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Topic: Character encoding

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  Character encoding - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Conventionally character set and character encoding were considered synonymous, as the same standard would specify both what characters were available and how they were to be encoded into a stream of code units (usually with a single character per code unit).
With Unicode in most cases a simple character encoding scheme is used, simply specifying if the bytes for each integer should be in big-endian or little-endian order (even this isn't needed with UTF-8).
However, there are also compound character encoding schemes, which use escape sequences to switch between several simple schemes (such as ISO 2022), and compressing schemes, which try to minimise the number of bytes used per code unit (such as SCSU, BOCU, and Punycode).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Character_encoding   (724 words)

 Chinese character encoding - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In computing, Chinese character encodings can be used to represent text written in the CJK languages — Chinese, Japanese, Korean — and (rarely) Vietnamese, all of which use Chinese characters.
The opposite conversion often results in a data loss when converting to early forms of the GB character set (namely GB2312 80): in mapping one-to-many when assigning traditional glyphs to the simplified glyphs, some characters will inevitably be the wrong choices in some of the usages.
The issue of which encoding to use can also have political implications, as GB is the official standard of the People's Republic of China and Big5 is a de facto standard of Taiwan.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chinese_character_encoding   (501 words)

 UTR#17: Character Encoding Model
A character encoding form is a mapping from the set of integers used in a CCS to the set of sequences of code units.
Character encoding schemes are relevant to the issue of cross-platform persistent data involving code units wider than a byte, where byte-swapping may be required to put data into the byte polarity canonical for a particular platform.
From the IANA charset point of view it is important that a sequence of encoded characters be unambiguously mapped onto a sequence of bytes by the charset.
www.unicode.org /reports/tr17   (6354 words)

 Creating Multilingual Web Pages: Unicode Support in HTML, HTML Editors and Web Browsers
The character encoding of an HTML document specifies the technical details of how the characters in the document character set should be represented as bits when stored in a computer file or transmitted over the Internet.
However, characters that are not allowed for in a character encoding can still be included in an HTML document by using character references.
Character encoding is also referred to by other names, including character encoding scheme, character coding, charset, coded character set, encoding and transmission character set.
www.alanwood.net /unicode/htmlunicode.html   (2017 words)

 Character Encoding... A few words on the subject
This encoding signature is not to be displayed, any tool that support Unicode will understand this and will not show this to you nor consider it to be part of the text file.
A parser found a character on your file that is not according the encoding declaration or the BOM specified for that file.
The W3Cdefines a element for this propose, and a encoding attribute to specify the pretended encoding of the output.
www.geocities.com /pmpg98_pt/CharacterEncoding.html   (2818 words)

 HTML Document Representation
The document character set, however, does not suffice to allow user agents to correctly interpret HTML documents as they are typically exchanged -- encoded as a sequence of bytes in a file or during a network transmission.
The "charset" parameter identifies a character encoding, which is a method of converting a sequence of bytes into a sequence of characters.
A user agent may not be able to render all characters in a document meaningfully, for instance, because the user agent lacks a suitable font, a character has a value that may not be expressed in the user agent's internal character encoding, etc.
www.w3.org /TR/REC-html40/charset.html   (2143 words)

 HTML Unleashed. Internationalizing HTML: Character Encoding Standards - webreference.com
As explained in Chapter 3, "SGML and the HTML DTD," a character encoding (often called character set or, more precisely, coded character set) is defined---first, by the numerical range of codes; second, by the repertoire of characters; and third, by a mapping between these two sets.
As a rule, character set standards are reluctant to exactly define the functions of control characters, as these functions may vary considerably depending on the nature of text processing software.
All of these encodings are backwards compatible with ISO 646; that is, the first 128 characters in each ISO 8859 code table are identical to 7-bit ASCII, while the national characters are always located in the upper 128 code positions.
www.webreference.com /dlab/books/html/39-1.html   (2424 words)

