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Topic: Chinese English Pidgin

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  Chinese English Pidgin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chinese English Pidgin is one of a variety of pidgin languages, artificial languages used for trade.
Originally a trade jargon developed between the British and the Chinese in the 19th century, pidgin English combined words of English with a rough Chinese grammatical structure.
Pidgin is believed to have been a Chinese pronunciation of the English word business.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chinese_English_Pidgin   (207 words)

 English Language - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
English is descended from the language spoken by the Germanic tribes (the Frisians, Angles, Saxons, and Jutes) that migrated to the land that would become known as England.
English is also one of the primary languages of Belize (with Spanish), Canada (with French), India (Hindi and English in addition to 21 other state languages), Ireland (with Irish), Singapore (with Malay, Mandarin, Tamil and other Asian languages) and South Africa (along with Zulu, Xhosa, Afrikaans, and Northern Sotho).
English is the most widely used "second" and "learning" language in the world, and as such, many linguists believe, it is no longer the exclusive cultural emblem of "native English speakers", but rather a language that is absorbing aspects of cultures worldwide as it grows in use.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /english_language.htm   (2905 words)

 Facts about topic: (Chinese English Pidgin)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Chinese English Pidgin is one of a variety of pidgin (An artificial language used for trade between speakers of different languages) language (A systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols) s, artificial languages used for trade.
Pidgin is believed to have been a Chinese pronunciation of the English word business (A commercial or industrial enterprise and the people who constitute it).
There have been many forms of Pidgin English (additional info and facts about Pidgin English), often with common elements because of the wide range of contacts made by commercial shipping.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/c/ch/chinese_english_pidgin.htm   (156 words)

 Pidgin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
English provides the basis of most of the vocabulary, but the grammar has many Melanesian features, such as singular, dual and plural pronouns (Bislama also has treble pronouns), and inclusive and exclusive first-person cases.
Pidgins become creole languages when a generation whose parents speak pidgin to each other teach it to their children as their first language.
Pidgin English was the name given to a Chinese-English-Portuguese pidgin used for commerce in Canton during the 18th and 19th centuries.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pidgin   (986 words)

 American English - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
American English has both spelling and grammatical differences from British English, some of which were made as part of an attempt to rationalize the English spelling used by British English at the time.
English words that arose in the US A number of words that have arisen in the United States have become common, to varying degrees, in English as it is spoken internationally.
English words obsolete outside the US A number of words that originated in the English of the British Isles are still in everyday use in North America, but are no longer used in most varieties of British English.
open-encyclopedia.com /American_English   (2185 words)

 PIDGIN ENGLISH - LoveToKnow Article on PIDGIN ENGLISH   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
One smote the threshold with an axe, another with a pestle, the third swept it with a broomthree symbols of culture (for trees were hewn down with the axe, grain pounded with the pestle, and the fruits of the field swept up with the broom) which Silvanus could not endure.
PIDGIN [or PIGEON] ENGLISH, the lingua franca of the seaports of China, the Straits Settlements in the Far East, consisting in a jargon of corrupted English words with some intermixture of Portuguese and Malay, following Chinese idiomatic usage.
It is employed as a means of communication between foreigners and the native Chinese.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /P/PI/PIDGIN_ENGLISH.htm   (1387 words)

 English spelling & Pidgin.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Despite the myth current in English circles that spellings cannot be tampered with because they have a natural life of their own, both pidgins have been put on paper after much thought and discussion among 'experts' and nationals.
English literacy is facilitated not only by familiarity with the sight of English print in everyday shopping and travelling, but also by the practice of the pidgin weekly paper Wantok, which carries large slabs of sport and advertising in English, mixed with the rest of the Tok Pisin reporting.
The English problem of sexist language is usually overcome by inclusiveness - for example, brata is brother, sister, cousin or friend of the same sex, susa is brother, sister, cousin or friend of the opposite sex, and bratasusa is brothers and sisters, manmeri is people, and em refers indifferently to he, she, it, them.
www.spellingsociety.org /journals/j6/pidgin.php   (3022 words)

 Pidgin - TheBestLinks.com - Pidgin English, Belarus, Chinese, Chinese language, ...
Pidgin English, Pidgin, Belarus, Chinese, Chinese language, Colonialism...
This stage requires the pidgin to be learned natively by children, who then generalize the features of the pidgin into a fully-formed, stabilized grammar (see Nicaraguan Sign Language).
When a pidgin reaches this point it acquires the full complexity of a natural language, and becomes a creole language.
www.thebestlinks.com /Pidgin_English.html   (435 words)

