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Topic: Chemical weapons

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In the News (Sat 20 Apr 19)

  Chemical warfare - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate the enemy.
Chemical warfare is different from the use of conventional weapons or nuclear weapons because the destructive effects of chemical weapons are not primarily due to any explosive force.
Chemical weapons have been used for millennia in the form of poisoned arrows, but evidence can be found for the existence of more advanced forms of chemical weapons in ancient and classical times.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chemical_warfare   (6119 words)

 Terrorist Use of Chemical Weapons   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Chemical weapons have long been considered "the poor man's atomic bomb" (Oberdorfer, A1) due to their relative low cost and ease of manufacture.
Although the Chemical Weapons Conference has reduced the proliferation of chemical weapons and, in fact, made it illegal to develop and stockpile chemical weapons, the amount of chemical agent necessary for a terrorist operation would be extremely difficult to detect and can even be justified by claiming it as research material.
Restricting chemicals used to make CW (chemical warfare) agents or used as CW agents, may be the least effective method of preventing terrorists from using chemical weapons.
www.uberhip.com /people/godber/research/cwpaper.html   (3946 words)

 CNN.com In-Depth Specials
North Korea is suspected of possessing a large stockpile of biological and chemical weapons.
During the past decade, Russia has committed to dismantling its chemical and biological weapons program and destroying its stockpiles of such weapons, believed to be the largest in the world.
Syria is believed to have a stockpile of chemical weapons and is thought to be pursuing biological weapons capability.
www.cnn.com /SPECIALS/2001/trade.center/biochem.weapons   (434 words)

 halabja, iraq, north iraq, kurdistan, kurdland, kurd,Bloody Friday   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The pictures are said to have been taken in the aftermath of Saddam's attack using chemical weapons and cluster bombs on the Kurdish city of Halabja (population estimated at 70,000) on March 17, 1988.
The chemical attacks on Halabja and Goktapa and perhaps two hundred other villages and towns were only a small part of the cataclysm that Saddam's cousin, the man known as Ali Chemical, arranged for the Kurds.
In a conversation not long ago with Richard Butler, the former weapons inspector, I suggested a possible explanation for the world's indifference to Saddam Hussein's use of chemical weapons to commit genocide—that the people he had killed were his own citizens, not those of another sovereign state.
www.kdp.pp.se /chemical.html   (18381 words)

 Research and Investigations: Chemical Weapons
Chemical weapons have the potential for immense destruction to human life and health.
The use of chemical weapons is a breach of international law and a grave violation of human rights.
Using a survey to explore the symptoms of chemical weapons exposure, the team corroborated the evidence from the interviews and physical examinations.
www.phrusa.org /research/chemical_weapons   (536 words)

 Pentagon reveals rejected chemical weapons - News | Print | New Scientist
THE Pentagon considered developing a host of non-lethal chemical weapons that would disrupt discipline and morale among enemy troops, newly declassified documents reveal.
Most bizarre among the plans was one for the development of an "aphrodisiac" chemical weapon that would make enemy soldiers sexually irresistible to each other.
Another was to develop a chemical that caused "severe and lasting halitosis", making it easy to identify guerrillas trying to blend in with civilians.
www.newscientist.com /article.ns?id=mg18524823.800&print=true   (215 words)

 Chemical Weapons Programs - Iraq Special Weapons Facilities
The Iraqis continued to use chemical weapons until the end of hostilities in August 1988; in addition they introduced the nerve agents sarin and GF late in the war.
Citing the report of four chemical warfare experts whom the UN had sent to Iran in February and March 1986, the secretary general called on Baghdad to end its violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol on the use of chemical weapons.
The report further stated that "the use of chemical weapons appear[ed] to be more extensive [in 1981] than in 1984." Iraq attempted to deny using chemicals, but the evidence, in the form of many badly burned casualties flown to European hospitals for treatment, was overwhelming.
www.fas.org /nuke/guide/iraq/cw/program.htm   (1859 words)

 Chemical Weapons United States
Chemical agents in the modem sense were first used in World War I, when chlorine gas was released, from large cylinders, in a favorable wind.
As is the case with nuclear weapons, the President of the United States must approve the initial use of chemical weapons.
The term non-stockpile chemical materiel describes a wide variety of chemical warfare materiel that is not part of the unitary stockpile as declared in 1986.
www.fas.org /nuke/guide/usa/cbw/cw.htm   (803 words)

 Chemical Weapons - Syria
Weapons of Mass Destruction: the Cases of Iran, Syria, and Libya [August 1992] is still cited by scholars and government researchers as an authority.
The chemicals were stockpiled prior to international export controls but those initials supplies have likely long been exhausted.
Specifically in November 1999 it was reported by the Washington Times that Syria had conducted a live chemical weapons bombing test using a MiG-23 jet that dropped a chemical weapons-laden bomb on a practice range in Syria.
www.globalsecurity.org /wmd/world/syria/cw.htm   (1611 words)

