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Topic: Chemical equilibrium

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  MINEQL+ - Chemical Equilibrium Modeling System
As the name implies, chemical equilibrium assumes that all reactions have gone to completion and are in equilibrium with one another.
In essence, the chemical equilibrium approach provides you with a thermodynamic snapshot of your system: the pH, ionic strength, the distribution of dissolved chemical species, how much solid phase formed, etc. This is the type of information that is critical to understanding what happens chemically in water.
The chemical equilibrium approach would tell you if lead solids were forming or if an observed change in pH was due to the addition of a new ion to solution.
www.mineql.com /noframes/homepage.html   (2499 words)

  Chemical reaction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that strictly involve the motion of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds, although the general concept of a chemical reaction, in particular the notion of a chemical equation, is applicable to transformations of elementary particles, as well as nuclear reactions.
Chemical reactions may be classified in different ways depending on the particular aspect considered for elaborating the division, or on the branch of Chemistry which the classification originates from.
Chemical equilibrium is the state in which the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal, thus preserving the amount of reactants and products.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chemical_reaction   (1578 words)

 Chemical potential - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The chemical potential is a fundamental parameter in thermodynamics and it is conjugate to the particle number.
The chemical potential of an atom is sometimes said to be the negative of the atom's electronegativity.
Being a function of internal energy, chemical potential applies equally to both fermion and boson particles, That is, in theory, any fundamental particle can be assigned a value of chemical potential, depending upon how it changes the internal energy of system to which it is introduced into.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chemical_potential   (1697 words)

 Chemical equilibrium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chemical equilibrium is the state in which the concentrations of the reactants and products have no net change over time.
One example of a chemical equilibrium reaction is with ferric nitrate and potassium thiocynate.
The equilibrium position of a reaction is said to lie far to the right if, at equilibrium, nearly all the reactants are used up and far to the left if hardly any product is formed from the reactants.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chemical_equilibrium   (636 words)

 chemical equilibrium - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: )
CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM [chemical equilibrium] state of balance in which two opposing reversible chemical reactions proceed at constant equal rates with no net change in the system.
This equilibrium point is characterized by specific relative concentrations of reactants and products and will also be reached from the opposite direction, i.e., if one starts with hydrogen iodide and allows it to decompose into hydrogen and iodine.
Chemical equilibrium can be defined for many types of chemical processes, such as dissociation of a weak acid in solution, solubility of slightly soluble salts, and oxidation-reduction reactions.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-chem-equi.html   (516 words)

 Chemical equilibrium
Chemical equilibrium is the state in which a chemical reaction proceeds at the same rate as its reverse reaction.
Equilibrium is reached when the rate of production of ammonia equals its rate of decomposition.
The left side of the equation is called the mass action expression and is denoted Q for a generic state (not necessarily in equilibrium).
www.guajara.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/c/ch/chemical_equilibrium.html   (374 words)

 Chemical Equilibrium
The equilibrium is between the iodine solid and the iodine vapour.
The composition of the equilibrium mixture is unchanged.
It is the equilibrium constant for the equilibrium that exists between a slightly soluble salt and its ions in saturated solution.
www.avogadro.co.uk /chemeqm/chemeqm.htm   (2486 words)

 CHP - Equilibrium   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Equilibrium is the condition at which a system is not changing.
When we say a system is at equilibrium we always mean that it is in a thermodynamic equilibrium.
Equilibrium is described quantitatively by the equilibrium constant.
www.chem.vt.edu /chem-ed/equilibr/equilibr.html   (266 words)

The equilibrium concentrations are the same, regardless of whether it is the forward or reverse reaction.
Equilibrium is shifted if concentrations, volume, or pressure is changed or a catalyst is added, or temperature is changed.
Which way the equilibrium shifts depends on which reaction (forward or reverse) is exothermic and which is endothermic.
chemgeo.colstate.edu /al-saigh/Chapter14_chemicaequilibrium.htm   (934 words)

 Chemical Equilibrium - Search Results - MSN Encarta   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Chemical Equilibrium, state reached by all reversible reactions if they take place in a container from which none of the products or reactants can...
Chemical Reaction, process by which atoms or groups of atoms are redistributed, resulting in a change in the molecular composition of substances.
Thermodynamics is of great use in chemistry to predict and identify the composition of a reaction mixture at equilibrium.
uk.encarta.msn.com /Chemical_Equilibrium.html   (114 words)

