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Topic: Chemical warfare


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In the News (Tue 23 Apr 19)

  
  Chemical Warfare
Chemicals such as phosgene, cyanide, anhydrous ammonia, and chlorine are used widely.
The accidental release of a methylisocyanate cloud (composed of phosgene and isocyanate) was implicated in the Bhopal, India, disaster in 1984.
Chemical agents often are difficult to protect against and quickly incapacitate the intended targets.
www.emedicinehealth.com /chemical_warfare/article_em.htm   (442 words)

  
  BBC News | Saddam's Iraq: Key events
In 1988 Iraq turned its chemical weapons on Iraqi Kurds in the north of the country.
Chemical weapons were also used during Iraq's "Anfal" offensive - a seven-month scorched-earth campaign in which an estimated 50,000 to 100,000 Kurdish villagers were killed or disappeared, and hundreds of villages were razed.
A UN security council statement condemning Iraq's use of chemical weapons in the war was issued in 1986, but the US and other western governments continued supporting Baghdad militarily and politically into the closing stages of the war.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/v3_iraq_timeline/html/chemical_warfare.stm   (207 words)

  
  Chemical and Biological Warfare - MSN Encarta
Chemical and Biological Warfare, use of harmful or deadly chemical or biological agents as weapons of war.
Chemical warfare involves the use of chemical compounds to kill or seriously injure an enemy.
Chemical warfare agents can be grouped into two general types: those that affect the body surfaces they contact, and those that damage the general nervous system.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761558349/Chemical_and_Biological_Warfare.html   (878 words)

  
 First World War.com - Feature Articles - Germany's Use of Chemical Warfare in World War I
The Hague II Convention reaffirmed the provisions on chemical weapons usage and widened the restraints by prohibiting the use of poison or poisoned weapons.
Chemical warfare agents are chemical substances designed to kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate humans and animals.
Because the chemicals were not asphyxiators or deleterious gases, and the chemicals were surrounded by a shell designed to send shrapnel through the air, Germany did not believe that these shells violated the Hague Conventions.
www.firstworldwar.com /features/chemical_warfare.htm   (4639 words)

  
 Chemical Warfare Agents
chemical substances, whether gaseous, liquid or solid, which might be employed because of their direct toxic effects on man, animals and plants...
Toxins, i.e., poisons produced by living organisms and their synthetic equivalents, are classed as chemical warfare agents if they are used for military purposes.
Chemical warfare agents are generally also classified according to their effect on the organism.
www.opcw.org /resp/html/cwagents.html   (846 words)

  
 Chemical Warfare
Chemical warfare was introduced to a shocked world during the First World War.
The development of chemical warfare agents during the Second World War led to the so-called "nerve gases," which are quick-acting poisons attacking the nervous system.
It is obvious that chemical warfare agents are very poor vehicles for stealthy or terrorist attacks, since they are easily detected, difficult to disperse, of very limited range, active for only short periods, and are easily counteracted.
mysite.du.edu /~jcalvert/phys/wargas.htm   (2905 words)

  
 Howstuffworks "How Biological and Chemical Warfare Works"
Chemical and biological agents can spread through the air, water and food supplies.
During the gulf war, the threat of Iraqi chemical and biological weapons felt very real, because it was known that Iraq had done extensive research on these weapons.
A chemical or biological weapon used in a large city would kill thousands of people.
www.howstuffworks.com /biochem-war.htm   (126 words)

  
 Chemical Warfare Agents - Resources chemical warfare agents
Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) and Associated Health Guidelines
Hazards of chemical weapons release during war: new perspectives.
Ataxia: The Chemical and Biological Terrorism Threat and the US Response.
sis.nlm.nih.gov /enviro/chemicalwarfare.html   (532 words)

