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Topic: Chalcolithic

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In the News (Thu 23 May 19)

  Golan - A Unique Chalcolithic Culture
Remains of an unknown culture of the Chalcolithic period (4th millennium BCE) have been discovered in the Golan in the past thirty years.
The Chalcolithic population in the Golan relied for survival on agriculture and herding.
Hillel Geva studied archeology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, participated in excavations in the Jewish Quarter and the Citadel in Jerusalem, and is author of the entry "Jerusalem" in the New Encyclopedia of Archeological Excavations in the Holy Land and editor of Ancient Jerusalem Revealed.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/Archaeology/golan.html   (785 words)

 Chaper 6: The People, from the Paleolithic to the Chalcolithic Periods
The Chalcolithic Age (chalcos, copper; lithos, stone) extended from the middle of the fifth to near the end of the fourth millennium B.C. During this period the art of smelting and molding copper was developed, and stone and bone tools were now augmented by a limited supply of implements made of this new substance.
The skill developed by smiths in the handling of copper is amply illustrated in the several hundred beautifully fashioned cultic items from the end of the Chalcolithic period that were discovered in a cave near the Dead Sea in the spring of 1961.
In Egypt the Chalcolithic period is represented by Badarian culture, first found at al Badari.
www.infidels.org /library/modern/gerald_larue/otll/chap6.html   (3396 words)

  Chalcolithic - Article from FactBug.org - the fast Wikipedia mirror site
The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos 'copper stone') period, also known as the Eneolithic or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools.
The period is a transitional one outside of the traditional three-age system, and occurs between the neolithic and bronze age.
The European Beaker people are often considered Chalcolithic as were the cultures which first adopted urbanisation in south west Asia.
www.factbug.org /cgi-bin/a.cgi?a=7446   (261 words)

 Chalcolithic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Chalcolithic (greek chalkos + lithos, "copper stone") period, also known as the Eneolithic or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tool s appeared alongside the use of stone tools.
The period is a transitional one outside of the traditional three-age system, and occurs between the neolithic and bronze age.
The European Beaker people are often considered Chalcolithic as were the cultures which first adopted urbanisation in south west Asia.
www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Chalcolithic.html   (404 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
During the Chalcolithic period (2200-700 B.C.), and continuing to the present day, this region was populated by settled agriculturalists, settled stock raising communities, nomadic pastoralists, hunter-gatherers, fishing communities, craftspeople, and laborers.
During the Chalcolithic, these diverse communities established a hierarchy of settlement types ranging from regional centers, well-planned and large communities with up to 6000 occupants, to ephemeral herding camps, represented by a few scattered artifacts and ephemeral house floors (Shinde 2002).
This hypothesis specifically disputes the idea that there was any dramatic shift in subsistence during the later period and instead suggests that the economy was always mixed, with agricultural, animal husbandry and hunting-foraging activities present throughout the sequence in varying degrees of importance.
gladstone.uoregon.edu /~grobbins/deccan.html   (1494 words)

 ANISTORITON Journal of History, Archaeology, ArtHistory: ArtHistory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Three important factors contributed to the development of this Late Chalcolithic society: a fully developed metallurgic technology; the enormous strides made in agriculture and the provision of food; and major advances in long-distance trade.
In southern Israel, Chalcolithic society produced hundreds of artifacts made of arsenic and antimony copper, which, like bronze was durable and easy to work with.
The Chalcolithic gold objects found in the Nahal Qanah Cave comprise eight ring-shaped ingots, weighing a total of one kilogram, which were minted in a mold.
www.anistor.co.hol.gr /english/enback/o033.htm   (1787 words)

 Jordan - History - Ancient Jordan
It was put to use in making axes, arrowheads and hooks, although flint tools also continued to be used for a long time.
Chalcolithic man relied less on hunting than in Neolithic times, instead focusing more on sheep and goat-breeding and the cultivation of wheat, barley, dates, olives and lentils.
Tuleitat Ghassul was a large Chalcolithic village in the Jordan Valley.
www.kinghussein.gov.jo /his_ancient.html   (651 words)

 Magan's Reli205 Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
After the date of the objects was established to be Chalcolithic, scholars began to question where the objects came from and what purpose they served.
Crown number seven resembles Chalcolithic ossuaries in that both are decorated with horns and bosses (Bar-Adon 1980: 25).
1992 "Nomadic pastoralists and the Chalcolithic hoard from Nahal Mishmar." Levant 24: 131-137.
www.owlnet.rice.edu /~reli205/megharp_cave   (1355 words)

