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Topic: Chemical synthesis

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  Chemical synthesis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
One meaning of chemical synthesis is the process of creating a chemical compound through a series of physical and chemical manipulations usually involving one or more chemical reactions.
A chemical synthesis usually involves the use of compounds that are known as reagents or reactants.
Skill in organic synthesis is prized among chemists and the synthesis of exceptionally valuable or difficult compounds has won chemists such as Robert B. Woodward the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chemical_synthesis   (395 words)

 CSS - Chemical Synthesis Services - publications   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Synthesis of the 1-16 Fragment of a Lysozyme Analogue
Synthesis of the 38-49 Fragment of a Lysozyme Analogue
Synthesis of the 50-67 Fragment of a Lysozyme Analogue
www.albachem.co.uk /pages/publication.htm   (1823 words)

 Chemical synthesis -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In (The science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions) chemistry, the phrase chemical synthesis appears to have one of two meanings.
A chemical synthesis usually involves the use of compounds that are known as (A chemical agent for use in chemical reactions) reagents or (A chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction) reactants.
If a chemical synthesis starts from basic laboratory compounds and yields something new, it is a purely (A compound made artificially by chemical reactions) synthetic process.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/c/ch/chemical_synthesis.htm   (582 words)

 Read about Chemical synthesis at WorldVillage Encyclopedia. Research Chemical synthesis and learn about Chemical ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
synthesis is the process of creating a chemical compound through a series of
laboratory usage, this tends to imply that the process is reproducible, reliable, and established to work in multiple laboratories (because, in the bad old days of chemical publication, it was not unheard of for someone to publish a synthetic pathway and "accidentally" leave out a step).
organic synthesis is prized among chemists and the synthesis of exceptionally valuable or difficult compounds has won chemists such as
encyclopedia.worldvillage.com /s/b/Chemical_synthesis   (368 words)

 Learn more about Chemical reaction in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Synthesis consists of 2 or more individual molecules coming together and forming a new substance.
A chemical reaction does not change the nucleus of the atom in any way, only the interaction of the electron clouds of the involved atoms.
A chemical reaction almost always involves a change in energy, conveniently measured in terms of heat.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /c/ch/chemical_reaction.html   (481 words)

 The Chemical Synthesis Center   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The Chemical Synthesis Center (CSC) provides state-of-the-art design and synthesis services to industrial and academic scientists for the preparation of chemical substances.
Although its primary focus is on those molecules used in biological and biomedical research, synthesis of other compounds is routinely undertaken.
The CSC consists of a fully equipped synthetic chemistry laboratory in the Graduate Chemistry Building, together with the necessary equipment for the purification and analysis at the milligram to one hundred gram scale.
www.research.sunysb.edu /research/facil/chsyncnt.html   (210 words)

 HYLE 7-2 (2001): Ethics of Chemical Synthesis
Topics include the questioning of moral neutrality of chemical synthesis as an end in itself, chemical weapons research, moral objections against improving material conditions of life by chemical means, and freedom of research.
Empirical document analysis of the goals of chemical synthesis reveals that nearly half of the papers aim at improving synthetic capacities, such that synthesis is both the means and the goal, i.e.
Instead of pursuing synthesis as an end in itself, he could work in other branches of chemistry, or even in those fields of synthetic chemistry that aim at improving knowledge or conditions of live, in case of which moral arguments would indeed be possible.
www.hyle.org /journal/issues/7/schummer.htm   (9083 words)

Although a variety of chemical models have been developed to explain how molecular synthesis could occur in the interstellar medium, we have no direct observational knowledge of the timescales on which these reactions occur.
This implies that molecular synthesis is actively happening in the circumstellar environment on timescales as short as several hundred years.
The chemical composition of the interstellar medium is dominated by neutral hydrogen (93.38%) and helium (6.49%), whereas biogenic elements oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen contribute 0.11% (O:C:N 7:3:1).
scienceweek.com /2004/sa041210-1.htm   (1395 words)

In our discussion of host-guest chemistry, we considered the design and synthesis of a molecule that would mimic the catalytic acitivity of the enzyme carboxypeptidase.
The outcome of a chemical reaction depends upon a number of factors, some of which we can control, some of which we can't.
The relationship between the energy of the reactants and the products in a chemical reaction is described in terms of a reaction profile diagram.
www.usm.maine.edu /~newton/Chy251_253/Lectures/Reactions/ChemicalReactions.html   (861 words)

 CHEMTUTOR REACTIONS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
There are magnitudes of difference in the amounts of energy in ordinary chemical reactions compared to nuclear reactions, the rearrangement of the nuclei of atoms to change to new elements is enormous compared to the smaller energies of chemical changes.
Chemical equations are written with the symbols of materials to include elements, ionic or covalent compounds, aqueous solutions, ions, or particles.
Chemical reactions, also called chemical changes, are not limited to happening in a chemistry lab.
www.chemtutor.com /react.htm   (3274 words)