  
 Howstuffworks "How Biological and Chemical Warfare Works"
Chemical and biological agents can spread through the air, water and food supplies.
During the gulf war, the threat of Iraqi chemical and biological weapons felt very real, because it was known that Iraq had done extensive research on these weapons.
A chemical or biological weapon used in a large city would kill thousands of people.
science.howstuffworks.com /biochem-war.htm   (149 words)

  
 chemical warfare - Encyclopedia.com
chemical warfare employment in war of incendiaries, poison gases, and other chemical substances.
The potential effectiveness of chemical warfare is increasing with improved methods of dissemination, such as artillery shells, grenades, missiles, and aircraft and submarine spray guns.
DOD declares chemical warfare agent exposure an 'unlikely' cause for marines' blisters.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-chem-war.html   (1078 words)

  
 DSB Report: CHEMICAL/BIOLOGICAL WARFARE   (Site not responding. Last check: )
It is important to recognize that the nature of an attack with chemical weapons is to produce a localized concentration of chemical warfare agent that is sufficient to kill or incapacitate unprotected personnel in the immediate area of attack.
As a result, the concentration of chemical warfare agents in the air is reduced to an insignificant level very rapidly as a function of distance and time.
The fact that no chemical munitions have been discovered is the most compelling evidence that, for whatever reason, Iraq did not have chemical weapons deployed to forward positions in preparation for use at the time of the land war.
www.gulflink.osd.mil /dsbrpt/warfare.html   (5430 words)

  
 chemical warfare — FactMonster.com
Since World War II, chemical weapons are known to have been used by Egypt in Yemen (during the 1962–67 civil war) and by Iraq against Iran during the Iran-Traq War and against Kurdish rebels.
The treaty is enforced by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, which is based in The Hague.
warfare - warfare warfare, violent conflict between armed enemies.
www.factmonster.com /ce6/history/A0811637.html   (616 words)

  
 Chemical Warfare
Chemical Weapons and Chemical Warfare Agents - CW CW, Chemical weapons and chemical agents can be classified in many different ways.
Chemical warfare agents are generally also classified according to their effect on the organism.
However, such chemicals may be unsuitable for use in certain conditions since they corrode, etch or erode the surface.
www.allamericanprotection.com /chemical.htm   (3936 words)

  
 Chemical Warfare in World War I
Chemical warfare affected tactics and almost changed the outcome of World War I. The overwhelming success of the first use of gas caught both sides by suprise.
Nonetheless, from the introduction of chemical warfare in early 1915 until Armistice Day in November, 1918, the Allies were usually one step behind their German counterparts in the development of gas doctrine and the employment of gas tactics and procedures.
As the chemical war escalated with the introduction of mustard gas, the Medical Director's responsibilities and, indeed, his department's tasks became increasingly crucial to the AER Gilchrist inspected troops at the front and visited medical personnel in hospitals, hospital trains, and other locations.
www-cgsc.army.mil /carl/resources/csi/Heller/HELLER.asp   (18963 words)

  
 Chemical Warfare Gases
The variety of symptoms produced by chemical warfare agents (structures first compiled by Rutgers Chem Club) may result from a variety of possible negative interactions with the vitaletheine modulators, its monooxygenase receptor, and/or the biosynthetic machinery for making these compounds.
In fact, other sulfides and secondary and tertiary amines, known to be substrates for the monooxygenase thought to be the receptor for the vitaletheine modulators, are well-represented in the chemical warfare agents.
Chemical warfare agents containing moieties that are substrates for the monooxygenase, analogues of cysteamine, and/or suicide analogues of the phosphate in 4'-phosphopantetheine clearly have the capacity to destroy any endogenous production and activity of the vitaletheine modulators.
www.vitaletherapeutics.org /vtlwargs.htm   (1035 words)

  
 CHEMICAL WARFARE IN BOSNIA?
The existence of chemical weapons and a capacity to produce them in the former Yugoslavia is, in and of itself, an extreme cause for concern, given unresolved issues and renewed conflict in the region.
The ban on the use of chemical weapons, as codified in the 1925 Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and Bacteriological Methods of Warfare (1925 Protocol), is considered to constitute customary international law, applicable to all states regardless of whether they are parties to the protocol.
Chemical agents may be nerve agents, incapacitating agents, blister agents (vesicants), lung-damaging agents, blood agents, and vomiting agents.” Headquarters, Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries, FM 8-285, NAVMED P-5041, AFM 160-11 (Washington, DC: February 1990), p.
www.hrw.org /reports98/bosniacw   (4172 words)