 Chemical Equilibrium
However, when a chemical reaction is carried out in a closed vessel, the system achieves equilibrium.
Equilibrium occurs when there is a constant ratio between the concentration of the reactants and the products.
Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the three molecules and the value of K. equilibrium solution.
www.shodor.org /unchem/advanced/equ/index.html   (1146 words)

 JCE 2002 (79) 640 [May] Le Chat: Simulation in Chemical Equilibrium
Le Chat: Simulations in Chemical Equilibrium is a computer-based graphical illustration of the chemical equilibrium phenomenon, in relation to Le Châtelier's principle.
Le Chat illustrates the movement toward equilibrium for reactions in the gas phase, as well as the changes produced in the equilibrium state by a given perturbation of concentration or partial pressure, temperature, or volume (total pressure).
Color-coding is continued in the chemical formula for the reaction, in the bar-graph representations of the initial and final conditions for the reaction, in all of the plots, and in the reaction simulation area.
jchemed.chem.wisc.edu /Journal/Issues/2002/May/abs640.html   (642 words)

 Intute sciences - Chemical Sciences: Chemical Equilibrium is a Dynamic State   (Site not responding. Last check: )
A dynamic equilibrium is a state in which there appears to be nothing happening, a state in which there is no net change, but is also a state in which chemical reactions are taking place, often at rapid rates.
The alternative expression of a dynamic chemical equilibrium is to say that the condition of equilibrium is one in which the rates of movement of the system are equal in both of the opposite directions.
Since a dynamic chemical equilibrium is the state in which both the driving forces, and the rates, of opposed reactions are equal, the concept has been approached both from the point of view of driving forces and from the point of view of reaction rates.
www.psigate.ac.uk /newsite/reference/plambeck/chem1/p01091.htm   (494 words)

 AllRefer.com - chemical equilibrium (Chemistry) - Encyclopedia
chemical equilibrium, state of balance in which two opposing reversible chemical reactions proceed at constant equal rates with no net change in the system.
pC + qD + • • •, the equilibrium constant is: where [A], [B], [C], [D], … are the molar concentrations of the substances and n, m, p, q, … are the coefficients of the balanced chemical equation.
is the natural logarithm of the equilibrium constant.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/C/chem-equi.html   (511 words)

 Chemical Equilibrium
Chemical equilibrium applies to reactions that can occur in both directions.
Le Chatelier's principle states that when a system in chemical equilibrium is disturbed by a change of temperature, pressure, or a concentration, the system shifts in equilibrium composition in a way that tends to counteract this change of variable.
These actions change each equilibrium differently, therefore you must determine what needs to happen for the reaction to get back in equilibrium.
library.thinkquest.org /10429/low/equil/equil.htm   (452 words)

 Chemical Equilibria
During an dynamic equilibrium, the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction.
Upon examining the equilibrium, one sees that there are five moles of gas particles on the left hand side of the equilibrium, while there are two moles of gas particles on the right hand side of the equilibrium.
Thus if the equilibrium shifts to the right, the number of gas particles in the container become reduced, and the excess pressure is relieved.
www.towson.edu /~ladon/chemeq.html   (1411 words)

 Chemical Equilibrium   (Site not responding. Last check: )
To develop the concept of chemical equilibrium, let us consider a generic reaction in which some arbitrary substances A and B react with each other to form some other substances C and D. We can use small letters a, b, c and d to indicate the coefficients of these substances in the balanced equation.
Of course, one could criticize this equilibrium constant expression (equation 14) because the pattern we made use of was derived for elementary reactions, and the reaction in equation 10 is not elementary.
When a chemical equation is reversed, the equilibrium constant for the reversed equation is the reciprocal of the equilibrium constant for the original equation.
www.accd.edu /pac/chemistr/lectures/Chemical_Equilibrium.htm   (5577 words)

 NetLogo Models Library: Chemical Equilibrium
Equilibrium is the term we use to describe a system in which there are no macroscopic changes.
The reactions can be written A + B yields C + D. And at the same time, of course, C + D yields A + B. A classic real-life example that would illustrate such reactions is the reactions of carbon monoxide with nitrogen dioxide to produce carbon dioxide and nitrogen monoxide (or, nitric oxide).
A system's equilibrium is also affected by the concentrations of the reactants -- this is modeled here -- and by the system's temperature.
ccl.northwestern.edu /netlogo/models/ChemicalEquilibrium   (686 words)

