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Topic: Chinese Eastern Railway

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  Hong Kong Railway Society
The original length of the CER from Manchouli to the Eastern border at “Pogranichnaia” (Suifenhe 綏芬河) was 927 miles, with a further 607 miles on the Harbin –Port Arthur southern extension.
The first CER president, Hsu Ching Cheng (許景澄), was not fortunate enough to witness the opening of the line, having been executed by order of the Chinese Emperor’s court in July 1900, (during the “Boxer” uprising), for being “too pro foreigner”.
After the opening of the railway Hsu was posthumously pardoned and decorated by the Chinese court as a martyr.
www.hkrs.org.hk /members/crush/CER_1.htm   (919 words)

  China Far East Railway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Chinese Eastern Railway or CER (also known as the Chinese Far East Railway) was a railway in northeastern China (Manchuria).
The southern branch of the CER, known in the West as the South Manchurian Railway, became the locus and partial casus belli for the Russo-Japanese War and the Second Sino-Japanese War (including incidents leading up to the latter from 1927).
The Chinese Eastern Railway was a single tracked line extending (and shortening) the famous world's longest railroad, the Trans-Siberian Railway from near the Siberian city of Chita via Harbin across northern inner Manchuria to the Russian port of Vladivostok.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/China_Far_East_Railway   (615 words)

 SOUTH MANCHURIAN RAILWAY. The Columbia Encyclopedia: Sixth Edition. 2000   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The line from Changchun to Lüshun (Port Arthur), originally belonging to the Russian-built Chinese Eastern Railway, was part of Japan’s indemnity in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–5).
The South Manchurian Railway Company, formerly the largest economic enterprise in Manchuria and the main agency of Japanese penetration, was organized shortly after the Russo-Japanese War.
When the Manchurian warlord Chang Hsüeh-liang refused to halt construction of a competing Chinese railway network, the Japanese Kwantung army staged the Manchurian Incident (1931) and set up the state of Manchukuo (1932).
www.bartleby.com /aol/65/st/SthMan.html   (168 words)

 East Chinese Railway Incident - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The East Asian crisis of 1929, sometimes known as the East Chinese Railway Incident, erupted when the Governor of Manchuria (Chang Hsueh-liang) attempted to expropriate the Chinese Eastern Railway in July.
Soviet forces struck back swiftly, capturing Manchouli (Manchouli Incident) and Hailar, and forcing the Chinese to back down and sign an accord restoring the status quo ante (December 22).
According to the same source, the Japanese intimated that they would not interfere if Soviet troops did not cross the meridian 50 kilometers east of Hailar, a fact which supposedly "delighted" Stalin, who said that "We can now rap Chang's knuckles" (Voroshilov reportedly telegraphed that Blucher could have occupied Harbin in two days).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/East_Chinese_Railway_Incident   (316 words)

 Forerunner, Russian Expansion in China & Manchuria
The Trans-Siberian railway was then being built, and a simple glance at a map indicated that a straight line drawn from Chita to Vladivostok would have to cross this Chinese territory.
In implementation of this agreement, a Convention was signed in Berlin on the 8th September 1896, between the Chinese Government and the Russo-Chinese Bank, creating the Chinese Eastern Railway Company, and handing over to it the necessary lands, with exclusive rights of administration.
Work on both railway lines was still proceeding when the Boxer rebellion broke out, and spread to Manchuria, where the rebels began to destroy the railway tracks, and opened fire on Russian shipping on the Amur river, exactly the kind of ill-devised provocative action most likely to invite Russian military intervention.
www.russojapanesewar.com /clark18.html   (794 words)

 The "Trans-Siberian Express" Express
The Chinese Eastern, however, besides being a bone of contention for a number of years between Russia and Japan, was rather afflicted by train bandits and wreckers.
This Chinese Eastern Railway was built by the Russians, and was maintained by them for years.
To-day, though the Indian, Burmese and Malayan railways are still physically isolated from those of both the Near East and the Far East, their north-western terminal in the Khyber Pass is near the rail-head of the Soviet Russian Railways at Termez on the Oxus.
mikes.railhistory.railfan.net /r091.html   (3744 words)

