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Topic: Centromere

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  Centromere - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A centromere functions in sister chromatid adhesion, kinetochore formation, pairing of homologous chromosomes and is involved in the control of gene expression.
A centromere is the region where sister chromatids join in the double chromosomal structure during mitosis, prophase and metaphase.
The centromere is also where kinetochore formation takes place: proteins bind on the centromeres that form an anchor point for the spindle formation required for the pull of chromosomes toward the centrioles during the anaphase and telophase of mitosis.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Centromere   (520 words)

 Rice centromere, supposedly quiet genetic domain, surprises (Jan 12, 2004)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The rice centromere is accessible, says Jiang, because the centromere of rice chromosome 8 lacks the vast tracts of repetitive non-coding DNA common to most species.
It may be that the centromere sequenced by the team led by Jiang is in its early evolutionary stages.
In the rice centromere, it may be that evolution has not yet purged active genes to be replaced by the long and repetitive blocks of DNA that mark the centromeres of most organisms.
www.news.wisc.edu /9294.html   (591 words)

 Analysis of Centromere Structure and Function
Centromere morphology has been well-characterized in higher eukaryotes, and a number of specific proteins that localize to distinct centromere domains have been identified.
The centromeric regions that we defined contain a surprisingly large number of predicted genes, both in the areas immediately flanking the centromere, as well as within the centromere itself.
Centromeres undergo dramatic changes in morphology through the cell cycle, alternating between an extended conformation during cell growth and a condensed form incorporating millions of base pairs during mitosis and meiosis.
preuss.bsd.uchicago.edu /analysis.html   (628 words)

 Journal of Biology | Full text | Adaptive evolution of centromere proteins in plants and animals
Despite this essential conserved function in all eukaryotes, centromere structure is highly variable, ranging from the simple short centromeres of budding yeast, which have a consensus sequence of approximately 125 base pairs (bp) on each chromosome, to holokinetic centromeres that span the entire length of a chromosome [1].
In plants and animals, centromeres are large and complex, typically comprising megabase-sized arrays of tandemly repeated satellite sequences that are rapidly evolving [2] and may differ significantly between closely related species [3-5].
Centromere drive provides a mechanism for the tendency of karyotypes to be either mostly metacentric or mostly acrocentric [59] and for the karyotype-specific accumulation of selfish B chromosomes in mammals [60].
jbiol.com /content/3/4/18   (8870 words)

 Centromere definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms
Centromere: The cinched "waist" of the chromosome essential for the division and the retention of the chromosome in the cell.
The centromere is a uniquely specialized region of the chromosome to which spindle fibers attach during cell division.
The human centromere contains a 3-million-base stretch of DNA embedded in what has been called the centromere and that is all it takes to make a functional centromere.
www.medterms.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=2668   (144 words)

 1996 Centromere/Telomere Meeting Abstracts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The length of the spindle at the delay point (3-4um) is not dependent on the physical distance between the two centromeres, indicating that the arrest represents surveillance of a dicentric induced aberration.
We propose that the origin of the centromere of the marker chromosome is through the activation of a latent centromeric sequence by epigenetic mechanisms.
We have previously determined the structural organisation of the DNA sequences at the human Y chromosome centromere and localised the region required for mitotic centromere function to an interval of ~500 kb containing the alphoid satellite DNA array and adjacent Yp sequences (1).
www.genlink.wustl.edu /teldb/96CenTel/REPORTS.html   (13385 words)

 Rice Genome Organization: the Centromere and Genome Interactions -- KURATA et al. 90 (4): 427 -- Annals of Botany
centromere structure in chromosome 5 (Nonomura and Kurata, 2001).
Molecular mapping of the centromeres of tomato chromosomes 7 and 9.
Centromere mapping and orientation of the molecular linkage map of rice (Oryza sativa L.).
aob.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/90/4/427   (5127 words)

 Structural features of the rice chromosome 4 centromere -- Zhang et al. 32 (6): 2023 -- Nucleic Acids Research
the centromeres of maize (35), sorghum (36), barley (37), rice
Clarke,L. (1990) Centromeres of budding and fission yeast.
Miller,J.T., Dong,F., Jackson,S.A., Song,J. and Jiang,J. (1998) Retrotransposon-related DNA sequences in the centromeres of grass chromosomes.
nar.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/32/6/2023   (4289 words)

