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Topic: Challenger Deep

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  Challenger Deep - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Challenger Deep is the deepest known point in the oceans, 10,911 meters (35,797 feet) deep at its maximum, near 11°22′N 142°36′E.
The closest piece of land is Fais Island, one of the outer islands of Yap, 289 km southwest.
Over the course of six to nine million years, as the Challenger Deep grew to its present depth, many of the species present in the sediment died out or were unable to adapt to the increasing water pressure and changing environment.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Challenger_Deep   (549 words)

 Challenger - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Union Pacific Challenger is a 4-6-6-4 steam locomotive.
Challenger Plateau, a submarine rise in the Tasman Sea close to the New Zealand coast
The ATP Challenger Series is a series of professional tennis tournaments sanctioned by the ATP.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Challenger   (284 words)

 The deepest depths
It was during Lord Mulgrave's expedition to the Arctic in 1773 that some of the earliest attempts of deep sounding were made, the greatest depth being 683 fathoms, whence a sample of sediment was obtained.
One of the early snags of deep sounding was that a heavy weight was needed to take the line down, but to recover such a weight with the bottom sample adhering to it a very bulky line was required.
The earlier Challenger Expedition is said to have carried wire for sounding purposes, but for some reason this was not used, and the method using marked rope and timed intervals was employed for taking the many ocean soundings that this vessel made.
www.soc.soton.ac.uk /OTHERS/CSMS/OCHAL/deep.htm   (2154 words)

 The Challenger Oceanographic Expedition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Challenger Expedition claims the title of the world's first totally scientific oceanographic expedition By the time the HMS Challenger left the dock on December 21, 1872 (why do these British voyages always start around Christmas time?), the world was experiencing an intellectual and technological revolution of sorts.
One of the more intriguing methods used by Challenger that thankfully is not necessary today was their method for determining the depth of the bottom.
The Challenger cruise had lain the cornerstone of scientific oceanography and begun its introduction to the wider scientific and lay community...The findings of the cruise were correctly described by John Murray in 1895 as "the greatest advance in the knowledge of our planet since the celebrated discoveries of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries".
www.oceansonline.com /challenger_ex.htm   (1876 words)

 Oceans For Youth: Kids Corner
Challenger spent the spring and summer in the Caribbean, off the coast of Nova Scotia exploring the Gulf Stream, and crisscrossing the Atlantic.
Unwittingly, they had found the "Challenger Deep," a section of the Marianas Trench, the deepest portion of the Pacific to be discovered at the time, and very close to where the present-day record depth of about seven miles was recorded.
By 1895, almost 20 years after the Challenger expedition, when the final two volumes were published, the official report was more than 29,552 pages, 50 volumes "each as large as a family bible." More than 18,600 of those pages were devoted to descriptions of the creatures collected.
www.oceansforyouth.com /whats-that/ftr0603.html   (3369 words)

 Deepest Ocean - Challenger Deep
Challenger Deep got its name from the British survey ship Challenger II, which pinpointed the deep water off the Marianas Islands in 1951.
The more gallons of water you put between you and the surface of the ocean, the greater the pressure is on your body because of the weight of the water over the top of you.
The deepest measurement of the Challenger Deep currently available was taken by the Japanese and was found to be 35,838 feet.
www.extremescience.com /DeepestOcean.htm   (643 words)

 The Mariana Trench - Exploration - Part 1
The Mariana Trench was first pinpointed and surveyed in 1951 by the British Survey ship Challenger II., which gave its name for the trench's deepest point, "The Challenger Deep".
The scientist had the brilliant idea to use 70 tons of gasoline to fill the 50 foot long sub's floats, knowing that gasoline was lighter than water, which in turn was used to flood the submersible's air tanks, enabling its descent.
The Exploration of the challenger Deep by Swiss scientist Jacques Piccard and US Navy Lt. Donald Walsh set the record for deep-diving for having reached 10, 900 meters (35,810 feet).
www.marianatrench.com /mariana_trench-exploration_001.htm   (302 words)