 19.8.13 /chemical synthesis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
For the formation of chemical substances in organisms, living cells, or subcellular fractions, "biosynthesis" is used.
Distinguish also between the chemical synthesis of a substance and its chemistry or its chemical analysis.
An article on the chemical structure of a compound (/chemistry) or on its chemical analysis or determination (/analysis) is not necessarily on its chemical synthesis.
www.nlm.nih.gov /mesh/indexingmanual/19_8_13.htm   (170 words)

 Chemical Synthesis. (from Chemistry) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
In a typical synthesis two reactants are allowed to react to form an intermediate compound.
Chemical analysis answers these and many other questions by providing a way to determine the nature of any substance in terms of the elements...
Chemical bonds are the transfer, or sharing, of electrons between atoms.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-91059?tocId=91059   (626 words)

 Chemical Synthesis : Custom Organic and Contract Synthesis
The customer provides literature methods or their own synthesis route in which all details (reaction times, solvents, temperatures, analytical data, purification methods, yields, etc.) are included.
If an order for a custom synthesis is cancelled while the project is ongoing, the customer will be billed for all accrued expenses.
Please contact us with your custom synthesis requirements and we will get a quote back to you as soon as possible (usually within the 2 - 24 hours).
www.exchemistry.com /chemical-synthesis.html   (453 words)

The formation or breaking of chemical bonds is termed a chemical reaction.
An understanding of the basic principles controlling the energetics of chemical reactions will assist you to understand what is occurring in many chemical processes.
After the vitamins are absorbed from the food in the gut they are transported to the cells which require them prior to conversion to their active coenzyme form.
www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au /08365/h&pchre.htm   (1089 words)

 Types of Chemical Reactions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Chemical changes are a result of chemical reactions.
Chemical reactions in which energy is absorbed are endothermic.
Chemical reactions in which energy is released are exothermic.
www.usoe.k12.ut.us /curr/science/sciber00/8th/matter/sciber/chemtype.htm   (525 words)

 Chemical Synthesis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In many different chemical manufacturing facilities, one of the most important issues is the purity of the raw materials.
Chemicals are manufactured and need to be diluted before they can be sold.
Since the chemicals need to be the purest possible, the water that is diluting the chemical must also be of the highest purity.
www.osmonics.com /products/Page632.htm   (156 words)

 High throughput solid phase chemical synthesis utilizing thin cylindrical reaction vessels useable for biological assay ...
A method of performing chemical synthesis on solid phase reactive material within a plurality of reaction vessels using a plurality of reaction stages resulting in final products and employing identifying indicia representing the reaction stages is also disclosed.
The method allows chemical synthesis to occur according to a predetermined set of reactions and also allows for combinatorial chemistry to be performed utilizing random mix and split techniques.
The chemical structures of desired end products may be obtained by reading recorded information wherein the reaction conditions and reagents of reaction steps have been recorded, preferably in conjunction with the identifying indicia.
www.delphion.com /details?pn=US05798035__   (768 words)

 Subject Category Guide
Synthesis, properties and reactions of inorganic compounds; Studies of the chemical elements; Inorganic quantitative and qualitative analysis; Complex compounds including metal carbonyls.
Synthesis, properties and reactions of organic compounds; Organic quantitative and qualitative analysis.
For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical substances by means of their spectra, See 07/02, Inorganic Chemistry, and 07/03, Organic Chemistry.
www.dtic.mil /dtic/subcatguide/chemistry.html   (265 words)

 Custom Organic Synthesis Services by Aurora Fine Chemicals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Chemical synthesis is an essential part of drug development.
Outsourcing the activity to a specialist custom synthesis house is an efficient, cost-effective means of ensuring the smooth and timely passage of new drug compounds through the pipeline.
We have over 15 years experience of satisfying the organic synthesis requirements of pharmaceutical, chemical and agrochemical companies and research institutions worldwide.
www.aurora-feinchemie.com /english/synthesis.html   (187 words)

 Synthesis (from chemical reaction) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Chemical reactions are manifested by the disappearance of properties characteristic of the starting materials and the appearance of new properties that distinguish the products; within the...
They are found either chemically free, such as the oxygen in air, or combined with other elements, such as the hydrogen and oxygen in water.
The military use of chemicals, bacteria, viruses, toxins, or poisons to injure or kill soldiers or civilians is called chemical and biological warfare.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-49387?tocId=49387   (986 words)