 The skew.org XML Tutorial
There are also special characters that don't manifest in writing at all, but are rather just exist in order to convey instructions to a mechanical device (tab, line feed, carriage return, and form feed characters, for example) or to provide hints for interpreting or rendering subsequent characters.
Unicode allows certain encoded characters to be combined in sequences in order to represent abstract characters that may or may not have other encoded character representations.
Encoding forms that produce 7-bit or 8-bit code value sequences don't need additional processing, so UTF-8, for example, can be considered to be both a character encoding form and a character encoding scheme.
skew.org /xml/tutorial   (8463 words)

 Character Encoding Detection [Universal Feed Parser]
XML and HTTP have different ways of specifying character encoding and different defaults in case no encoding is specified, and determining which value takes precedence depends on a variety of factors.
In XML, the character encoding is optional and may be given in the XML declaration in the first line of the document, like this:
Section F of the XML specification outlines the process for determining the character encoding based on unique properties of the Byte Order Mark in the first two to four bytes of the document.
feedparser.org /docs/character-encoding.html   (448 words)

 Java 2 Platform SE v1.3.1: Package java.lang
A family of character subsets representing the character blocks defined by the Unicode 2.0 specification.
Various constructors and methods in the java.lang and java.io packages accept string arguments that specify the character encoding to be used when converting between raw eight-bit bytes and sixteen-bit Unicode characters.
The default encoding is determined during virtual-machine startup and typically depends upon the locale and encoding being used by the underlying operating system.
java.sun.com /j2se/1.3/docs/api/java/lang/package-summary.html   (1814 words)

 Php I18n Charsets - Web Application Component Toolkit
In many cases, the encoding is just a direct projection of the scalar values, and there is no real distinction between the coded character set and its serialized representation.
The basic problem PHP has with character encoding is it has a very simple idea of what the notion of a character is: that one character equals one byte.
The character set you specify as this functions third argument means both the character set of the text you give html_entity_decode to parse and the character set which which to decode the entities into.
www.phpwact.org /php/i18n/charsets?s=utf8   (5981 words)

 Character Encoding
Following are the project-internal character encoding standards for the text documents in the Germanic Lexicon Project.
However, if the character is not atomic, then the entity name consists of the base character (or entity name for the base character in the case of non-ASCII base characters, such as andaelig; for æ) followed by a list of diacritic names, separated by hyphens.
Following is the database of characters outside the ASCII range (whether encoded as ISO-8859-1 characters or as entities) which we recognize as valid within the base documents.
www.ling.upenn.edu /~kurisuto/germanic/aa_character_encoding.html   (596 words)

 Checklist for HTML character encoding   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
If extended character coverage is being used anyway, then use the methods of scenario 6 (or 7).
Choose an 8-bit encoding appropriate to the desired repertoire (preferably an ISO code, e.g iso-8859-7 for Greek, or one that is widely used in its native habitat, e.g TIS-620 for Thai).
Contrary to rather widespread superstition, 8-bit coded characters are entirely legal on the WWW: indeed, if you are working outside of the Latin-1 repertoire, and want to be accessible also to older browsers, you have little choice (scenario 4).
ppewww.ph.gla.ac.uk /~flavell/charset/checklist   (3489 words)

 Character Encoding in AOLserver 3.0
A character encoding is a mapping from a set of characters to a set of octet sequences.
We cannot know what character set the user stores his files in, so we don't know how to translate an uploaded file to utf-8 (assuming the uploaded file is even a text file).
You need to be careful to use the same character encoding for encoding and decoding cookie values.
dqd.com /~mayoff/encoding-doc.html#content-files   (2673 words)

 [No title]
The "cs" stands for character set and is provided for applications that need a lower case first letter but want to use mixed case thereafter that cannot contain any special characters, such as underbar ("_") and dash ("-").
If the character set is not from an ISO standard, but is registered with ISO (IPSJ/ITSCJ is the current ISO Registration Authority), the ISO Registry number is specified as ISOnnn followed by letters suggestive of the name or standards number of the code set.
When a national or international standard is revised, the year of revision is added to the cs alias of the new character set entry in the IANA Registry in order to distinguish the revised character set from the original character set.
www.iana.org /assignments/character-sets   (1379 words)

