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Topic: Charge-coupled device


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CCD

  
 Charge-coupled device - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The charges in the CCD are transferred and read in a direction parallel to the motion of the sky, and at the same speed.
CCDs are typically sensitive to infrared light, which allows infrared photography, night-vision devices, and zero lux (or near zero lux) video-recording/photography.
Fairchild was the first with commercial devices and by 1974 had a linear 500 element device and a 2-D 100 x 100 pixel device.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Charge-coupled_device   (1657 words)

  
 CCD - Charge Coupled Device
Charge Coupled Device; An array (linear or matrix) of transductive elements wherein packets of electrons are set in each element as a result of the quantity of light received during an exposure interval, and where these packets are recovered from the array in the form of a pulse height-modulated electric signal.
Short for charged coupled device; a mechanism that converts light into a proportional (analog) electrical current; the two main types of CCD are linear arrays, used in flatbed scanners and digital copiers, and area arrays, found in camcorders, digital cameras, and the like.
Charge-coupled device, a very sensitive electronic device that is revolutionizing astronomy in the 1990s.
www.auditmypc.com /acronym/CCD.asp   (835 words)

  
 Olympus Microscopy Resource Center: Digital Imaging in Optical Microscopy - Concepts in Digital Imaging
Dynamic Range - In a charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor, dynamic range is typically specified as the maximum achievable signal divided by the camera noise, where the signal strength is determined by the full-well capacity, and noise is the sum of dark and read noises.
CCD Scanning Formats - Charge-coupled device (CCD) digital imaging sensors are capable of acquiring images in one of three formats: point scanning, line scanning, and area scanning.
Charge-coupled devices (CCDs), like microprocessor and memory integrated circuits, are fabricated on silicon wafers in a series of elaborate steps using photolithography to define and build various functional elements within the microcircuitry.
www.olympusmicro.com /primer/digitalimaging/concepts/concepts.html   (1704 words)

  
 Satellites - Charge Coupled Device
Charge coupled devices (CCD's) were invented in 1969 by Bell Labs in the United States.
An image is created by a CCD when light falls on individual sensors creating an electrical charge proportional to the light intensity.
The surface of a CCD is covered with a rectangular grid of microscopic light-sensitive elements.
collections.ic.gc.ca /satellites/english/engineer/instrum/ccd.html   (159 words)

  
 Intensified charge-coupled device - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An intensified charged-coupled device (ICCD) is a CCD that is fiber-optically connected to a micro-channel plate (MCP) to increase the sensitivity.
In ICCD Cameras a photo-cathode in front of the MCP converts photons to electrons which are multiplied by the MCP.
After the MCP a phosphor screen converts the electrons back to photons which are fiber-optically guided to the CCD.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Intensified_charge-coupled_device   (134 words)

  
 59975.020801&ELEMENT_SET=DECL
A charge-coupled device of the type mentioned in the opening paragraph is characterized in accordance with the invention in that the average doping concentration of impurity atoms of the second conductivity type in the well is lower at the location of the second electrode than at the location of the first electrode.
A charge-coupled device as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the second electrode is separated by an intermediate output electrode from a floating zone (4) of an output stage having an amplifier circuit coupled to the floating zone that is also connected to a reset transistor.
Charge-coupled devices belong to a generally known type of integrated circuits and are used on a large scale, for example as two-dimensional image sensors, in cameras to convert an electromagnetic radiation image into a series of electrical signals whose size is a measure of the local light intensity.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=02/59975.020801&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (3205 words)

  
 Nikon MicroscopyU: Fundamentals of Digital Imaging
Charge contents of pixels in the serial register are transferred one pixel at a time into an output node to be read by an on-chip amplifier, which boosts the electron signal and converts it into an analog voltage output.
Charge accumulated with the shutter open is subsequently transferred and read out after the shutter is closed, and because the two steps cannot occur simultaneously, image frame rates are limited by the mechanical shutter speed, the charge-transfer rate, and readout steps.
The CCD was initially conceived as a memory array, and intended to function as an electronic version of the magnetic bubble device.
www.microscopyu.com /articles/digitalimaging/ccdintro.html   (10446 words)