 [No title]
In February 1997, CIA Director George Tenet had little trouble telling Congress that Syria was among those countries that "have or are actively developing chemical and biological weapons." Syria is considered to have one of the most advanced chemical weapon programs in the Arab world.
And in 1993, the DIA reported that Syria had developed aerial bombs and missile warheads for chemical agents and that there were two known chemical weapon depots: The Khan Abu Shamat Depot and the Furqlus Depot.
In its 1993 report on Syria's chemical weapon program, the DIA concluded that Syria would continue to produce chemical weapons, and that it would continue to require outside sources for equipment and precursor chemicals.
www.wisconsinproject.org /countries/syria/chem.html   (665 words)

 Australia's National Authority for the Chemical Weapons Convention
The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an international treaty that bans the development, production, possession or use of chemical weapons, and requires the destruction of existing weapons.
Chemicals Weapons (Prohibition) Act 1994 bans activities connected to the development, production and use of chemical weapons, including assisting anyone else engaged in these activities, whether intentionally or not.
CWC-Scheduled chemicals unless permission is granted in writing by the Minister of Foreign Affairs or an authorised person within the Department of Foreign Affairs.
www.dfat.gov.au /cwco   (2363 words)

 Biological and chemical weapons: Arm yourself with information - MayoClinic.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Chemical agents can be dispersed as liquids, vapors, gases and aerosols that attack your body's nerves, blood, skin or lungs.
Chemical weapons are easy to produce but not that easy to use.
Infectious disease experts say that although you don't need to be overly alarmed about biological and chemical weapons, you should be aware of their potential uses.
www.mayoclinic.com /invoke.cfm?id=MH00027   (2790 words)

 CNS - Chemical and Biological Weapons: Possession and Programs Past and Present
Weaponized Agents- where agents are produced in quantity, and/or filled into munitions in a specialized formulation with enhanced shelflife or dissemination properties.
While it is unclear exactly what chemical agents Israel may produce, Dutch officials have identified that an El Al 747 that crashed in Amsterdam in 1992 was carrying a shipment of DMMP destined for Israel.
A government spokesman stated that South Africa's chemical weapons program has been "terminated, and that the material for offensive purposes in government storage has been destroyed." The program was shut down in 1993 and its products dumped at sea.
cns.miis.edu /research/cbw/possess.htm   (8532 words)

It requires each State Party to destroy chemical weapons and chemical weapons production facilities it possesses, as well as any chemical weapons it may have abandoned on the territory of another State Party.
The verification provisions of the CWC not only affect the military sector but also the civilian chemical industry, world-wide, through certain restrictions and obligations regarding the production, processing and consumption of chemicals that are considered relevant to the objectives of the Convention.
The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) was established in The Hague and is responsible for the implementation of the Convention.
www.un.org /Depts/dda/WMD/cwc   (391 words)

 Fact Sheet: Chemical Warfare in the Iraq-Iran War
Since 1925 chemical weapons have been used on several occasions, but on each such occasion the extent of world-wide indignation and censure testified to the immutability of the standard of international law as embodied in the Geneva Protocol.
Over the years since the mid-1960s quite a lot of information has been published purporting to describe Iraqi chemical weapons, but much of it is contradictory and all of it is of a reliability which SIPRI is in no position to judge.
A major caveat must be entered: chemical warfare is such an emotive subject that it lends itself very readily to campaigns of disinformation and fl propaganda, campaigns which the politics both of the Gulf War and of the current chemical-weapons negotiations have unquestionably stimulated to no small degree.
projects.sipri.se /cbw/research/factsheet-1984.html   (4148 words)

 CWC   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The treaty defines chemical weapons as toxic chemicals and their precursors, except where intended for purposes not prohibited by the CWC, and in types and quantities consistent with such purposes; munitions and devices specifically designed to cause death through dissemination of toxic chemicals; and equipment specifically designed for use with such munitions and devices.
The toxic chemicals that will be monitored by the CWC include those specified in three lists, referred to collectively as the "Schedules of Chemicals." Schedule 1 covers chemicals that have been developed, produced, stockpiled or used as chemical weapons, or chemicals that are CW precursors with little or no commercial use.
Schedule 2 chemicals are deemed to pose significant risks to the objectives of the CWC due to their toxicity, or are CW precursors that have no recognized large-scale commercial use.
www.nawcwpns.navy.mil /~treaty/CWC.html   (1080 words)

 ABC News: Myanmar Accused of Using Chemical Weapons   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
YANGON, Myanmar Apr 22, 2005 — An international human rights group said Friday there was evidence Myanmar's military forces used chemical weapons against ethnic rebels but the country's military dictatorship dismissed the accusation, saying it did not have the ability to produce such weapons.
Myanmar has signed, but not ratified, the Chemical Weapons Convention, an agreement governed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, or OPCW, a multinational body based at The Hague, Netherlands.
The junta has denied a variety of claims that it has used chemical or biological weapons against ethnic insurgents over the years, most recently in 2002, when it dismissed accusations it used a biotoxin known as "Yellow Rain," Jane's said.
abcnews.go.com /International/wireStory?id=695233   (352 words)

