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Topic: Charged particles


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  Acceleration of charged particles using spatially and temporally shaped electromagnetic radiation patent invention
The optimal field that accomplishes the acceleration of the charged particle may be calculated by solving the relativistic equations of motion for a charged particle in an EM field.
For an EM field propagating in the z-direction and polarized in the y-direction, the motion of the charged particle is confined to the y-z plane.
The charged particle propagates with respect to the spatiotemporally shaped EM -field such that the charged particle and the maximum field amplitude remain temporally and spatially coincident for a duration greater than an inverse frequency of the shaped EM field.
www.freshpatents.com /Acceleration-of-charged-particles-using-spatially-and-temporally-shaped-electromagnetic-radiation-dt20051222ptan20050279947.php?type=description   (8292 words)

  
 Exchange Particles
Gluons are the exchange particles for the color force between quarks, analogous to the exchange of photons in the electromagnetic force between two charged particles.
The W and Z particles are the massive exchange particles which are involved in the nuclear weak interaction, the weak force between electrons and neutrinos.
The charged W bosons participate in the transformation of quarks in which the flavor of the quark is changed.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/particles/expar.html   (1159 words)

  
  CHARGED PARTICLE INTERACTIONS
Charged particles can be divided into two families: 1) electrons, including positrons and beta particles from radioactive decay, Auger electrons, and internal conversion electrons, and; 2) heavy charged particles such as the alpha particle, fission fragments, protons, deuterons, tritons, and mu and pi mesons.
The stopping of charged particles in matter is by collisional and radiative processes which occur in frequencies dictated by their interaction cross sections (or probabilities).
Range is inversely proportional to the square of the charge of the charged particle.
www.med.harvard.edu /JPNM/physics/didactics/physics/charged/lect.html   (2511 words)

  
 Electric charge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The interaction between a moving charge and the electromagnetic field is the source of the electromagnetic force, which is one of the four fundamental forces.
The electric charge of a macroscopic object is the sum of the electric charges of its constituent particles.
Furthermore, even when the net charge is zero, it can be distributed non-uniformly (e.g., due to an external electric field), and then the material is said to be polarized, and the charge related to the polarization is known as bound charge (while the excess charge brought from outside is called free charge).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Electric_charge   (1142 words)

  
 Charged Particles   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
At RARAF there are several available options for charged particle beams used in biological experiments.
In the molecular-beam experiment, cells attached to Mylar are irradiated with equal doses of particles with the same LET, either uncorrelated ions or correlated ions from a molecule.
The molecules break apart in the Mylar substrate into a pair of spatially-correlated ions which diverge because of multiple scattering in the foil and the cellular material.
cpmcnet.columbia.edu /dept/radoncology/raraf/charged_particles.htm   (863 words)

  
 Pitch Angle   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The angle between the direction of the magnetic field and a particle's spiral trajectory is referred to as the "pitch angle," which in a non-uniform magnetic field changes as the ratio between the perpendicular and parallel components of the particle velocity changes.
As particles spiraling along geomagnetic field lines get closer to the Earth, the strength of the magnetic field increases, which causes the parallel component of the particles' velocity to decrease (with a corresponding increase in the perpendicular component).
Thus charged particles with equatorial pitch angles of 2 degrees or less will, after a few bounces, be lost to the atmosphere as result of collisions with atmospheric neutrals and ions.
pluto.space.swri.edu /IMAGE/glossary/pitch.html   (491 words)

  
 Accelerators of Particles
Another blades situated in the sphere were collecting the charge and transferring it to the external surface of the sphere increasing its potential.
The beam of the particles goes through the many of empty, metallic cylinders and that are connected alternate (positive - negative) with a radio frequency generator.
The particles circulate at stable orbits, where they are held by the magnetic field increasing with the increasing velocity of the particles.
library.thinkquest.org /19662/high/eng/accelerators.html   (819 words)

