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Topic: Chelmno concentration camp

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  Concentration Camp - Search View - MSN Encarta
Concentration camps are also known by various other names such as corrective labor camps, relocation centers, and reception centers.
In Russia the Bolsheviks established concentration camps for suspected counterrevolutionaries in 1918.
Five operated in camps established by regional SS and police leaders: Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka in eastern Poland; Kulmhof (Chelmno) in western Poland; and Semlin outside Belgrade, in Serbia.
encarta.msn.com /text_761577899__1/Concentration_Camp.html   (1019 words)

 [No title]
In some sense, all of the concentration camps, and there were hundreds of them, were death camps in that thousands of inmates died of starvation, being worked to death, exposure to the elements, epidemics and disease, or simply being executed for alleged crimes.
Chelmno was a Nazi extermination camp in Poland on the river Ner, 37 M (60 KM) from Lodz.
The German concentration camp at Majdanek was originally constructed on the outskirts of Lublin in October, 1941 as a prisoner-of-war camp.
www.mtsu.edu /~baustin/holocamp.html   (4386 words)

 The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies
Chelmno was the first extermination camp to be established as part of the ‘Final Solution to the Jewish Question’ — the Nazis’ systematic effort to exterminate the Jews.
Chelmno was the first extermination camp to be established with the one cruel purpose of killing people — first of all Jews — in a systematic fashion.
The SS was responsible for the administration of the extermination camps.
www.holocaust-education.dk /lejre/udryddelseslejre.asp   (1812 words)

 Holocaust Timeline: The Camps
Camps were an essential part of the Nazis' systematic oppression and mass murder of Jews, political adversaries, and others considered socially and racially undesirable.
The death camps proved to be a better, faster, less personal method for killing Jews, one that would spare the shooters, not the victims, emotional anguish.
The total figure for the Jewish genocide, including shootings and the camps, was between 5.2 and 5.8 million, roughly half of Europe's Jewish population, the highest percentage of loss of any people in the war.
fcit.coedu.usf.edu /holocaust/timeline/camps.htm   (1176 words)

The extermination camp at Chelmno was a typical death camp, i.e.
Immediately after their arrival at the camp they were taken to the large hall of the house, where they were told to undress, and then they were driven along a corridor to the front door, where a large lorry, fitted up as a gas-chamber, was standing.
Part II The aim of the Chelmno camp was the extermination of the Jews from the Warthegau, the part of Poland which consisted of the 1939 province (voivodship) of Poznania, almost the whole province of Lodz, and a part of the province of Warsaw, inhabited altogether by 4,546,000 People (including 450,000 Jews).
weber.ucsd.edu /~lzamosc/gchelmno.html   (3766 words)

 Berga. Berga and Beyond. Civilian Prisoners. The Civilian Camp System | PBS
The victim of an unidentified concentration camp in Yugoslavia.
Shortly after the Nazis came to power in 1933, as prisons were already overcrowded with political and ideological opponents of the regime, the Nazis began establishing a system of concentration camps for "enemies of the state." The first concentration camp, Dachau, opened in June of 1933 as a work camp.
Chelmno was the first camp to employ poisonous gas as a means of mass execution.
www.pbs.org /wnet/berga/beyond/civ_camp.html   (806 words)

 Chełmno extermination camp - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Chełmno extermination camp was a Nazi German extermination camp that was situated 70 kilometres (43 mi) from Łódź near a small village called Chełmno nad Nerem (Kulmhof an der Nehr, in German), in Greater Poland (which was, in 1939, annexed and incorporated into Germany under the name of Reichsgau Wartheland).
It was the first extermination camp, opened in 1941 to kill the Jews of the Łódź Ghetto and the Warthegau; it was the first camp to use poison gas.
At least 152,000 people were killed in the camp, mainly Jews from the Łódź Ghetto and the surrounding area, along with Gypsies from Greater Poland and some Hungarian Jews, Poles, Czechs and Soviet prisoners of war.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chelmno_concentration_camp   (539 words)