 Centromere renewal and replacement in the plant kingdom -- Dawe 102 (33): 11573 -- Proceedings of the National Academy ...
Centromere renewal and replacement in the plant kingdom -- Dawe 102 (33): 11573 -- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
CentO-C2 is present at centromeres and telomeres, and CentO-C1 is a centromere-specific sequence.
The telosomes lacked known centromere repeats from either barley or wheat yet were mitotically and meiotically transmissible.
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/102/33/11573   (1573 words)

 Effect of the Pairing Gene Ph1 on Centromere Misdivision in Common Wheat -- Vega and Feldman 148 (3): 1285 -- Genetics
Centromeres are represented by circles, parts of centromeres by half-circles.
The frequency of precocious centromere division of the univalent
, 1996  Centromere and telomere movements during early meiotic prophase of mouse and man are associated with the onset of chromosome pairing.
www.genetics.org /cgi/content/full/148/3/1285   (5086 words)

 Centromere Targeting of the Chromosomal Passenger Complex Requires a Ternary Subcomplex of Borealin, Survivin, and the ...
Centromere Targeting of the Chromosomal Passenger Complex Requires a Ternary Subcomplex of Borealin, Survivin, and the N-Terminal Domain of INCENP -- Klein et al.
Bishop, J. and Schumacher, J. Phosphorylation of the carboxyl terminus of inner centromere protein (INCENP) by the Aurora B kinase stimulates Aurora B kinase activity.
Sullivan, B. and Karpen, G. Centromeric chromatin exhibits a histone modification pattern that is distinct from both euchromatin and heterochromatin.
www.molbiolcell.org /cgi/content/full/17/6/2547   (7174 words)

 Human centromere repositioning "in progress" -- Amor et al. 101 (17): 6542 -- Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
The Inactive Centromere Is Resilient to TSA Activation.
As with that shown in A, the formation of the neocentromere might be the initiating event or occur concurrently with or after inactivation of the alphoid centromere.
Retention of Latent Centromeres in the Mammalian Genome
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/101/17/6542   (4525 words)

 The mammalian centromere: structural domains and the attenuation of chromatin modeling -- VAN HOOSER et al. 13 (9002): ...
The mammalian centromere: structural domains and the attenuation of chromatin modeling -- VAN HOOSER et al.
The core of the centromere is formed by satellite DNA with a subset of nucleotide sequences binding kinetochore proteins (38)
Facultative centromere proteins are generally associated with the outer kinetochore plate and fibrous corona (see ref 38
www.fasebj.org /cgi/content/full/13/9002/S216   (2864 words)

 Budding yeast centromere composition and assembly as revealed by in vivo¬†cross-linking -- Meluh and Koshland 11 (24): ...
Yeast centromere DNA is in a unique and highly ordered structure in chromosomes and small circular minichromosomes.
Yeast centromere binding protein CBF1, of the helix-loop-helix protein family, is required for chromosome stability and methionine prototrophy.
Evidence that the MIF2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a centromere protein with homology to the mammalian centromere protein CENP-C. Mol.
www.genesdev.org /cgi/content/full/11/24/3401   (6117 words)

 Centromere identity in Drosophila is not determined in vivo by replication timing -- Sullivan and Karpen 154 (4): 683 ...
centromeres are among the first or last sequences to be replicated.
Drosophila centromeres are replicated primarily in mid to late S phase in vitro in tissue culture cells.
The 4th chromosome (arrow), including the centromere, and the centromeres of the X and 3rd chromosomes (arrows) were stained with BrdU.
www.jcb.org /cgi/content/full/154/4/683   (3955 words)

 CENP-B box is required for de novo centromere chromatin assembly on human alphoid DNA -- Ohzeki et al. 159 (5): 765 -- ...
Centromeric inactivation in a dicentric human Y;21 translocation chromosome.
Centromere protein B null mice are mitotically and meiotically normal but have lower body and testis weights.
Centromeric chromatin and epigenetic effects in kinetochore assembly.
www.jcb.org /cgi/content/full/159/5/765   (6394 words)

 Determination of the binding constants of the centromere protein Cbf1 to all 16 centromere DNAs of Saccharomyces ...
Determination of the binding constants of the centromere protein Cbf1 to all 16 centromere DNAs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae -- Wieland et al.
3 Hegemann,J.H. and Fleig,U.N. (1993) The centromere of budding yeast.
16 Cai,M. and Davis,R.W. (1990) Yeast centromere binding protein CBF1, of the helix–loop–helix protein family, is required for chromosome stability and methionine prototrophy.
nar.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/29/5/1054   (3579 words)