 Biblical Archaeology Society Online Archive Search   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Made of local clay, the ossuaries were used by the Chalcolithic people to rebury the bones of their dead after the flesh had decayed.
Hammered copper and gold ornaments from an early Chalcolithic cemetery in Varna, on the Bulgarian coast of the Black Sea, reveal that 6,500 years ago this area was a bustling maritime center and the home of one of the world’s earliest metal industries.
Thirteen Chalcolithic settlements have been discovered around Lake Varna, which at the time was a bay of the Black Sea—not, as today, a separate lake—reaching 13 miles inland and providing a natural harbor for ships.
members.bib-arch.org /nph-proxy.pl/000000A/http/www.basarchive.org/bswbSearch.asp=3fPubID=3dBSBA&Volume=3d21&Issue=3d6&ArticleID=3d4&UserID=3d0&   (4190 words)

 Gal : The Peqi‘in Cave | The Shelby White - Leon Levy Program for Archaeological Publications
Peqi‘in is located within the heart of the Upper Galilee, Israel (map ref. 18135 26440), on the margins of Mt. Meiron, the highest mountain west of the Jordan River.
The cave was initially used for seasonal dwelling during the Early Chaclolithic period, evidenced by the results of probes excavated in the middle and lower chambers.
While the study of the Chalcolithic culture has focused to a great extent on central and southern Israel, these regional cultures are well presented, for the first time, in one homogeneous assemblage that shades new light on the inter-relations among them.
www.fas.harvard.edu /~semitic/wl/digsites/CLevant/Peqiin2006   (595 words)

 History of Cyprus : Chalcolithic Period 3500 - 2500/2300BC
During the Chalcolithic period changes of major importance took place along with technological and artistic achievements, especially towards its end.
The presence of a stamp seal and the size of the houses that was not uniform, both hint at property rights and social hierarchy.
The same story is supported by the burials because some of them were deposited in pits without grave goods and some in shaft graves with relatively rich furniture, both being indications of wealth accumulation by certain families and social differentiation.
www.rentcyprusvillas.com /cyprus/history-chalcolithic.htm   (243 words)

 Chalcolithic Period Levant - Ancient Near East .Net
The Chalcolithic Period in the Levant is that period between the late fifth and late fourth millennia BCE (approximately 4300 - 3300 BCE), during which human material culture consolidated on the advances of the Neolithic Period, utilising new metal technologies, in order to find expression in a variety of inter-related cultures trhoughout the region.
The term 'Chalcolithic' (pronounced kælkol, meaning "copper-stone") derives from the Greek χαλκος chalcos ('copper') and λίθος; lithos ('stone') and was first coined in by to describe the period of development transitional from the use of stone tools to the use of metals.
1977 "The Chalcolithic Culture of the Golan", BA 40 (1977), pp.57-62.
www.ancientneareast.net /levant_archaeology/levant_chalcolithic.html   (837 words)

Upon chemical analysis traces of still remaining lipids were found: some fatty acids were identified, permitting the interpretation that the ancient content was a fat of animal origin, which can be considered as milk from ruminants or a dairy produce thereof.
There are only very limited indications of the economy of chalcolithic settlements in this mountainous region which has been densely forested in prehistoric times, thus rendering all investigations on such topics even more interesting and important for the understanding of the past.
It has been assumed – relying predominantly on indirect evidence – that the subsistence of the population living there in chalcolithic times was mainly based on secondary animal products, in particular on milk and on more durable products thereof which might also have been valuable as provisions for the cold time of the year.
www.arkat-usa.org /home.aspx?VIEW=MANUSCRIPT&MSID=799   (1679 words)

 Rediff on the NeT: Excavation reveals Harappans did not define Copper Age
The Chalcolithic Age is characterised by the presence of early human communities engaged chiefly in farming.
The excavations were conducted with the purpose of understanding the lifestyle of the early farming community in the Chalcolithic Age of which very little is known so far.
While it is widely believed that Harappans played an important role in the development of the early farming communities, the team of archaeologists have uncovered traces of the existence of such a community which existed during a period prior to 2400 BC that had evolved independently and without the support of Harappans.
www.rediff.com /news/mar/12archae.htm   (722 words)

 Çatalhöyük 2001 Archive Report
The Chalcolithic walls were visible both in plan and in the sides of these features; they show the northern and western limits of the spaces revealed in 2000, and parts of adjacent buildings.
Given the size and complexity of the structure, the intention of the limited 2001 season was to expand excavation horizontally rather than vertically, through an extension of the 2000 trench to the north, west and east.
Meanwhile in the corner of the trench to the north and west of grave F726 cleaning layer 7276 was removed to define two Chalcolithic walls and midden-like infill truncated by the grave (B).
www.catalhoyuk.com /archive_reports/2001/ar01_05.html   (2743 words)