 Australian Memories Of The Holocaust
There were transit camps, labour camps, prisoner of war camps, camps for children, camps for women, concentration camps and extermination camps.
Usually when a transport arrived at a camp, it was met by camp guards and all those people who had survived the journey were hustled off the trains with shouts, whips, dogs and guns.
Daily experiences in a concentration camp would include: brutal beatings with whips or on special whipping tables, imprisonment in isolation bunkers, forced standing or running punishments (often done naked and in extremes of temperature), electric shock torture and public hangings.
www.holocaust.com.au /mm/camps.htm   (891 words)

 Killing People Through Gas In Extermination and Concentration Camps
Beginning December of 1941 one proceeded in the camp Kulmhof (Polish Chelmno) to use stationary gas vans for the killing of Jews, and from the beginning of 1942 in different camps fixed gas chambers were built, or already existing buildings were restructured for this purpose.
Chelmno (in the then Wartheland), where between December 1941 and fall 1942 and again from May until August 1944 gassings by means of carbon monoxide from motor exhaust gas took place.
Auschwitz-Birkenau (in the formerly polish, in 1939 adjoined to the "Reich" upper eastern Silesian area, south eastern of Kattowitz): The extermination camp in Birkenau, established in the second half of 1941, was joined to the concentration camp Auschwitz, existing since May 1940.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/Holocaust/gascamp.html   (793 words)

 Concentration Camps
Concentration camps were camps that the Jewish, Gypsie, or other people were forced to go to, to be tortured or forced to do work.
Concentration camps were first meant for the Jewish, Gypsie, or other slave workers.
The camp later became a walled-in ghetto (a part of a city where Jewish people were forced to live) in 1941.
library.thinkquest.org /CR0210520/concentration_camps.htm   (846 words)

 Anne Applebaum -- A History of Horror
Because of the horror that the term "concentration camp" evokes, there is a natural desire not to analyze it: "it was a nightmare," we say, and sweep the subject away.
Concentration camps are not built for individuals, but rather for a particular type of non-criminal, civilian prisoner, the member of an "enemy" group, or at any rate of a category of people who, for reasons of their race or their presumed politics, are judged to be dangerous or extraneous to the society.
The idea of the concentration camp, then, was general enough to export; but the specific details what the camps were used for, how they ultimately developed, how rigid or disorganized they became, how cruel or liberal they remained all of this depended on the particular country, on the culture, on the regime.
www.anneapplebaum.com /communism/2001/10_18_nyrb_horror.html   (3381 words)

One of the most well-known German concentration camps was the Auschwitz-Birkenau facility, located in the town of Owiecium in upper Silesia, Poland.
Although the concentration camp system had been in operation for seven years when Auschwitz opened its doors on June 14, 1940, Auschwitz has come to symbolize the atrocities of the Nazi regime due to the masses who were murdered there.
Concentration camps such as Auschwitz were designed to be completely self-sufficant for the prisoners.
www.richeast.org /htwm/CCamps/CCamps.html   (1965 words)

 Chelmno, one of six Nazi extermination centers in Poland
The village of Chelmno, in the district of Kolo, is situated 8 M (14 KM) from the town of Kolo.
The camp was used for the mass murder of Jews who lived in the Western Polish provinces which had been annexed by the Third Reich.
The secret of Chelmno was kept well hidden because during German occupation only very few people in Poland and abroad ever knew of its existence or were aware of the hundreds of thousands of victims it claimed.
www.cympm.com /chelmno.html   (821 words)

 Holocaust Museum Houston : Education [Glossary]
A large complex of three camps.  Auschwitz I was the main concentration camp; Auschwitz II, or Birkenau, was the death camp where more than 1.6 million perished; and Auschwitz III, or Buna-Monowitz, was a huge slave labor camp.
Ovens built in concentration camps to burn and dispose of the large number of bodies after murder by gassing, malnutrition, or harsh conditions.
Located near Linz, Austria, this was a notorious concentration and slave labor camp.  It was known for the cruelty of its guards and the debilitating hard labor in its quarry.
www.hmh.org /ed_glossary.asp   (998 words)