  
 CCD (Charge Coupled Device)
--> The CCD, or charge coupled device, is a part of a camera that reads light and captures video and still images as millions of pixels.
In this case, a single CCD is responsible for detecting and recording the brightness of all three primary colors (red, green and blue).
A three CCD camera is able to combine one pixel from each CCD to form a full-color pixel in the finished photograph.
www.sonystyle.com /intershoproot/eCS/Store/en/imagesOnline/technologies/ccd/ccd.html   (203 words)

  
 76227.011011&ELEMENT_SET=DECL
A charge coupled imaging device as claimed in claim 7, characterized in that the number of storage locations in the memory matrix is equal or smaller than the maximum number of charge packages formed during N-phase operation of the device.
A charge coupled imaging device as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that M and N are equal to four and three, respectively.
A charge coupled imaging device is described therein whose ratio between the width and the height (aspect ratio) is variable, in particular adjustable between two standard values, i.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=01/76227.011011&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (1054 words)

  
 Inventors of charge-coupled device receive prestigious C&C Prize
The device they invented stores information, represented by discrete packets of electric charge, in columns of closely spaced semiconductor capacitors.
The CCD is a light-sensitive integrated circuit used in a wide variety of applications, primarily in imaging.
CCD cameras also are used in satellite observation of the earth for environmental monitoring, surveying, and surveillance.
www.lucent.com /press/0999/990920.bla.html   (996 words)

  
 Charge-Coupled Device
A type of semiconductor that's sensitive to light, a CCD consists of a 2-D array of individual elements, each of which is, in essence, a capacitor- a device that stores an electrical charge.
As more photons fall on the device, more electrons are liberated, thus creating a charge that's proportional to the light's intensity.
The sequence of moving the charge from one gate to the next is called coupling (the other C in CCD.
www.computerworld.com /printthis/2001/0,4814,62778,00.html   (725 words)

  
 CCDs for Material Scientists
Unfortunately, in a vacuum positive charge is observe to buildup in the native oxide layer.
For high and stable QE the backside of the CCD must be negatively charged to drive signal electrons towards the front surface.
Thermal generation of electrons by the finite temperature of the device.
zebu.uoregon.edu /ccd.html   (1733 words)

  
 charge-coupled device
Device for forming images electronically, using a layer of silicon that releases electrons when struck by incoming light.
CCDs are used in digital cameras, and have now almost entirely replaced photographic film for applications such as astrophotography, where extreme sensitivity to light is paramount.
The electrons are stored in pixels and read off into a computer at the end of the exposure.
www.tiscali.co.uk /reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0025902.html   (249 words)

  
 charge-coupled device concept from the Astronomy knowledge base
electron bombarded charge-coupled device (3 facts) (EBCCD) - An imaging device containing a thin target material which emits electrons by the photoelectric effect when illuminated and then magnetically focuses these electrons to impact onto a silicon CCD where they generate a large charge.
The name derives from the method of extracting the locally stored charges from each pixel which is done by transferring or "coupling" charges from one pixel to the next by the controlled collapse and growth of adjacent storage sites or "potential wells".
three-phase (3 facts) - A CCD construction in which three overlapping metal electrodes are used to define a pixel and effect the transfer of charge, in either direction along a column, by the charge-coupling method.
www.site.uottawa.ca:4321 /astronomy/charge-coupleddevice.html   (437 words)

  
 Define charge-coupled device - a definition from Whatis.com - see also: CCD
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a light-sensitive integrated circuit that stores and displays the data for an image in such a way that each pixel (picture element) in the image is converted into an electical charge the intensity of which is related to a color in the color spectrum.
Define charge-coupled device - a definition from Whatis.com - see also: CCD
The CCD was invented in 1969 at Bell Labs, now part of Lucent Technologies, by George Smith and Willard Boyle.
searchstorage.techtarget.com /sDefinition/0,,sid5_gci295633,00.html   (321 words)