  
 ESA - Space Science - Particles and comet tails...
Charged particles are in fact ‘tied’ by electromagnetic forces and follow the magnetic field lines in space.
Either the particles were able to jump across the magnetic field, or the field lines themselves undergo large deviations, enabling low-latitude sources to be connected to high latitudes.
Pick-up ions are charged atoms which are created in the heliosphere either when a neutral atom is subject to a ‘charge exchange’ with other charged particles carried by the solar wind, or by the direct action of solar radiation (called ‘photo-ionisation’).
www.esa.int /esaSC/SEMDBG5Y3EE_index_0.html   (484 words)

  
 Charged Particles Educational Workshops   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Charged Particles offers a wide variety of educational workshops that bring to life the fun of America’s original musical style: jazz.
Charged Particles’ educational presentations describe the unusual instruments the musicians play (including ones they built themselves) and explain what it was like for the members to dream of forming a band and then make it happen during the last 10 years.
For student musicians, Charged Particles can conduct residencies and master classes, in which the students play their own music and group members comment and make suggestions in order to illustrate general principles of performance.
www.chargedparticles.com /edwork.html   (1145 words)

  
 Charged particles from muon capture
The charged particle emission following muon capture has been traditionally less studied compared to neutral emission, but there is some recent interest in relation to nucleon pairing in nuclei.
All this suggests that the relative contribution of charged particles from copper is significantly smaller than that from gold and thus is neglected.
However, if the charged particle did not go through a Si detector, but hit the Cu collimator around the active Si area, it would be less likely to reach the scintillators.
musr.physics.ubc.ca /theses/Fujiwara/node101.html   (995 words)

  
 Precipitation of Magnetospheric Charged Particles
Magnetospheric charged particles on closed magnetic field lines (both ends of which penetrate the earth’s atmosphere) find themselves in a magnetic mirror geometry.
In addition, charged particles can be scattered into the loss cone by magnetic and electrical disturbances in the magnetosphere.
Particles precipitated via the loss cone from the magnetosphere into the upper atmosphere produce the aurora.
www.windows.ucar.edu /earth/Magnetosphere/tour/tour_earth_magnetosphere_03.html.backup.2005_9_7   (553 words)

  
 No Escaping Charged Particles During Solar Maximum
Scientists had expected to find that the sun's magnetic field lines, which are stretched out into space by the solar wind, would keep charged particles originating in solar flares near the equator confined to a fairly narrow band near their origination point.
The Pioneer 6 and 7 spacecraft had previously detected evidence of the widespread distribution of charged particles from the sun in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Charged particles released by the sun are the chief danger during periods of high solar activity, said Cliff Lopate, another Fermi Institute physicist.
unisci.com /stories/20013/0807011.htm   (710 words)

  
 Charged Jet Evolution and the Underlying Event in Proton-Antiproton Collisions
Using a simple jet algorithm, clusters of charged particles refered to as "charged particle jets" are studied.
The direction of the leading "charged particle jet" in each event is used to define three regions of eta-phi space, where eta is the pseudo-rapidity measured along the beam axis and
Extrapolating to low PT assuming the form exp(-2PT) (which roughly fits the PT distribution in the "transverse region") implies that there are roughly 10 charged particles per unit pseudo-rapidity with PT > 0 in the "underlying event" (factor of e).
www.phys.ufl.edu /~rfield/cdf/chgjet/chgjet_intro.html   (1148 words)

  
 Elementary Particles
And with the advent of holism, the understanding of elementary particles requires an understanding of not only their characteristics, but how they interact and relate to other particles and forces of Nature, the field of physics called particle physics.
Quarks constitute all hadrons (baryons and mesons)--i.e., all particles that interact by means of the strong force, the force that binds the components of the nucleus.
Virtual particles are the particles which transmits the force between the particles, e.g virtual photon carries the electromagnetic force between e.g electrons.
zebu.uoregon.edu /~js/21st_century_science/lectures/lec16.html   (2316 words)