 Extermination camp
An extermination camp (also called death camp or death factory) was a kind of concentration camp set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing Jews and other groups which were considered undesirable by the Nazi government.
Unlike concentration camps such as Dachau and slave labor camps, where there were horrendous death rates as a byproduct of starvation and ill treatment, the extermination camps were designed specifically for the elimination of persons through gas chambers or other means.
All six German extermination camps were built in occupied Poland.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/de/Death_camp.html   (135 words)

 Chelmno Concentration Camp
Chelmno developed a lot experience in the use of gas vans.
The early models were equipped to pipe carbon monoxide from cylinders in the driver's cab into the van in which the 'patients were locked.
Beneath it was an aperture with a nozzle to which the pipe from the exhaust was connected.
www.angelfire.com /fl/angelforever/chelmno.html   (501 words)

 Berga. Berga and Beyond. Civilian Prisoners. Extermination Camps | PBS
From 1941 to mid-1942, six permanent extermination camps were established in occupied Poland, all part of the "SS State" under the command of Heinrich Himmler.
Auschwitz-Birkenau and Majdanek were originally concentration and P.O.W. camps; Chelmno, Sobibor, Teblinka, and Belzec were specifically designed as death camps to carry out Operation Reinhard, the official code-name for the Final Solution, the Nazis' systematic mass murder of Jews.
The Nazi extermination camps were designed to convince victims they were on their way to labor or transit camps, unaware of their fate until the moment of their deaths.
www.pbs.org /wnet/berga/beyond/extermination.html   (629 words)

 Nazi Camp System - RELST151 - Fears
By September 1, 1939, there were six major camps that had existed on German territory before World War II, all of which came to have many subcamps, operating uniformly with a well-drilled central command, and had expanded into a network of thousands of camps that criss-crossed the continent.
Chelmno, Poland - established in late 1941 as an experimental center for the use of mobile gassing vans -- 150,000 - 350,000
Used to imprison individuals considered too important or famous to simply "disappear" in death camps (though most inmates eventually deported to death camps) - also established to demonstrate to Red Cross and other international organizations that Jews and others were not being mistreated - most famous as Theresienstadt outside of Prague.
www.bsu.edu /classes/fears/relst151/nazicampsystem.html   (363 words)

 Holocaust FAQ
In addition, millions died in the ghettos and concentration camps as a result of forced labor, starvation, exposure, brutality, disease, and execution.
Dachau was the first concentration camp established and was opened on March 22, 1933.
A death camp camp is a concentration camp with special apparatus especially designed for mass murder.
www.deathcamps.info /FAQ.htm   (780 words)

 WAWDT Holocaust Project, Day 5
The camps were unsanitary and crowded so that diseases like typhus and cholera and pests like lice spread quickly.
The concentration camps were meant to hold these people until the Nazis had complete control of Germany and later until World War II was over.
At first a labor camp for Poles and a POW (Prisoner of War) camp for Russians, it was classified as a concentration camp in April 1943.
www.wjhsslab.net /Holocaust/7day/Day5.htm   (1816 words)

 concentration camps
The term "concentration camp" is used to refer to an installation where persons are incarcerated without regard to due process and the accepted norms of arrest and imprisonment.
Although it is common to refer to all camps created by the Nazis as concentration camps (Ger., Konzentrationslager; KZ), there are numerous camps with other designations such as: labor camps (Arbeitslager); transit camps (Durchgangslager); prisoner-of -war camps (Kriegsgefangenlager); and extermination camps (Vernichtungslager).
After the Himmler takeover, smaller camps were disbanded and prisoners transferred to larger camps such as Dachau and newly established camps such as Sachsenhausen (1936), Buchenwald (1937), Neuengamme (1938), Flossenbuerg (1938), Mauthhausen (1938), and Ravensbrueck (1939).
www.edwardvictor.com /Holocaust/concentration_camps_main.htm   (646 words)