 Chemical Thesaurus 4 reaction chemistry software by meta-synthesis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
A thesaurus, from the Greek, is a storehouse, and the Chemical Thesaurus is a storehouse of information about chemical species and chemical interactions and reactions.
However, this should be seen as a strength, not a weakness because The Chemical Thesaurus attempts to model reaction chemistry space from the ground up.
version 4 of The Chemical Thesaurus has a subset of the reaction chemistry database designed to support students and teachers of the British GCE AS/A2 Chemistry exam system, a university entrance qualification used in many countries.
www.meta-synthesis.com /Products/ChemThes3.html   (747 words)

 Thieme Chemistry - Journals
Synthesis Reviews is a database of 18,852 English review articles (from journals and books) of interest to synthetic organic chemists.
Synthesis Reviews is sponsored by Georg Thieme Verlag and is provided as a service to the synthetic community.
Synthesis Reviews (covering the literature from 1970-1994) and the first supplement (covering the literature for the year 1995) was originally provided free on disks to all subscribers of SYNTHESIS published by Georg Thieme Verlag.
www.thieme-chemistry.com /thieme-chemistry/journals/info/freedata/index.shtml   (639 words)

 Amazon.ca: Books: From Bench to Market: The Evolution of Chemical Synthesis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The authors use the real chemical history of the development of drugs from several therapeutic areas as detailed case studies, each chosen to illustrate a range of issues and methodologies in industrial chemistry.
Several chapters cover the development of the various ss-lactam antibiotics; two chapters describe the discovery and synthesis of the anticancer drugs Idarubicin and Paclitaxal; in another chapter, the synthesis of the anti-viral drug Acyclovir and the 'patent war' that resulted are explored.
Charts the process of industrial chemical synthesis, from the first discovery of a molecule to its entry in the marketplace as a drug.
www.amazon.ca /exec/obidos/ASIN/0198503849   (490 words)

 Pentapharm - Chemical Synthesis
The chemical synthesis group provides synthesis and custom specific development of chromogenic und fluorogenic peptide substrates.
The second area includes the development and synthesis of biologically active peptides to be used in test kits and as cosmetically active ingredients.
The third area was built up in 1999: OEM-custom specific synthesis of fine chemicals, formulation components and development of vial systems for industry sensor applications.
www.pentapharm.com /sw217.asp   (104 words)

 libraries&synthesis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Form of parallel synthesis in which the reaction vessels are maintained in a specified spatial distribution, e.g.
Synthesis of an almost unlimited number of organic compounds covering as much of chemistry space as possible is no longer the most cost effective and time saving approach to hit identification.
Leaders in the pharmaceutical industry (where diversity oriented synthesis is used extensively) view the limitations of current methodology as a problem of considerable urgency and see this as a significant impediment to the identification of drug candidates in new classes and with new mechanisms of action.
www.genomicglossaries.com /content/libraries_synthesis.asp   (4608 words)

 General Chemistry Online: Companion Notes: Chemical change
Classify chemical reactions as synthesis, formation, decomposition, thermolysis, electrolysis, displacement, single displacement, metathesis, precipitation, neutralization, redox, and combustion reactions.
Definition: A chemical change occurs whenever compounds are formed or decomposed.
Microscopic view: A chemical change occurs whenever there is a rearrangement of atoms that makes or breaks chemical bonds.
antoine.frostburg.edu /chem/senese/101/reactions/index.shtml   (582 words)

 15 Years in the Custom Synthesis - Aurora Fine Chemicals Ltd
Aurora Fine Chemicals is a chemistry-based company engaged in laboratory scale organic synthesis, drug and chemical product research, and chemical product sales.
Aurora Fine Chemicals Ltd is specializing in multi-step custom synthesis of compounds that are not commercially available.
Aurora Fine Chemicals offers building blocks for combinatorial chemistry and intermediates for organic synthetic chemistry to industry, individual professionals, life science, educational institutes, pharmaceutical and laboratories.
www.aurora-feinchemie.com   (180 words)

 Organic Synthesis and Chemical Genetics
The third reason for using the name chemical genetics is that it points to a means to achieve specificity and generality -- by emulating the principles of genetics with chemistry.
Chemical genetic research During the past ten years, we synthesized numerous natural products and their variants in order to provide the means to explore the function of cellular proteins.
Likewise, the chemical geneticist is now able to synthesize vast numbers of small molecules (using "split-and-pool" synthesis or, theoretically, massively parallel synthesis), choose from the myriad of methods to synthesize complex, natural product-like molecules, and select the desired ligands through the use of screens compatible with the split-and-pool method of small molecule generation (Figure 28).
www.broad.mit.edu /chembio/lab_schreiber/sciOver/research/tetrahedron/tetrahedron.html   (6599 words)

 Chemical synthesis - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The amount of product in such a synthesis is the yield.
It may take multiple steps to synthesize the product of interest, and inordinate amounts of time.
Skill in this area is prized among chemists and the synthesis of exceptionally valuable or difficult compounds has won chemists the Nobel Prize.
open-encyclopedia.com /Chemical_synthesis   (335 words)

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