 Dive and Discover : History of Oceanography
The Challenger was the first true oceanographic research vessel specifically designed to investigate the biology, geology and chemistry of the oceans and seafloor.
Challenger also had different winches-mechanical engines used to lower and hoist sounding lines to measure how deep the ocean was.
Among the Challenger Expedition’s discoveries was one of the deepest parts of the ocean -- the Marianas Trench in the western Pacific, where the seafloor is 26,850 feet, or more than 4 miles deep (8,200 meters).
www.divediscover.whoi.edu /history-ocean/challenger.html   (517 words)

 The Deep Places
The Hebrew word Moses used for "deep" often is used to refer to an abyss within the oceans, or the extreme depths of the seas.
The psalmist said that in God’s hand "are the deep places of the earth…the sea is His, for He made it" (95:3-5).
Humans always have been intrigued with such mysterious "deep places"—which is not surprising, considering that oceans cover around 72 percent of the Earth (336 million cubic miles of water that reaches an average depth of over 2 miles!).
www.discoverymagazine.com /articles/d2000/d0005a.htm   (450 words)

 Mariana Trench - MSN Encarta
This point, the Challenger Deep, is estimated to be 11,033 m (36,198 ft) deep.
The Challenger Deep was named after HMS Challenger II, the vessel of those who discovered the point in 1948.
In January 1960 Swiss ocean engineer Jacques Piccard and United States Navy Lieutenant Donald Walsh descended into the Challenger Deep in the French-built, U.S. Navy-operated bathyscaphe Trieste.
ca.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761579348/Mariana_Trench.html   (211 words)

 COA :: Deep-Sea Mollusks -- An Introduction
Temperature in the deep sea fluctuates between 4 and -1° C (39 and 30° F); exceptions are the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, with temperatures around 13° C (55° F), and the Red Sea, with temperatures around 21° C (70° F) at 2,000 m depth.
The predominance of soft bottoms in the deep sea is caused by long-term accumulation of sediments, both from continents (clay), and from biological oceanic sources (microscopic skeletons of planktonic organisms such as diatoms and foraminifers).
Scavengers are represented in the deep sea by a number of families in the order Cocculiniformia, including the Bathysciiadidae (feeding on sunken cephalopod beaks), Osteopeltidae (whale and fish bones), Lepetellidae (tubes of polychaete worms), and Choristellidae (empty egg-cases of sharks and rays).
www.conchologistsofamerica.org /articles/y1997/9701_leal.asp   (2080 words)

 Fathom :: The Source for Online Learning
The Challenger's 68,890-nautical-mile expedition, organised by the biologists William Benjamin Carter and Charles Wyville Thomson in 1872, witnessed the birth of oceanography as it is known today.
The significance of the Challenger was the intensity of the observations made, the global coverage and particularly the emphasis on very deep water.
Her deepest sounding, at almost 8,200 metres (26,904 feet) in what later became known as the Challenger Deep in the south-western Pacific, was by far the deepest taken up to that time, at a site very close to where the current record depth--of a little over 11 kilometres (seven miles)--was measured.
www.fathom.com /feature/60885   (2314 words)

 Nat' Academies Press, The Silent Landscape: The Scientific Voyage of HMS Challenger (2003)
The Scientifics’ recovery of the crinoid was significant because it proved that the Challenger expedition was fulfilling one of its primary roles: testing Darwin’s theory that the bottom of the ocean was a haven for life forms found on land only as fossils.
The origins of the Deep Sea Drilling Project are complex and will be dealt with in the final chapter of this volume, when we consider the implications and heritage of the original Challenger expedition.
At its current position the GLOMAR Challenger was drilling on the flank of a submerged volcano, but it was clear that the volcano could not have provided these pea-sized gravels unless it had once been exposed to weather and subjected to erosion by streams running down its sides.
www.nap.edu /books/0309089042/html/25.html   (6805 words)

 BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Sea floor survey reveals deep hole
The Challenger Deep has been visited by a number of manned and unmanned submersibles since its discovery, but at present there is no craft in operation that can survive the crushing pressure at its bottom.
The Challenger Deep was discovered in 1951 by the Royal Navy ship Challenger 2, after which it is named.
The only recent vessel that could, the Japanese unmanned Kaiko which reached the bottom of the Challenger Deep in 1995, was lost in May after it broke its tethers during a storm.
news.bbc.co.uk /2/hi/science/nature/3071749.stm   (468 words)

 NEPTUNE'S WEB - Ocean Quest - Ocean Floor; The Sea Floor   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The continental slope, between the shelf and the deep ocean, slopes an average of two to three degrees, except off volcanic islands where the slope is about 50 degrees.
Much of the deep ocean floor, especially in the Pacific, is covered with basins, and somewhat resembles the surface of the moon.
Another prominent feature of the deep ocean floor is the deep ocean trenches which are found in areas of volcanic activity.
pao.cnmoc.navy.mil /educate/neptune/quest/floor/seafloor.htm   (316 words)

 World chess champion Garry Kasparov defeated computerized challenger Deep Junior on ...
Kasparov forced the Israeli-programmed Deep Junior into a position from which it could not win, compelling the human moving its pieces to resign four hours into the game.
The win is a coup for Kasparov, who was beaten in 1997 by Deep Blue, an IBM supercomputer capable of 200 million chess moves per second.
Deep Junior is a three-time world champion and won the last official world chess championship for computers in July.
www.xponsewebs.com /forum/topic_12_492.html   (435 words)

 NOVA Online | Into the Abyss | Discoveries in the Deep
Norwegians haul up from the deep a sea lily, a living fossil previously found only in rocks 120 million years old.
British ship Challenger sails the globe while lowering dredges and other gear into the deep, finding long mountain chains, puzzling nodules, and hundreds of animals previously unknown to science.
British ship Challenger II bounces sound off the bottom, and near Guam finds what appears to be the sea's deepest chasm, its lowest point nearly seven miles down, subsequently named the Challenger Deep.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/abyss/frontier/discoveries.html   (583 words)

 Geoscientists from Israel, Texas Offer Theory On Origin of Deepest Point on Earth's Surface
Recognizing that the Challenger Deep lies within a subduction trench, however, still does not explain why it is located where it is and not hundreds of miles to the north or in other oceanic trenches.
However, at the Challenger Deep, the subducting lithosphere is quite short and the subduction rate is relatively slow.
The Challenger Deep is located at the southern end of the Mariana Trench, near the Mariana Islands Group.
www.utdallas.edu /news/archive/2004/challengerdeep.htm   (627 words)

 The Deep Sea
To one who can’t swim, the “deep sea” may be just a little above ankle level in the ocean.
The ocean bottom is divided into three major areas: the continental shelf, the continental slope, and the deep ocean basin.
It is beyond the continental shelf that the “deep sea” begins.
www.ocean.udel.edu /deepsea/level-2/geology/deepsea.html   (453 words)

 Abilene Reporter News: News   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
But things in the Challenger Deep, also known as the Marianas Trench, are anything but typical.
Finding the animals so common in the deep bottom ooze was a surprise, said lead author Yuko Todo of Shizouka University, because in most other deep-sea environments they make up only 5 percent to 20 percent of living things.
"Since the Challenger Deep may have developed to its present depth during the past 6 to 9 million years," the researchers say, the distinctive animals "probably represent the remnants of an assemblage that was able to adapt to the steady increase in hydrostatic pressure over this time period."
www.texnews.com /shns/story.cfm?pk=DEEPLIFE-02-03-05&cat=AS   (407 words)

