country's economy over several decades, then focuses on the economic reforms undertaken since the mid-1980s to transform the economy from a centrally planned system to a market-driven system.
www.adb.org /Publications/product.asp?sku=0035P   (115 words)

 artdiamondblog.com: The Centrally Planned Economy: "Why doesn't Wuhan have heating?"
Around his apartment were signs of China's new prosperity: a color television, refrigerator, washing machine and air conditioner.
Li, who was bundled up in a down coat and a quilt, with an electric heater blowing warm air toward him.
Heating systems are one of the last areas that remain under China's former centrally planned economy, with government regulators still setting the thermostat for homes, classrooms and offices across the country.
www.artdiamondblog.com /archives/2006/03/the_centrally_p.html   (423 words)

 Bosnia-Herzegovina Economy
For the most part, agriculture has been in private hands, but farms have been small and inefficient, and food has traditionally been a net import for the country.
Industry still is greatly overstaffed, reflecting the legacy of the centrally-planned economy.
Three years of interethnic strife destroyed the economy and infrastructure in Bosnia, caused the death of about 200,000 people, and displaced half of the population.
www.traveldocs.com /ba/economy.htm   (364 words)

 Russia in the Global Economy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The first describes the logic and mechanism of pre-existing socialist planned economy and suggests reasons for the collapse of communism at the end of the 1980s.
The Political Economy of Transition, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2002.
Income, Inequality and Poverty during the transition from Planned to Market economy  by Branko Milanovic, book in PDF format (1941 KB).
www.eco.utexas.edu /graduate/Konstantinova/Russia.htm   (1168 words)

 Congressman Jim Ramstad - Strengthening The Economy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Vietnam has made noticeable progress in reforming the country's economy since 1986, moving away from its centrally-planned economy to a more market-oriented one.
These policies of political and economic reintegration in the world must be encouraged, especially in light of recent economic decline in the region.
Hopefully, just as the Vietnamese Communist Party has relinquished some of its control over the economy to spur its growth, they will also see the benefits of political freedoms for the citizens.
www.house.gov /ramstad/economytrade6.htm   (211 words)

 Economy Of Slovakia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Slovakia has mastered much of the difficult transition from a centrally planned economy to a modern market economy.
Slovakia's economy exceeded expectations in 2001-03, despite the general European slowdown.
Unemployment, at an unacceptable 15% in 2003, remains the economy's Achilles heel.
www.appliedlanguage.com /country_guides/slovakia_country_economy.shtml   (504 words)

 US Policy embraces State-Planned economy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Instead, government centrally plans and manages the economy.
The scaffolding for a centrally-planned economy was passed piecemeal under President Clinton and is currently being reassembled at the state level by combining the following federal laws into a three-way "public/private partnership:"
Government is implementing policies that will lead to poverty, not prosperity, by adopting the failed ideas of a state-planned and managed economy similar to that of the former Soviet Union.
edaction.org /upda0219.htm   (421 words)

 Find in a Library: Mongolia : a centrally planned economy in transition.
Find in a Library: Mongolia : a centrally planned economy in transition.
Mongolia : a centrally planned economy in transition.
WorldCat is provided by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. on behalf of its member libraries.
worldcatlibraries.org /wcpa/ow/1e06517b727649f9a19afeb4da09e526.html   (63 words)

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