 The Extermination Camp at Chelmno (Kulmhof). Central Commission for the Investigation of German Crimes in Poland. 1946
The extermination camp at Chelmno was a typical death camp, i.
The aim of the Chelmno camp was the extermination of the Jews from the Warthegau, i.
The auto transports came directly to Chelmno] whence their baggage was dispatched straight to Chelmno, while they themselves were taken under an escort of 6-8 gendarmes to the neighbouring village of Zawadki, and left for the night in a large mill building.
www.ess.uwe.ac.uk /genocide/gcpol8.htm   (3619 words)

Term widely used to describe both extermination camps, such as Auschwitz-Birkenau and Treblinka, where people were murdered in assembly-line style by gassing, and concentration camps such as Bergen-Belsen and Dachau, without gas chambers but where thousands were killed by starvation, disease, and maltreatment.
Camps equipped with facilities to kill with poisonous gas: Belzec, Chelmno, Sobibor, Treblinka, as well as killing sections of Auschwitz-Birkenau and Majdanek-Lublin concentration camps.
Classified by the SS as one of the two harshest concentration camps; many prisoners were killed there by being pushed from 300-foot cliffs into stone quarries.
www.ushmm.org /outreach/glossary.htm   (1808 words)

 We Remember Sachsenhausen, Nazi Concentration Camp!
On our arrival at the Gloven Camp, we were given a long speech by the Camp Commander, stressing the importance of complying with orders, keeping order and discipline and doing a good job at work.
The two camps were separated by a fence of reeds in addition to the barbed - wire fence.
Those of us who were not fit for work and stayed in the camp had plenty of time to think of hunger and of ways to survive from one Appell to the other.
www.zchor.org /sachsenhausen/sachsenhausen.htm   (4521 words)

 chelmno   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Also called "Kulmhof", the Concentration Camp of Chelmno was located about 35 miles outside of Lodz Poland; the base camp of which was a converted castle.
Prisoners were taken from trains and loaded into trucks then to the camp where they were forced to disrobe and surrender clothing and valuables, which were given to the Nazi war effort.
The camp was again reopened in 1944 till the end of the war to help in the killing of the Lodz Ghetto Liquidation.
www.shoaheducation.com /camps/chelmno.html   (277 words)

 THHP Question: Death and Life in the Camps   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
In concentration camps, the aim was to intern the prisoners and to get some useful work out of them.
This does not mean the concentration camps were humane; rather, that the death of their prisoners was not the goal but merely a side effect.
As prisoners succumbed to weakness from poor health and overwork, they were killed, usually by mass gassings, and the last value extracted from them in the form of gold teeth, hair for mattresses and submarine insulation, and finally the ashes of their cremation used for fertilizer on surrounding farmers' fields.
www.holocaust-history.org /questions/death.shtml   (654 words)

 Inside a Nazi Death Camp, 1944   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
The system grew to include about 100 camps divided into two types: concentration camps for slave labor in nearby factories and death camps for the systematic extermination of "undesirables" including Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, the mentally retarded and others.
The camp was separated from the road by a couple of barbed-wire fences, but these did not look particularly sinister, and might have been put up outside any military or semi-military establishment.
The first Death Camp, devoted to the extermination of those the Nazis deemed undesirable, was established in 1941 at Chelmno in Poland.
www.eyewitnesstohistory.com /maidanek.htm   (1033 words)

 Shofar FTP Archives: camps/chelmno/chelmno.003
He explained that we had been dedicated to the Kulmhof [Chelmno] extermination camp as guards and added that in this camp the plague boils of humanity, the Jews, were exterminated.
The extermination camp was made up of the so-called "castle" and the camp in the woods.
Once this had taken place, the union between the exhaust and the inside of the lorry was disconnected and the van was driven to the camp in the woods were the bodies were unloaded.
www.vex.net /~nizkor/ftp.cgi/camps/ftp.py?camps/chelmno/chelmno.003   (696 words)

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