 Institute of Railway Studies: Railways in the Imperial Imagination
These railways were built to the Russian gauge of 1525mm (5 feet) and involved such enormous political and military Russian privileges for their 'protection' that their concession came close to anticipating a virtual Russian protectorate over all of Manchuria.
All three types of railway were foreign dominated, and all three were attacked during the Boxer Rebellion and Yunnan revolt of 1900: Chinese peasants knew what they disliked and could hardly be expected to differentiate between nation-building railways and railways of foreign penetration.
Our railway police should give the people proper guidance as to the manner in which their tickets should be obtained, see to it that order of precedence is observed, and that they must approach the ticket office in single file.
www.york.ac.uk /inst/irs/irshome/papers/robert1.htm   (7413 words)

 The Trans-Siberian Railway   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The construction of the line, around the turn of the century, coincided with the "Golden Age" of the picture postcard, and many different views of the Trans-Siberian Railway were published between about 1900 and 1918.
The purpose of the book is to show a selection of fine cards, mostly from the author's collection, which were published in the early years of the line's operation.
The views reproduced (stations, bridges, tunnels, locomotives etc.) give a fascinating insight into the operation of the world's longest railway in the early years of the 20th century.
www.rossica.org /Bookshop/book0001.html   (230 words)

 Harbin - LoveToKnow Watches
Till 1896 there was only a small village here, but in that year the town was founded in connexion with surveys for the Chinese Eastern railway company, at a point which subsequently became the junction of the main line of the Manchurian railway with the branch line southward to Port Arthur.
The portion of the town founded in 1896 is called Old Harbin, but the centre has shifted to New Harbin, where the chief public buildings and offices of the railway administration are situated.
The river-port forms a third division of the town, industrially the most important; here are railway workshops, factories and mercantile establishments.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Harbin   (152 words)

 [No title]
For the guarding of the railway premises, equipment and other installations and in order that goods in transit should not be liable to destruction or loss or theft the Chinese Government will set up and control a railway police force.
The chief of the port shall be appointed from among Soviet citizens by the manager of the Chinese-Changchun Railway by agreement with the Mayor of the town of Dairen.
This jurisdiction shall also extend to the civilian population on Chinese territory, even in the event of crimes and offenses against the Soviet armed forces, with the exception of crimes and offenses committed in the zone of hostilities which are subject to jurisdiction of the Soviet commander in chief.
www.ibiblio.org /pha/policy/1945/450826a.html   (3617 words)

The area along the railway was classified as an extraterritorial zone, giving the Russians living there the right to be subject to Russian rather than Chinese authority.
"With the post-revolutionary influx of refugees, the Russians outnumbered the Chinese in Harbin, and the Chinese were more affiliated with the Russian administration than their own." Von Arnold was born in 1895 in Poland, where her father was stationed as a military officer.
Chinese Russians were counted in the Chinese immigration quota and it could take ten years to get a visa.
www.vonarnold.com /6_1_src.asp   (1592 words)

 WWW Irkutsk: History of Trans-Siberian RailRoad
The Chinese Eastern Railway, the shorter southern branch, intersected the Chinese frontier at Manchuria Station, crossed Northern Manchuria through Harbin, the line's center for administration, and reached the Russian frontier again at Podgranitsa, a few hours from Vladivostok.
For example, according to the Committee's recommendation the width of the earth bed in such places as mounds and excavations was decreased, ballast layer was made thinner, lighter rails were used, the number of sleepers for 1 km was decreased, etc. Major construction works were planed only for the big bridges.
The Trans-Siberian Railway greatly influenced the composition and size of the population of Siberia.
www.irkutsk.org /fed/transsib.html   (582 words)

 Treaty Ports and Extraterritorality in China - 1921-22
Both foreigners and Chinese were allowed to lease or own property, live in the settlement area, and generally have open access.
Shanghai exceeded 60,000 in the late 1920s, and again in the late 1930s, the Chinese population within those two areas was more than 300,000 and the overall population of the metropolitan area was well over 3,000,000.
As the city grew and the population became overwhelmingly Chinese, a minority representation from the Chinese community was added in the 1920's.
www.geocities.com /treatyport01/TREATY01.html   (3024 words)