  
 Chemical & Biological Warfare - CBW>
Chemical/biological warfare is the term used to describe the use of chemical or biological agents as weapons to injure or kill humans, livestock, or plants.
Chemical weapons are devices that use chemicals to inflict death or injury; biological weapons use pathogens or organisms that cause disease.
The proliferation of chemical weapons and the military utility of chemical warfare: a case study of the Iran-Iraq war.
www.loc.gov /rr/scitech/tracer-bullets/chemicalbiotb.html   (3435 words)

  
 eMedicine - CBRNE - Chemical Warfare Agents : Article by Gregory R Ciottone, MD, FACEP
Chemicals such as phosgene, cyanide, anhydrous ammonia, and chlorine are used widely and frequently are transported by industry.
The accidental release of a methylisocyanate cloud (composed of phosgene and isocyanate) was implicated in the Bhopal disaster in 1984.
Residual hazardous chemicals on those who have been exposed directly are a source of ongoing exposure to those persons and pose a risk of secondary exposure to first responders and emergency care personnel.
emedicine.com /emerg/topic852.htm   (5749 words)

  
 History of Iran: Chemical Warfare In The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988
The evidence adduced in the report by the UN team lends substantial credence to Iranian allegations of Iraqi chemical warfare on at least six other occasions during the period from 26 February to 17 March.
Since 1925 chemical weapons have been used on several occasions, but on each such occasion the extent of world-wide indignation and censure testified to the immutability of the standard of international law as embodied in the Geneva Protocol.
A major caveat must be entered: chemical warfare is such an emotive subject that it lends itself very readily to campaigns of disinformation and fl propaganda, campaigns which the politics both of the Gulf War and of the current chemical-weapons negotiations have unquestionably stimulated to no small degree.
www.iranchamber.com /history/articles/chemical_warfare_iran_iraq_war.php   (4164 words)

  
 Chemical Weapons United States
Chemical agents in the modem sense were first used in World War I, when chlorine gas was released, from large cylinders, in a favorable wind.
Recognizing that the stockpile program did not include all chemical warfare materiel requiring disposal, the Congress directed the Army in 1992 to plan for the disposal of materiel not included in the stockpile.
The term non-stockpile chemical materiel describes a wide variety of chemical warfare materiel that is not part of the unitary stockpile as declared in 1986.
www.fas.org /nuke/guide/usa/cbw/cw.htm   (803 words)

  
 Chemical Warfare
The most infamous of these was napalm, a mixture of petrol and a chemical thickner which produces a tough sticky gel that attaches itself to the skin.
This involved the spraying of chemicals from the air in an attempt to destroy the National Liberation Front hiding places.
The chemical reaction of this napalm does melt the flesh, and the flesh runs right down their faces onto their chests and it sits there and grows there...
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk /VNchemical.htm   (2217 words)

  
 November 21, 1997, Hour 1: Biological and chemical warfare
However, there is some evidence that Iraq used chemical weapons against the Kurds, and that U.S. troops may have been exposed to chemical and biological weapons during the conflict.
Chemical and biological weapons are often grouped together with nuclear munitions in the category of "weapons of mass destruction." Unlike nuclear weapons, however, they are relatively easy to produce, hide, and use - some have called them "the poor man's nuclear bomb." Chemical weapons are, as the name implies, chemicals.
Chemical weaponry began its life with techniques as simple as burning materials that would produce acrid smoke to blind enemies, attempting to foul the enemy water supply with waste, and tossing clothing from plague-infected people into the keeps of castles under siege.
www.sciencefriday.com /pages/1997/Nov/hour1_112197.html   (560 words)

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