 Present-Day English(es)
Pidgins were long regarded as corrupted versions of a more "legitimate" language (e.g., English, Portuguese).
Pidgins operate with a highly-reduced repertoire of language tools; a creole, functioning as the first language of a group of speakers, necessarily expands this repertoire.
One characteristic of pidgins is the lack of inflectional morphology.
ebbs.english.vt.edu /hel/helmod/pde.html   (1296 words)

 pidgin English
Originally a trade jargon developed between the British and the Chinese in the 19th century, but now commonly and loosely used to mean any kind of ‘broken’ or ‘native’ version of the English language.
There have been many forms of pidgin English, often with common elements because of the wide range of contacts made by commercial shipping (see pidgin languages).
The original pidgin English of the Chinese ports combined words of English with a rough-and-ready Chinese grammatical structure.
www.tiscali.co.uk /reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0005923.html   (192 words)

 Chinese Pidgin English --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Chinese Pidgin got its start in Canton, China, after the British established their first trading post there in 1664.
Pidgin languages spring from the initial, nonintimate contacts between speakers of different languages, when quick comprehension is more highly valued than grammatical correctness or fine shades of meaning.
English is the national language of the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9082148?tocId=9082148   (820 words)

 Lingua franca
English is the current lingua franca of international business, and people with foreign dealings around the world are fast becoming acclimated to its use.
They claim that English and other natural languages, being ethnically derived, are not suitable for a common language, since each ethnic language contains caveats and idiosyncracies that hamper their ability to be learned, and since ethnic languages confer an automatic advantage to native speakers in interaction between native speakers and non-native speakers.
Lingua Franca (Italian meaning "Frankish language") or Sabir ("to know") was an early pidgin language, used in the Mediterranean area from the 14th century or earlier and still in use in the 20th century.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/l/li/lingua_franca.html   (816 words)

 Wikinfo | Pidgin
Pidgins have rudimentary grammars and restricted vocabulary, serving as auxiliary contact languages.
When a pidgin reaches this point it becomes a creole language.
Chinook Jargon is a trade pidgin or creole used in the Pacific Northwest.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Pidgin   (361 words)

 PIDGIN   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
This stage requires the pidgin to be learned natively by children, who then generalize the features of the pidgin into a fully-formed, stabilized grammar.
Some scholars dispute this derivation of the word "pidgin", and suggest alternative etymologies, but no alternative has been deemed convincing enough to garner widespread support.
It is licensed under the GNU free documentation license.
www.yotor.org /wiki/en/pi/Pidgin.htm   (310 words)

 Tower of Babel - EvoWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
A pidgin is a minimal language subset used for communication between people who do not understand one another's language.
The salient feature of pidgins is that they are minimal, that is, grammatical idiosyncracies are reduced to a minimum in order to facilitate communication.
An example of real-world pidginisation effects is that upon Italian during World War II: the Italo-English pidgin had all verbs conjugated in infinitive form alone.
www.evowiki.org /index.php/Tower_of_Babel   (687 words)

 English Words from Chinese
Date: 1948; traditional Chinese food consisting of a variety of items (as steamed or fried dumplings, pieces of cooked chicken, and rice balls) served in small portions.
Pidgin English is/was a form of Chinese English used for business purposes in the Orient.
A system for romanizing Chinese ideograms in which tones are indicated by diacritics and unaspirated consonants are transcribed as voiced.
spotlightongames.com /quote/chinesewords.html   (1107 words)

 CC is for CCreole   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Although the grammar of a pidgin is simpler than the grammars of its parent languages, and although pidgins often sound like uneducated fumbling attempts to speak one of the parent languages, pidgins aren't just "corruptions" of parent languages; they have grammar and vocabulary all their own.
But even words that appear to be entirely English may have meanings that don't exist in English, and their roles in sentences may be opaque to those who don't know the details of the creole's grammar.
The impression that a creole is nothing but "broken English" partly derives from choice of spellings; I suspect (but don't know for sure) that as with transliteration of Chinese, new spellings have come into style deemphasizing Englishness and emphasizing pronunciation.
www.kith.org /logos/words/upper2/CCreole.html   (565 words)

 pidgin --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Pidgins usually arise as methods of communication between groups that have no language in common; the pidgins in some instances later become established first or second languages of one of the groups involved.
Melanesian Pidgin has also become the lingua franca of Papua New Guinea, where several hundred native languages are spoken, most of them being mutually incomprehensible.
A lingua franca native to none of those using it and with a sharply reduced grammar and vocabulary is called a pidgin.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9109820   (710 words)

 SULAIR: Reference Guide for Pidgin and Creole Languages
Pidgin and Creole (hereafter P/C) studies have emerged as important challenges to linguistic theory and method.
Some clearly Creole languages are classified as a Pidgin or "other" mixed languages, some are classified as dialects of their "target" languages (English, French, etc.,), and some are classed sometimes as a dialect and sometimes as a "mixed" language.
Though it deals mostly with English-derived Pidgins and Creoles, it is a good overview of the field and provides a useful summary of recent theories of the genesis and development of these languages.
www-sul.stanford.edu /depts/ssrg/pidgins/pidgin.html   (2296 words)