 A Brief History
The Challenger expedition covered 127,653 kilometers (68,890 nautical miles) and is credited with providing the first real view of major seafloor features such as the deep ocean basins.
With the expanded use of fiber optics, satellites, and remote-controlled robots, scientists someday may explore the deep sea from a computer screen in the lab rather than out of a porthole.
(This word is derived from the Greek words bathos —"deep" and scaphos —"ship".) On an unpiloted dive in the Cape Verde Islands, his invention, named FNRS 2, successfully withstood the pressure on it at 1,402 meters (4,600 ft), but its float was severely damaged by heavy waves after the dive.
www.ocean.udel.edu /deepsea/level-2/tools/history.html   (886 words)

 Sea and Sky: Ocean Exploration 1800 A.D. - Present
The British ship Challenger II bounces sound waves off the ocean bottom and locates what appears to be the sea's deepest point.
This U.S. Government agency is responsible for all U.S. weather and climate forecasting, monitoring and archiving of ocean and atmospheric data, management of marine fisheries and mammals, mapping and charting of all U.S. waters, coastal zone management, and research and development in all of these areas.
Scientists aboard the deep sea submersible, Alvin, discover and document incredible deep sea hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific ocean.
www.seasky.org /oceanxp/sea5a3.html   (1058 words)

 Challenger articles on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Challenger expedition CHALLENGER EXPEDITION [Challenger expedition] British oceanographic expedition under the direction of the Scottish professor Charles Wyville Thompson and the British naturalist Sir John Murray.
It is the deepest (35,798.6 ft/10,911.5 m at the Challenger Deep) known depression on the earth's surface.
Deep Sea Drilling Project DEEP SEA DRILLING PROJECT [Deep Sea Drilling Project] U.S. program designed to investigate the evolution of ocean basins by core drilling of ocean sediments and underlying oceanic crust.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Challenger   (476 words)

 Extremely Barophilic Bacteria Isolated from the Mariana Trench, Challenger Deep, at a Depth of 11,000 Meters -- Kato ...
Extremely Barophilic Bacteria Isolated from the Mariana Trench, Challenger Deep, at a Depth of 11,000 Meters -- Kato et al.
Challenger Deep, at a depth of 10,898 m.
Molecular analyses of the sediment of the 11000 m deep Mariana Trench.
aem.asm.org /cgi/content/full/64/4/1510   (2589 words)

 AAAS - AAAS News Release
Much to the surprise of researchers Yuko Todo and colleagues, these populations of organisms known as foraminifera were found to inhabit the sediment of the Challenger Deep, in the Pacific's enormous Marianas Trench.
The lineage to which the new soft-walled foraminifera belong includes the only species to have invaded fresh water and land, and analysis of the new organisms' DNA suggests they represent a primitive form of organism dating back to Precambrian times from which more complex multichambered organisms evolved.
The depth of the Challenger Deep may have developed during the past 6 to 9 million years, the authors say, adding that the organisms recently found there probably descended from populations that were able to adapt to steady increases in pressure as the depth increased.
www.aaas.org /news/releases/2005/0203scipak.shtml   (199 words)

 Chess Champion vs Computer - Techzonez
Kasparov was able to move forward both his knights, which are among the most powerful pieces on the chess board, and two of his lowly pawns to strategic central positions.
The moves came about 10 minutes after Deep Junior took as long as 25 minutes to respond to Kasparov's positioning several moderately important pieces in the center of the board.
Deep Junior processes only 3 million moves per second, but its programmers say it focuses more on strategy than capturing the opponent's chess pieces quickly.
www.techzonez.com /forums/showthread.php?t=4054   (328 words)

 BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Life flourishes at crushing depth
The Marianas Trench forms part of the subduction zone where the west Pacific oceanic floor is being pulled under the Philippine tectonic plate.
The foraminifera probably ingest particles of organic matter that rain down from higher up in the water column or materials that are dissolved in the seawater.
Challenger Deep was discovered in 1951 by the Royal Navy ship Challenger 2 - hence the name.
news.bbc.co.uk /2/hi/science/nature/4235979.stm   (417 words)

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