 Pella97   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Material included two fragmentary phases of EBI domestic architecture, patches of at least three phases of Chalcolithic occupation, and at the base of the sequence, a number of plaster-lined pits, and sections of two Late Neolithic semi-subterranean roundhouses.
The size of the structure and the large volume of wheat involved suggest that this was probably a public storage facility for foodstuffs gathered by a centralised authority and redistributed as necessary.
It hints at an organisational sophistication consistent with a tendency towards social stratification and economic specialisation that is emerging from recent studies on the Late Chalcolithic of the Levant.
acl.arts.usyd.edu.au /research/pella/pella97.html   (2111 words)

 BANGLAPEDIA: Pandu Rajar Dhibi   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The span of the Chalcolithic period in West Bengal is c 1600 BC - 750 BC.
At the lower level of Period I, handmade grey and pale red ware pottery-fragments with husk- impressions in the core and a fractional human burial were encountered, while at the upper level the ceramics consisted of plain fl-and-red, grey, and matt-red wares.
As to the artists of the Chalcolithic culture of Bengal, we are in the dark.
banglapedia.org /HT/P_0067.HTM   (930 words)

 Workshop II Programme
It is currently common to date the Chalcolithic period to the time span of 4,500-3,500 B.C. cal., and to subdivide the period into temporal units (i.e., Early, Late).
The early EB I occupation at Ashqelon is proposed as representing the material culture of Chalcolithic cultural groups that relocated to the southern coastal plain after the collapse of the Chalcolithic geo-cultural sphere of the Northern Negev.
In this region, Chalcolithic burials are usually found as intra-site infant burials while adults and sub-adults were generally accorded secondary burials in clay or stone ossuaries in caves or burial structures outside sites.
www.uam.es /otroscentros/asiriologiayegipto/5icaane/ws2_prog.html   (2924 words)

 The CANEW Project
Early Chalcolithic sites are found toward fan peripheries and perhaps just beyond them as well as in the central area, so again seasonally flooded areas would have been an important zone within the subsistence practices of the Early Chalcolithic occupants.
It is tempting to correlate this Early Chalcolithic spread of small settlements with the decline in size of the area occupied in the Çatalhöyük setting.
At Çatalhöyük West Middle Chalcolithic (Early Chalcolithic II) pottery is not found as extensively as the classic Early Chalcolithic pottery (Last 1996:152) suggesting reduction in the area of the settlement.
www.canew.org /lecsumbairdbox.html   (9200 words)

 IRERP - Izmir Region Excavations and Research Project
Excavation of the site is continuing as a joint rescue Project together with the IRERP and the Izmir Museum under the scientific direction of Prof.
Late Chalcolithic settlement yielded important amounts of metal finds and slags indicating the existance of a developed metal production at this early stage on the site.
Lithic (obsidian and silex) and bone artifacts attested at the Late Chalcolithic village are also abundant.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Forum/8635/bakla.html   (550 words)

Gophna (1972) and Alon (1974) found Early Bronze I and Chalcolithic remains on the terrace near the fields east of the tel.
Although fine ware and other typical Chalcolithic materials were present, a crude, handmade, straw-tempered cup, unusual because of its shape and quantity among the cave’s vessels, characterized the ceramics.
Skeletal remains of two of the earliest Chalcolithic occupants were discovered on the cave floor, possibly the victims of the cave’s collapse.
journalofbiblicalstudies.org /Issue2/Articles/Tell_Halif/html/strata.html   (2033 words)

 Chalcolithic Materials from Teleilat Ghassul in the Semitics/ICOR Library
Teleilat Ghassul (Tulaylât al-Ghassûl) is a large Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in the lower Jordan Valley some 5-6 km.
This is one of some twenty study collections given by the Pontifical Biblical Institute, for purposes of archaeological research and teaching, to individuals and institutions associated with the Catholic Biblical Association (CBA).
Sandra A. Scham, "Pastoralism and the Emergence of Sociopolitical Complexity in the Chalcolithic Period - Teleilat Ghassul, Jordan." (Ph.D. diss., Catholic University of America, Washington, DC, 1999).
libraries.cua.edu /semicoll/semicrescoll2.html   (1626 words)

 Neolithic and Chalcolithic Wadi Rabah in Israel
Two Chalcolithic levels and the mixed remains of two Neolithic phases contemporary with (1) Jericho IX (Pottery Neolithic A) and the (2) Yarkukian Culture were identified here.....
Some of the pottery of the three Chalcolithic phases is both similar and contemporaneous with Halafian ware.....
It appears that after Wadi Rabah was abandoned sometime toward the end of the Chalcolithic Period that settlement resumed further west on virgin soil close to a spring - thus constituting the earliest settlement at Ras Ain.....
ancientneareast.tripod.com /Wadi_Rabah.html   (834 words)

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