 HTML Validation: Using Character Encodings
To validate or display an HTML document, a program must choose a character encoding.
Versions of HTML prior to HTML 4.0 supported a limited character set, only allowing those characters that could be encoded using ISO-8859-1.
The preferred method of indicating the encoding is by using the charset parameter of the Content-Type HTTP header.
www.htmlhelp.com /tools/validator/charset.html   (295 words)

 Page 3 - The PHP Scripting Language
A file is simply a sequence of characters than are interpreted by PHP as statements, variable identifiers, literal strings, HTML, and so on.
By default PHP reads the characters encoded to the ISO-8859-1 standard—a standard that is equivalent to 7-bit ASCII for the first 127 characters.
By convention, constant names use uppercase characters, and predefined constants are often named to indicate the associated library.
www.devshed.com /c/a/PHP/The-PHP-Scripting-Language/2   (1278 words)

 Character Encoding   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
HS-Links use an 8B/12B DC balanced encoding scheme, where 8 bits of data are encoded into 12 code bits, i.e.
In order to ensure a continuous stream of characters, which is required to keep the receiver calibrated, IDLE characters are sent when no data is available.
The end-of-packet (EP) character is used to terminate packets and can be replaced by the exceptional end-of-packet (EEP) character to indicate that an error has occurred.
hsi.web.cern.ch /HSI/dshs/publications/wotug21/hslink/html/node5.html   (244 words)

 Unicode Transformation Formats
As the first and second byte of a double-byte character both use the same {=A1..=FE} range of values, you cannot easily tell the one from the other and recognize the character boundaries in the middle of a long stretch of 8bit bytes.
UTF-8 is a variable-length multibyte encoding which means that you cannot calculate the number of characters from the mere number of bytes and vice versa for memory allocation and that you have to allocate oversized buffers or parse and keep counters.
UTF-8 uses 8bit characters which are still being stripped by many mail gateways because Internet messages were originally defined to be 7bit ASCII only but their number is decreasing as the software of the 1990s tends to be 8bit clean.
czyborra.com /utf   (5676 words)

 [No title]
The name given to this encoding is "ISO-2022-JP", which is intended to be used in the "charset" parameter field of MIME headers (see [MIME1] and [MIME2]).
The encoding is based on the particular usage of ISO 2022 announced Murai, Crispin & van der Poel [Page 3] RFC 1468 Japanese Character Encoding for Internet Messages June 1993 by 4/1 (see [ISO2022] for details).
The implementor is reminded that JIS X 0208 characters take up two bytes and should not be split in the middle to break lines for displaying, etc. The JIS X 0208 standard was revised in 1990, to add two characters at the end of the table.
www.ietf.org /rfc/rfc1468.txt   (1204 words)

 Character encodings
The document character set for XML and HTML 4.0 is Unicode (aka ISO 10646).
Content-Type: text/html; charset=EUC-JP For XML (including XHTML), use the encoding pseudo-attribute in the xml declaration at the start of a document or the text declaration at the start of an entity.
For a discussion of which approach is best for which type of (X)HTML document, see the tutorial Character sets and encodings in XHTML, HTML and CSS.
www.w3.org /International/O-charset.html   (368 words)

 Character encoding
The Unicode character set is backward compatible with the ISO-8859-1 or Latin-1 character set (and thus automatically also with the ASCII character set), because for every ISO-8859-1 character with hexadecimal value 0xXY, the corresponding Unicode code point is U+00XY.
Since Unicode characters are generally represented by a number that is 16 bits wide, as seen above (for the basic plane), it would seem that all text files would double in size, since the usual ASCII characters are 8 bits wide.
Indeed, the simplest solution is to take the code point that defines a character, split it up into two bytes, and write the two bytes to the file.
gedcom-parse.sourceforge.net /doc/encoding.html   (1196 words)

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