  
 SiC Charge Coupled Device Research at Purdue
Charge coupled devices (CCDs) are linear shift registers formed by a series of closely-spaced MOS plates on the surface of a semiconductor.
Charge packets are confined to potential wells under the gate electrodes and are shifted to the right by the proper sequence of clocking signals applied to the gates.
Charge packets can be confined in the potential wells and shifted along the surface under the influence of appropriate clocking waveforms applied to the gates.
www.ecn.purdue.edu /WBG/Device_Research/CCDs/Index.html   (604 words)

  
 Charge coupled imaging device having multilayer gate electrode wiring - Patent 5449931
A charge coupled imaging device as claimed in claim 4, characterized in that at the areas of the contact windows a contact surface is provided in a different conductive layer of a greater thickness, preferably in the second layer, which contact surface is conductively connected to the associated gate electrode constructed in the first layer.
A charge coupled imaging device as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that each gate electrode is formed by a gate electrode portion provided in the second layer of lowest transparency and by a gate electrode portion conductively connected thereto and provided in the first layer of highest transparency.
A charge coupled device as claimed in claim 10, characterized in that the thickness of the silicon layer of greatest thickness is at least approximately 250 nm.
www.freepatentsonline.com /5449931.html   (6095 words)

  
 Bell Labs inventors of charge-coupled device receive Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Award
CCDs can hold a charge corresponding to variable shades of light, which makes them useful as imaging devices for cameras, scanners, and fax machines.
In addition to the Device Research Conference Breakthrough Award, Smith and Boyle's invention of the CCD has been recognized by the Ballantine Medal of the Franklin Institute, the Morris N. Liebman Award of the IEEE, and the Progress Medal of the Photographic Society of America.
A CCD is an electronic memory that can be charged by light.
www.lucent.com /press/0699/990630.blb.html   (497 words)

  
 3. Charge-Coupled Devices
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an array of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors which can accumulate and store charge due to their capacitance.
The active region of this device is the depletion region.
The charge from the imaging CCD is transferred to another CCD array called the frame storage array.
lheawww.gsfc.nasa.gov /users/audley/diss/node31.html   (286 words)

  
 Business Solutions - Charge Coupled Device Scanners: Catching Up To Laser?
Charge coupled device (CCD) scanners are no longer playing second fiddle to laser scanners.
The growth of laser bar-code scanners still exceeds that of charge coupled device (CCD) scanners, but CCD is quickly closing the gap, statistics show.
Business Solutions - Charge Coupled Device Scanners: Catching Up To Laser?
www.businesssolutionsmag.com /Articles/1998_09/980917.htm   (497 words)

  
 CCD Technology: Historic Accomplishments: NASA Space Instrument and Sensing Technology
Charge coupled device technology was first demonstrated in 1969 at the Bell Laboratories.
CCD video cameras are light-weight, require little power (so the batteries are light as well), are inexpensive, and are more sensitive to light than the large, bulky, and power-hungry vacuum tubes previously used for television cameras.
Our most recent CCD technology efforts have been focused on understanding radiometric accuracy for very sensitive measurements (such as searching for planets around other stars) and on improving CCD response in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
ranier.hq.nasa.gov /Sensors_page/DD/HST&GLL_CCD.html   (553 words)

  
 CCD: the charge-coupled device
Instead, their light comes to a focus on a silicon wafer called a CCD ("charge-coupled device") whose surface is composed of millions of microscopic transistor gates.
For example, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) image, released March 9, 2004, was formed from 278 hours of exposure on a CCD during 400 orbits of the Hubble Space Telescope.
But whereas film records only 1% of the photons that fall on it, a CCD is far more sensitive, recording 60% - 70% of the photons that strike it.
www.myastrologybook.com /Telescopes-CCD-charge-coupled-device.htm   (524 words)