 Chemical Equilibrium in the Gas Phase
It helps to explain the behavior of chemical reactions and buffer systems, and can be used to drive reactions that normally don't occur, or occur to only a small extent.
At a certain temperature the equilibrium mixture contained in a 5.00 L flask is analyzed and found to contain 0.243 mol of ammonia, 1.12 g of ammonium chloride, and 0.683 mol of hydrogen chloride gas.
First, calculate the equilibrium concentration of the ammonia: (don't forget to use the concentration in mol/L) Then use this concentration in moles/liter and calculate the mass of the ammonia you would have in the 10.0 L container:
www.chem.vt.edu /RVGS/ACT/notes/chem-eqm.html   (1300 words)

 Chemical Equilibrium
Define chemical equilibrium (not only are forward and reverse reaction rates equal, but the concentrations of reactants and products eventually become constant at equilibrium).
This will serve as a review of equilibrium learned thus far and perhaps it will come out in discussion that it does not matter how much reactant or product there is to start with, a certain equilibrium will be reached at that particular temperature.
Demonstrate a real chemical equilibrium using the NO gas tubes in both cold and hot water.
www.iit.edu /~smile/ch9116.html   (738 words)

 solprod.htm   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Thus, at equilibrium, the amount of calcium ions is 3x, and the amount of phosphate ions is 2x.
Equilibrium shifts to the left in presence of excess phosphate ion.
For equilibrium to become established, a 3x amount of calcium ion is formed and an additional 2x amount of phosphate ion from the dissociation of calcium phosphate is introduced.
www.towson.edu /~ladon/solprod.html   (1506 words)

 Chemical Equilibrium
equilibrium position, is reached irrespective of how the equilibrium is started i.e.
The equilibrium has shifted to the right hand side because the reverse reaction has slowed down - its collisions have been reduced in frequency.
The equilibrium is achieved quicker in time and under easier conditions, however.
www.geocities.com /CapeCanaveral/Launchpad/5226/equilib.html   (1570 words)

 Chemical Equilibrium
Chemical equilibrium is established when the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction.
If two chemical equations are added to give a third overall equation, then the equilibrium constant for each individual reaction (reaction 1 and reaction 2) are multiplied to give the equilibrium constant for the overall reaction:
The equilibrium constant for this reaction is K=0.19 at 532
wc.pima.edu /~skolchens/C152OL/Ch16/ChemEq1.htm   (499 words)

 Chemical Equilibrium and Thermodynamics   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Cowley Lecture 20 - Thermodynamics and Chemical Equilibrium...
HSC CHEMISTRY - Chemical Reaction and Equilibrium Thermodynamics...
Chemical Sciences: Thermodynamics: Free Energy and Equilibrium Constants...
www.scienceoxygen.com /mechanical/54.html   (170 words)

 Foundations to Chemistry - adapted from "Chemistry, Matter and the Universe"
Some chemical reactions appear to go essentially to completion, ending with products and an undetectable or negligable amount of reactants.
Other reactions stop short of completion and remain a mixture of reactants and products after all visible chemical change is over.
Still other reactions do not appear to take place at all within a reasonable time, even though their calculated free energy change is quite negative.
www.chem.ox.ac.uk /vrchemistry/ChemicalEquilibrium/HTML/page01.htm   (194 words)

 Chapter 12: Principles of Chemical Equilibrium
In this chapter the dynamic equilibrium established in chemical reactions is explored, and its similarity to phase equilibrium is emphasized.
For liquid-vapor phase equilibrium, we saw that the equilibrium state at a fixed T is characterized by a constant pressure (concentration) of vapor.
Notice that, as was true for phase equilibrium, the equilibrium constant is a ratio of rate constants for forward and reverse processes.
www.wpi.edu /Academics/Depts/Chemistry/Courses/General/concep12.html   (7752 words)

Acids are substances that donate proton(s) in a chemical reaction.
Changes in the amount of a species that result in a shift in equilibrium are called a mass-action effect.
Equilibrium means that the rates for the "forward" and "reverse" reactions are the same.
www.sbuniv.edu /~ggray/CHE3345/chp4.html   (636 words)

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