The Chinese Government in Shanghai thought it was dealing with a riot, and demonstrations and meetings were was dealing with a were met with the killing and wounding of scores of people.
Yet with the Chinese proletariat already in action and millions of hungry peasants ready to fight, this was the programme and policy imposed on them with all the authority of the October Revolution and the Communist International.
He knew that a successful Chinese Revolution would enormously strengthen Russia in the Far East, the failure would leave Russia in the position she is in to-day, with the Chinese Eastern Railway lost, threatened by both China and Japan.
marxists.anu.edu.au /archive/james-clr/works/world/ch09.htm   (12217 words)

 Chapter 11, Section b5- Soviet Aggression   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
In August 1945 the Soviet Union concluded a treaty of friendship and alliance with the Republic of China’s Kuomintang (KMT) government, granting it economic concessions and defense facilities, as previously agreed upon by the wartime Allies.
Although the Soviets promised to respect KMT sovereignty in Manchuria, they stripped the region of nearly all of its industrial machinery, resisted efforts by the Chinese government to reestablish its authority, and gave arms taken from captured Japanese soldiers to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), the KMT’s adversary in a civil war.
The subsequent victory of the Chinese Communists over the KMT in 1949 altered the balance of power in Asia to the momentary advantage of the Soviet Union.
www.ibiblio.org /chinesehistory/contents/c11sb05.html   (304 words)

 H-Net Review: Leszek Buszynski on The Russian Far East: A History
Stephan notes the Chinese influence in the area and the extravagant claims raised by China after the 1969 clash with the Soviet Union when Priamur and Primorye were called "historically Chinese possessions" (p.
Chinese were always a presence in the Russian Far East as Stephan explains in Chapter Nine on "East Asian communities." The Chinese were farmers and coolies; one third of the population of Khabarovsk was Chinese until 1900 and 90% of the workers in Vladivostok shipyards were Chinese by 1900 (pp.
Perhaps the consequences of the completion of railway for the development and settlement of the Far East could have been treated in a separate chapter that could have focused upon the role of communications (or their absence) in the history of the Far East.
www.h-net.org /reviews/showrev.cgi?path=20343930308339   (1434 words)

 The Russo   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The Trans-Siberian Railway connecting Moscow and the farthest eastern port in Russia, Vladivostok, was begun in 1891.
The treaty of Shimonoseki terminated the war in the Japanese favor and affirmed the independence of Korea, along with awarding Japan the year-round ice-free port of Port Arthur with the whole Liaotung Peninsula, which effectively gave her control of the Yellow Sea almost to the same degree that she controlled the Sea of Japan.
Due to the tremendous distances involved in the projected northern route of the Trans-Asiatic Railway, with the terminus in the non-ice-free port of Vladivostok, Russia demanded (in return for financing China's war indemnity) that China permit the railway to run through northern Manchuria with terminus in the ice-free port of Port Arthur.
www.corvalliscommunitypages.com /Europe/Russia_slavs/russo.htm   (1142 words)

The corruption of the regime of Chiang Kai‑Shek caused many of the masses in China to turn to Communism for relief, since Chinese Communism is mixed with Nationalism and discourages the old Chinese curse of official corruption; but Communism in China has the same de­humanising effect on the people as it has elsewhere.
However, in 1927 a raid was made by Chang Tso‑Ling on the Soviet Embassy at Pekin, which revealed the scope and extent of the Soviet plot to bolshevise China, and the Borodins were arrested and imprisoned.
At once, the Railway was placed in charge of the Jews Gekker, Koslowsky and Snamensky (Zamyensky).
www.jrbooksonline.com /HTML-docs/chinese_communism.htm   (972 words)