  
 Elementary Particles Today
All particles observed in nature have an electric charge that is an integral multiple of the charge on the proton.
The charged pion, which is made of a quark and an antiquark, decays into a muon and a neutrino.
These particles are the intermediaries in the weak interaction, transforming quarks from one flavor to another, and enabling a muon to decay into an electron and two neutrinos.
www.dpgraph.com /janine/epntoday.html   (1647 words)

  
 A Possible Explanation for How Charged Particles Work   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The model of particles as three dimensional standing waves fits very well to the known properties of particles at the quantum level, but particles come in a number of varieties.
If one imagines a standing wave (particle) and think about what would be required to cause that standing wave to move through space, then the obvious answer is that the rules that determine how the reflective properties of space work are altered.
So if positively charged particles are one particular frequency or set of frequencies, and negatively charged particles are another set of frequencies; then each set of frequencies may alter the properties of space in such a way that the frequencies of the other particles either transmit or reflect more towards the other particle.
www.wbabin.net /traill/particles.htm   (491 words)

  
 PHY252 - Elementary Particles
Hundreds of charged particles traverse our bodies per second, and some will damage our DNA, one of the reasons for the existence of a sophisticated DNA repair mechanism in the cell.
In order to measure momenta of the produced charged particles, the bubble chamber is located inside a magnet that bends the charged particles in helical paths.
The momentum p of the particles is proportional to their radius of curvature R in the chamber.
felix.physics.sunysb.edu /~allen/252/PHY251_elementary_particles.html   (942 words)

  
 Clarkson U. | TMFL | Research | Electrohydrodynamic and Charged Particle Deposition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Since the contamination by particles causes that the quality of prints or copies decrease dramatically, finding the methods that decrease the amount of contaminants looks necessary.
In this regard, by analyzing the movement of particles inside and outside of a corona, some methods can be offered to decrease the amount of the contaminants.
In corona, charged particles move in a charged flow in the presence of an external electrical field, so this problem is categorized as a EHD problem.
www.clarkson.edu /fluidflow/research/charge/charge.html   (143 words)

  
 Fundamental Particles and Interactions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
As color-charged particles (quarks and gluons) are separated, the color force between them approaches a constant value and the energy in the color-force field increases.
In SI units the electric charge of the proton is 1.60 * 10^-19 coulombs.
The energy unit of particle physics is the electron volt (eV), the energy gained by one electron in crossing a potential difference of one volt.
na47sun05.cern.ch /target/fundamentalparticles.html   (554 words)

  
 On the nature of PMSE: Electron diffusion in the vicinity of charged particles revisited
theory describing electron diffusion in the vicinity of charged aerosol particles cannot be correct, we reconsider the process of electron diffusion under the conditions of the polar summer mesopause region.
The key idea is that perturbations in the distribution of charged aerosol particles created for example by neutral air turbulence almost immediately lead to (anticorrelated) perturbations in the electron number density due to simple charge neutrality and zero net current arguments.
The lifetime of these perturbations is proportional to the square of the aerosol particle radius such that the presence of particles with radii larger than ∼10 nm allows for the existence of electron number density perturbations up to several hours after the initial creation mechanism has stopped.
www.agu.org /pubs/crossref/2003/2002JD002857.shtml   (436 words)

  
 Subatomic Particles and Antimatter by Chellie Ramer
It is the charged particle of the first generation, the electron, that is commonly found in matter.
Up-type quarks all have a charge of +2/3 and behave in the same ways, while down-type quarks all have a charge of -1/3 and a separate set of common behaviors.
The third force in the universe is the weak nuclear force that causes particles to decay.
www.hesston.edu /academic/FACULTY/NELSONK/PhysicsResearch/particles/particle.htm   (2471 words)