  
 Inventors of Charge-Coupled Device and Founders of Learning Factory
Boyle and Smith's device was novel because it could hold this discrete, isolated charge, and then move it without circuitry interconnects to a single output detector.
The CCD's flat array of semiconductor capacitors detects photons, and each capacitor holds an electrical charge that is proportional to the intensity of light striking it.
They are essential to many medical imaging devices, such as the tiny cameras that permit diagnostic procedures and smaller surgical incisions.
www4.nationalacademies.org /news.nsf/isbn/01042006?OpenDocument   (1109 words)

  
 Bi-directional, fast-timing, charge coupled device (US5693968)
A charge coupled device for converting photons or charged particles that impinge on said device into a signal; said device comprising a plurality of columns of semiconductor pixels, and a plurality of amplifiers, wherein:
whereby the position and timing of photons or charged particles impinging on said device may be determined by correlating the signals from adjacent columns; and whereby the time resolution of said device is equal to the time resolution of the clock signal.
For example, the charges in odd-numbered columns might be transferred one row "up" with each clock cycle, and charges in even-numbered columns might be transferred "down." This alternating charge transfer architecture is termed "bi-directional." There is no "horizontal" transfer of data off the chip; rather, each column outputs to a separate amplifier, preferably located on-chip.
www.delphion.com /details?&pn=US05693968__   (673 words)

  
 Intensified charge-coupled device - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An intensified charged-coupled device (ICCD) is a CCD that is fiber-optically connected to a micro-channel plate (MCP) to increase the sensitivity.
In ICCD Cameras a photo-cathode in front of the MCP converts photons to electrons which are multiplied by the MCP.
Therefore ICCD cameras are also used for range-gated imaging.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Intensified_charge-coupled_device   (124 words)

  
 Charge-coupled device - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a sensor for recording images, consisting of an integrated circuit containing an array of linked, or coupled, capacitors.
The charges in the CCD are transferred and read in a direction parallel to the motion of the sky, and at the same speed.
An image is projected by a lens on the capacitor array, causing each capacitor to accumulate an electric charge proportional to the light intensity at that location.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Charge-coupled_device   (860 words)

  
 Optoelectronics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Electro-optics is often erroneously used as a synonym, but is in fact a wider branch of physics that deals with all interactions between light and electric charge, whether or not they form part of an electronic device.
Optoelectronic devices are electrical-to-optical or optical-to-electrical transducers, or instruments that use such devices in their operation.
Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that interact with light.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Optoelectronic   (130 words)

  
 CCD - Charge Coupled Device
Charge Coupled Device; An array (linear or matrix) of transductive elements wherein packets of electrons are set in each element as a result of the quantity of light received during an exposure interval, and where these packets are recovered from the array in the form of a pulse height-modulated electric signal.
Short for charged coupled device; a mechanism that converts light into a proportional (analog) electrical current; the two main types of CCD are linear arrays, used in flatbed scanners and digital copiers, and area arrays, found in camcorders, digital cameras, and the like.
Charge-coupled device, a very sensitive electronic device that is revolutionizing astronomy in the 1990s.
www.auditmypc.com /acronym/CCD.asp   (851 words)

  
 CCD: Charge-coupled device
Charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device whose semiconductors are connected so that the output of one serves as the input of the next.
Digital cameras, video cameras, and optical scanners all use CCD arrays.
www.javvin.com /hardware/CCD.html   (34 words)

  
 Available Technologies: High Quantum Efficiency Charge-Coupled Device-
Holland, S.E., Groom, D.E., Palaio, N.P., Stover, R. J., Wei, M., “Fully Depleted, Back-Illuminated Charge-Coupled Devices Fabricated on High-Resistivity Silicon,” IEEE Trans.
Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a p-channel CCD with high quantum efficiency in the blue and near infrared wavelengths by combining a high-resistivity silicon substrate and a backside contact layer that allows for over-depleted operation.
Tests on the Berkeley Lab CCD at Lick Observatory, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory have shown significantly higher quantum efficiencies in the near-IR region when compared to conventional, thinned CCDs.
www.lbl.gov /tt/techs/lbnl1204a.html   (343 words)

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