 The Defense of the Soviet Union and the Opposition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Louzon produces elaborate proofs that the Chinese Eastern Railway was built by Czarism for the purpose of seizures and plunder.
It was necessary to so conduct the policy in relation to the railway as to permit the Chinese masses, at least their advanced layers, to clearly grasp the liberationist aims and tasks of the Soviet Government with regard to China.
True enough, the Chinese railway, even taken by itself, is a far more serious object than the head of an Archduke, which served as the pretext for the war of 1914.
www.marxists.org /archive/trotsky/works/1929/1929-fi-b.htm   (15329 words)

 Railway Imperialism — www.greenwood.com
gave rise to a distinctive type of railway imperialism, which added a new dimension to European expansion and projected it to a higher pitch of intensity over a vastly extended range." The volume is blessed with an exceptionally thoughtful concluding essay, "Railways and Informal Empire," which ties together effectively the individual pieces.
The essays reflect on the imperial and anti-imperial effects of railways, whose rails traced the divergent paths of expanding capitalism, imperial strategy, and modernizing nationalism.
The railway has often been studied from the standpoint of imperialism; this book makes a beginning with studying imperialism from the standpoint of the railway.
www.greenwood.com /catalog/DRY/.aspx   (497 words)

 The Jews of Harbin
The Russo-Manchurian treaty of 1897, granted Russia the concession to build the Chinese Eastern railway and Harbin then became its administrative center with a 50 km.
The Chinese Eastern railway was to cross Manchuria, Harbin, Pogranichny, and Changchun with Port Arthur in Korea as its final destination.
However, in 1928, when the Chinese Eastern Railway was handed over to Chinese, an economic crisis broke out and many Jews left Harbin.
www.bh.org.il /Communities/Archive/Harbin.asp   (3011 words)

 Trans-Siberian railway - History
Chinese Eastern line: history of construction and operation (1893-1950)
Family-tree of railway lines / Steam locomotive IS. It shows formations, renamings, mergings and liquidations railway line of Russian Empire, USSR and all the post-soviet states.
USSR railways in the middle of the 20th century / Alexander Elagin.
www.transsib.ru /Eng/history.htm   (559 words)

 Eastern Destiny — www.greenwood.com
Description: Eastern Destiny: Russia in Asia and the North Pacific is the history of a remarkable eastern expansion under tsars, emperors, and commissars.
Over the centuries, the modest Grand Duchy of Moscow in Eastern Europe was so successful that it grew into the massive Russian Empire, whose lands stretched from the Holy Roman Empire in Central Europe to the edge of British power in the wilds of North America.
Eastern Destiny is a saga of entrepreneurs pressing ever-eastward for the wealth of pelts, whether sable or sea otter.
www.greenwood.com /catalog/C5566.aspx?print=1   (374 words)

 Collective Security   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Thus when the Chinese seized the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway in 1929, the Soviet Union blamed Britain and France for having tried to provoke a Sino-Soviet conflict and involve the USSR in a Far Eastern war.
In eastern Europe during the early thirties, the Soviet Union still saw such countries as Poland, Rumania, and Finland as ''vassal states" which ''French and English imperialists" used in their preparations for an attack on the Soviet Union.
A final agreement was reached by the end of 1934, and the railway was sold at a fraction of what it had cost the tsarist government.
mars.wnec.edu /~grempel/courses/stalin/lectures/CollectSec.html   (2289 words)

 Fleeing Revolution
The area along the railway was classified as an extraterritorial zone, giving the Russians living there the right to be subject to Russian rather than Chinese authority.
The Russian community in China continued to thrive but oppression by the Chinese Communists, coupled with their wish to expel Russians from the country, soon forced a second wave of emigration.
Chinese Russians were counted in the Chinese immigration quota and it could take ten years to get a visa.
www.neh.gov /news/humanities/2001-05/russianemigres.html   (2000 words)

Harbin grew suddenly from an obscure settlement to a vibrant city with the creation of the Chinese Eastern Railway at the very end of the 19th century.
The railway was a Russian project and resulted in massive Russian migration to Harbin.
However, it remains true that in XVIII century Kai Feng, in 1920 Harbin, or in 2005 New York, the Jews and the Chinese are friends, members of a mutual admiration society, sharing the respect of knowledge and a fondness for self-deprecating humor.
www.nextjourney.org /China/China5.html   (746 words)

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