  
 CD Baby: CHARGED PARTICLES: Sparks
Charged Particles released their first CD in 1994 on Schoolkids Records and their second, "Sparks," in 2002 on BOPO Records.
Charged Particles is a lively and creative band that helps to keep fusion alive and fresh.
Charged Particles throws off sparks aplenty - the album effectively showcases both the group's chops and its sensitivity without resorting to gimmicks or clichés.
www.cdbaby.com /cd/charged/fromfusionhead   (670 words)

  
 Imagine the Universe! Dictionary
In quantum mechanics, all particles also have wave characteristics, where the wavelength of a particle is inversely proportional to its momentum and the constant of proportionality is the Planck constant.
The supplementary SI unit of angular measure, defined as the central angle of a circle whose subtended arc is equal to the radius of the circle.
Electromagnetic radiation which has the lowest frequency, the longest wavelength, and is produced by charged particles moving back and forth; the atmosphere of the Earth is transparent to radio waves with wavelengths from a few millimeters to about twenty meters.
imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov /docs/dictionary.html   (10553 words)

  
 Charged Particles - Sparks
Charged Particles — artists who utilize the precepts of the original fusion movement, churn out original material, and reshape the compositions of their heroes.
Much as Charged Particles has a neo-jazz fusion identity, the band lives larger than that limiting tag.
Charged Particles has a personalized musical stance and image not dictated by the latest commercial trend or what the conservative jazz world deems currently popular or hip.
www.pkorecords.com /cds/sparks/sparks.htm   (326 words)

  
 The Subatomic Particles
He determined that cathode rays were indeed streams of tiny, electrically charged particles (electrons) and he calculated the ratio of the electric charge to its mass.
In 1932, the neutron, a neutrally charged particle with the same mass as the proton, was discovered by James Chadwick, and incorporated into the atomic model.
It was discovered that the neutron could be split into a proton, an electron, and a massless, neutrally charged particle called a neutrino.There were now three 'elementary particles'; the electron, the proton, and the neutrino, which made up all atoms.
members.tripod.com /~Killashandra/Page4.html   (492 words)

  
 fUSION Anomaly. Messenger Particles
electrically charged particle repels another of like charge, you can think of it roughly in terms of each particle being surrounded by an electric field - a "cloud" or "mist" of "electric-essence" - and the force each particle feels arises from the repulsion between their respective force fields.
For like-charged particles, the photon carries the message "move apart," while for oppositely charged particles it carries the message "come together." For this reason the photon is sometimes referred to as the messenger particle for the electromagnetic force.
Similarly, the gluons and weak gauge bosons are the messenger particles for the strong and weak nuclear forces.
fusionanomaly.net /messengerparticles.html   (440 words)

  
 The Dual Nature of Light as Reflected in the Nobel Archive
A particle on the classical view is a concentration of energy and other properties in space and time, whereas a wave is spread out over a larger region of space and time.
Paul Dirac published in 1927 a mathematical theory for the interaction between electromagnetic fields, such as light or X-rays, and charged particles with both aspects of light inbedded - it was a theory of quantised fields.
The photon is the field quantum (particle) acting as the communicator of force between charged particles.
nobelprize.org /nobel_prizes/physics/articles/ekspong   (3614 words)

  
 Charged Particle Dynamics
The conditions of the motion of the particles discussed on this page are at the other limit of the spectrum from that discussed in the article on Magnetohydrodynamics, where the accent is on the collective behavior of the particles in the plasma, which is treated as a continuum.
If the particle moves slowly relative to the cyclotron frequency, so that many rotations are made in the time taken to move one radius r, or adiabatically, this motion is very little disturbed, except that the radius and cyclotron frequency may change as the particle moves into regions of different magnetic field.
Therefore, as a particle moves towards a weaker field, its translational kinetic energy increases at the expense of the gyrational energy, and the movement of the gyrational center is accelerated.
www.du.edu /~jcalvert/phys/chargep.htm   (6828 words)

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