 Neuroscience for Kids - Nerve Agents
You may have read newspaper or magazine articles about the possible use of chemicals during a war or a terrorist attack.
It is possible that many countries have access to these dangerous weapons and future human exposure to these chemicals is possible.
The first of these chemicals was made in 1854 and was originally developed to be used to control insects and save crops.
faculty.washington.edu /chudler/weap.html   (811 words)

 U.S. Chemical Weapons Convention Web Site
This site provides resources and educational tools to assist U.S. chemical facilities in complying with the Bureau of Industry and Security's (BIS) CWC Regulations and CWC provisions of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).
See the Amendment to the CWC Regulations regarding the Electronic Submission of Declarations and Reports through Web-DESI and instructions for requesting authorization from BIS to use this system.
BIS assists companies to determine declaration and reporting requirements by providing chemical determinations and to prepare for inspections by conducting on-site assistance visits upon request.
www.cwc.gov   (416 words)

 BBC NEWS | Middle East | Journalists visit 'chemical weapons site'
Journalists have visited the alleged chemical weapons site in Kurdish-held northern Iraq that US Secretary of State Colin Powell says is run by an Islamic group linked to al-Qaeda.
If the site had been used for producing or experimenting in chemical or biological weapons, there was no obvious sign that that is still the case.
The people of the town of Khurmal, about five kilometres away to the west are particularly anxious since Mr Powell gave their town's name to the alleged chemical weapons site.
news.bbc.co.uk /2/hi/middle_east/2741003.stm   (537 words)

 The U.S. Army Chemical Materials Agency - Creating a Safer Tomorrow
The U.S. Army's Chemical Materials Agency (CMA) is the world leader in programs to store, treat, and dispose of chemical weapons safely and effectively.
The agency develops and uses technologies to safely store and eliminate chemical weapons while protecting the public, its workers and the environment.
The CMA was created to incorporate the former Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization and portions of the Soldier Biological and Chemical Command into one agency.
www-pmcd.apgea.army.mil   (719 words)

 WHO | Public health response to biological and chemical weapons: WHO guidance (2004)
The Public health response to biological and chemical weapons: WHO guidance has been revised and published in 2004.
This second edition of WHO's 1970 publication Health aspects of biological and chemical weapons includes information designed to guide preparedness for and response to the deliberate use of biological and chemical agents that affect health.
Affiliation of who states to the international treaties on biological chemical weapons [pdf 29kb]
www.who.int /csr/delibepidemics/biochemguide/en/index.html   (177 words)

 CNS - Chemical and Biological Weapons Resource Page
Serving legitimate functions in biological research and in specialized chemical industry, osmium tetroxide's suitability as a terrorist agent - a dual use compound - is limited, despite the characterizations of it generating "chemical fallout."
An overview of the technologies underlying detectors and the type of sensing systems currently employed or under near-term consideration for detecting chemical and biological warfare or terrorist weapons.
An integral segment of the DPRK chemical industry is the production of vinalon, or "juche fiber." Of special significance is the fact that a number of North Korean defectors have linked Dr. Lee Sung Ki—-the co-inventor of vinalon and father of polymer fiber production in the DPRK-—with the DPRK chemical and nuclear weapons programs.
cns.miis.edu /research/cbw   (1398 words)

 Chemical Weapons Index   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Chemical weapons, as defined by the 1969 United Nations report entitled "Chemical and Bacteriological Weapons, and the Effect of Their Possible Use," are chemical agents of warfare taken to be chemical substances, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, which might be employed because of their direct toxic effect on man, animals, and plants.
The NATO definition of a chemical agent is: "A chemical substance which is intended for use in military operations to kill, seriously injure or incapacitate people because of its physiological effects.
Excluded from this definition are riot control agents, herbicides, smoke and flame.
www.geocities.com /CapeCanaveral/Lab/4239/chemweapons/cwindex.html   (124 words)

 Terrorism Safety Alliance   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Imagine the chaos and anarchy that took place in New Orleans and add nuclear fallout or a chemical or biological agent to the scenario and the result would be a catastrophe of incomprehensible proportions, yet this is a very real possibility that we all need to be prepared for.
Gas masks are not only for chemical or biological protection, gas masks with NBC filters are the single most effective piece of equipment for surviving a nuclear fallout emergency!
You will learn how to create an emergency survival and evacuation plan and how to create an effective temporary fallout shelter from things you already have around your home.
www.TerrorismSafetyAlliance.org   (1171 words)

 Documents Relating to Chemical and Biological Weapons
US, National Security Study Memorandum (NSSM) 59, U.S. Policy on Chemical and Biological Warfare and Agents, from National Security Advisor Henry A. Kissinger to the Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, Director of Central Intelligence, the Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, and the Director, U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.
Chemical Weapons Destruction in Russia, A SIPRI Project
Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project, Henry Stimson Center
www.mtholyoke.edu /acad/intrel/chemical.htm   (1028 words)

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