 Chinese languages --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Chinese exists in a number of varieties that are popularly called dialects but that are usually classified as separate languages by scholars.
Mandarin Chinese is spoken in all of China north of the Yangtze River and in much of the rest of the country and is the native language of two-thirds of the population.
There are two elements to the Chinese language: the written language, based on individual symbols called characters, each of which represents an idea or thing; and the spoken language, which includes a number of different dialects.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9109794   (806 words)

 Please title this page. (Page 1)
Pidgins persist, however, where a dominant group regards another as childlike or capable only of a simplified version of the “superior“ language, as in the relations between Europeans and American Indians, West Africans, or South Sea natives.
Nigerian Pidgin is distinguished from the other 400 or so languages by the fact that it is spoken by members of every regional, ethnolinguistic and religious group in the federation.
In her report “Auf Wiedersehen, English“, Ursula Sautter quoted Walter Krämer, the president of the Society for the Protection of the German Language, an organization that takes up arms against anglicisms, as follows: “The German tongue is deteriorating into a pidgin dialect which will soon no longer be usable as an independent cultural language.
members.fortunecity.com /dhl76/thesis.html   (18421 words)

 Essential World English
English spelling lags centuries behind language merger and change, and anglophone resistance to scriptage debate is increasing anglophone illiteracy, alredy four times that of Finnish and other updated scriptages.
English is the language most in use for 'communicationŠ in what we hope will be the One World of tomorrow.' The written word is still the main medium used for international communication for those who most seek such a medium.
Disappearance of grammatical gender is 'one of the indisputable merits of English'.
www.worldlanguageprocess.org /essays/ewe.htm   (6554 words)

 Chinese Englishes - Cambridge University Press   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
This book explores the history of the English language in China from the arrival of the first English-speaking traders in the early seventeenth century to the present.
The emergence of Hong Kong English as a ‘new English’; 5.
Hong Kong, China, and Chinese Englishes; Appendix 1: Chinese dialects in China; Appendix 2: Chinese dialects in Guangdong (Canton) province; Appendix 3: The Common Foreign Language of the Red-haired People (1835); Appendix 4: The vocabulary of Hong Kong English; References; Index.
www.cup.cam.ac.uk /catalogue/print.asp?isbn=0521811635&print=y   (303 words)

 Amazon.com: Chinese Englishes : A Sociolinguistic History (Studies in English Language): Books: Kingsley Bolton,Merja ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Kingsley Bolton uses early word lists, satirical cartoons and data from journals and memoirs to uncover the forgotten history of English in China, from the arrival of the first English-speaking traders in the early seventeenth century to the present.
Demonstrating how contemporary Hong Kong English has its historical roots in Chinese pidgin English, the book considers the changing status of English in mainland China over time, particularly recent developments since 1997.
Kingsley Bolton is an Associate Professor in the Department of English at the University of Hong Kong, where he lectures on sociolinguistics and World Englishes.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0521811635?v=glance   (629 words)

 Questions & Answers: Chow   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Its immediate origin is a Chinese-English pidgin which was used by indentured Chinese labourers who built the railroads in and into California last century.
It seems that the original was the repeated chow chow, and in that form it’s recorded in a glossary prepared by a member of the staff of the British embassy in Beijing at the end of the eighteenth century.
Its pidgin use in an institutional or communal context in California seems to be why it still has links with military or prison life.
www.worldwidewords.org /qa/qa-cho1.htm   (196 words)

 Chinese Pidgin English   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Thus, Chinese Pidgin English, also called China Coast Pidgin, was born from business needs.
To be sure that no one else could understand their communications during the conduct of pidgin (business), Chinese merchants and their British counterparts began using Anglicized versions of many Chinese words.
"The use of pidgin English caught on and spread rapidly and was spoken among Chinese and English merchants throughout the 19th century.
www.koreanhistoryproject.org /Ket/C16/TP1602a.htm   (283 words)

 Chinese to English word translation - Debunkers
English does not even have such a sound in such a spot.
Another reason Chinese may not be phonetically spelled the way we'd expect is that there are a lot of Chinese, and they don't all speak the same way.
The disadvantage of this is that Chinese is a general language, without the ability to say the same thing in dozens of different ways.
www.debunkers.org /ubb/Forum8/HTML/001623.html   (4012 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
This shows the development of prepositions from serial verbs--bulong derives from English belong, but in Melanesian Pidgin (of which Solomon Islands is a variety), it has become the possessive marker, equivalent to English of.
This is not a feature of English, but is common in many languages.
Notice that the source of the suffix is the English unstressed pronouns him/them, but in these creoles its function has changed.
www.uoregon.edu /~delancey/courses/211/notes/creolegram.html   (272 words)

 English words from Chinese   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
That is, the Cantonese word doesn’t derive from the Mandarin; both derive from an older Middle Chinese form.
One of the frustrations of learning Chinese is the relative lack of cognates...
Chinese seems designed to defeat romanizers-- there’s no system that suggests pronunciations to English speakers without explanations.
www.zompist.com /chinawords.html   (1023 words)

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