 Human protein: Q71VN3 - Centromere protein B (Fragment). EMBL Bioinformatics Harvester   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
This protein is proposed to play an important role in the assembly of specific centromere structures in interphase nuclei and on mitotic chromosomes.
A human centromere protein, CENP-B, has a DNA binding domain containing four potential alpha helices at the NH2 terminus, which is separable from dimerizing activity.
Analysis of protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions of centromere protein B (CENP-B) and properties of the DNA-CENP-B complex in the cell cycle.
harvester.embl.de /harvester/Q71V/Q71VN3.htm   (825 words)

 Interactions between Centromere Complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae -- Nekrasov et al. 14 (12): 4931 -- Molecular ...
Bernard, P., Hardwick, K., and Javerzat, J.P. Fission yeast Bub1 is a mitotic centromere protein essential for the spindle checkpoint and the preservation of correct ploidy through mitosis.
Chen, Y., Baker, R.E., Keith, K.C., Harris, K., Stoler, S., and Fitzgerald-Hayes, M. The N terminus of the centromere H3-like protein Cse4p performs an essential function distinct from that of the histone fold domain.
Cleveland, D.W., Mao, Y., and Sullivan, K.F. Centromeres and kinetochores: from epigenetics to mitotic checkpoint signaling.
www.molbiolcell.org /cgi/content/full/14/12/4931   (8040 words)

 Medical Dictionary: Centromere - WrongDiagnosis.com
Centromere: a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape; "the centromere is difficult to sequence"
Centromere : clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The following list attempts to classify Centromere into categories where each line is subset of the next.
www.wrongdiagnosis.com /medical/centromere.htm   (228 words)

 ScienceDaily: Rice Centromere, Supposedly Quiet Genetic Domain, Surprises
Flood-tolerant California Rice Offering Relief To Poor Farmers Worldwide (August 23, 2006) -- Rice grown anywhere in the world soon could be made completely flood-tolerant because of new research led by UC Riverside's Julia Bailey-Serres, a professor of genetics.
Chromosome Centers Defined And Sequenced For Model Plant (December 29, 1999) -- The serendipitous discovery of a rare mutation and five years of concentrated effort have allowed a team of American and British researchers to define the centromeres of the five chromosomes of...
Chromosomal crossover -- Homologous recombination is the process by which two chromosomes, paired up during prophase 1 of meiosis, exchange some distal portion of their DNA.
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2004/01/040111212949.htm   (1860 words)

 InterPro: IPR006600 Centromere protein B, DNA-binding region
Centromere Protein B (CENP-B) is a DNA-binding protein localized to the centromere, which is suggested to organize arrays of centromere satellite DNA into a higher order structure which then directs centromere formation and kinetochore assembly in mammalian chromosomes.
This DNA-binding domain has also been identified in mouse jerky and eukaryotic transposases but not in any archael, bacteriaa or plant proteins.
Kikuchi J. Iwahara J. Kigawa T. Murakami Y. Okazaki T. Yokoyama S. Solution structure determination of the two DNA-binding domains in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Abp1 protein by a combination of dipolar coupling and diffusion anisotropy restraints.
www.ebi.ac.uk /interpro/IEntry?ac=IPR006600   (2999 words)

 All Centromere   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
WB CENP A, Centromere autoantigen A, centromere protein A, Centromere protein A 17k...
ICC/IF, WB CENP A, Centromere autoantigen A, centromere protein A, Centromere protein A 17k...
Predicted to react with Mouse (100% identity with immunogen), Sheep (94% identity with immunogen) and Hamster (94% identity with immunogen) due to sequence homology.
www.abcam.com /?c=3481   (387 words)

 RELEASE: Rice centromere, supposedly quiet genetic domain, surprises   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
RELEASE: Rice centromere, supposedly quiet genetic domain, surprises
MADISON - Probing the last genomic frontier of higher organisms, an international team of scientists has succeeded in sequencing a little understood - but critical - genetic domain in rice.
In doing so, the group, led by Jiming Jiang, a professor of horticulture at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and C. Robin Buell of the Institute for Genomic Research in Rockville, Md., has exposed a supposedly barren region of a rice chromosome known as the centromere.
www.news.wisc.edu /releases/9294.html   (594 words)

 Chromosome 6 Phylogeny in Primates and Centromere Repositioning -- Eder et al. 20 (9): 1506 -- Molecular Biology and ...
Chromosome 6 Phylogeny in Primates and Centromere Repositioning -- Eder et al.
to this simple evolutionary scenario, however, the centromere
as remains of duplicons that flanked the ancestral centromere.
mbe.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/abstract/20/9/1506   (700 words)

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