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Topic: Chinese sovereign

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In the News (Sat 8 Dec 18)

  Wikipedia: Ming Dynasty
Among the populace there were strong feelings against the rule of "the foreigners", which finally led to a peasant revolt that pushed the Yuan dynasty back to the Mongolian steppes and established the Ming Dynasty in 1368.
The Chinese armies reconquered Annam and blocked Mongol expansionism, while the Chinese fleet sailed the China seas and the Indian Ocean, cruising as far as the east coast of Africa.
Chinese Marxist historians, especially during the 1970s identified the Ming age one of "incipient capitalism", a description that seems quite reasonable, but one that does not quite explain the official downgrading of trade and increased state regulation of commerce during the Ming era.
www.factbook.org /wikipedia/en/m/mi/ming_dynasty.html   (3334 words)

 Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai (袁世凱 or 袁世凯 in pinyin: yuan2 shi4 kai3) (1859 - June 6, 1916), spelled Yüan Shih-k'ai in Wade-Giles, was a Chinese military official and politician during late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China.
He fortunately avoided the humiliation of Chinese armies in the war when he was recalled to Beijing several days before the Chinese forces was attacked.
He reinstated the monarchy, proclaiming himself the Emperor of the Chinese Empire (中华帝国皇帝)under the era name of Hongxian, for a brief period from December 12, 1915 to March 22, 1916.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/yu/Yuan_Shih-k'ai.html   (787 words)

 Wikinfo | China   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
China (Traditional Chinese: 中國, Simplified Chinese: 中国, Pinyin: Zhōnggúo) is an ancient cultural and geographic entity in continental East Asia with some offshore islands which since 1949 has been divided between the People's Republic of China (governing Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau) and the Republic of China (governing Taiwan and several outlying Fujianese islands).
From the Chinese point of view, the "Chinese" Empire includes most parts of southern Russia in and Central Asia during the strongest periods in Yuan, although China was mere one of territories of the Mongol Empire in actuality.
Chinese philosophers, writers, and poets have been mostly highly respected, and considered to be those preserving and promoting the culture of the empire.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=China   (1552 words)

 Chinese sovereign - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The king or wang (王 wáng) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou Dynasty to the Qin Dynasty.
This is based on the concept of "Mandate of Heaven." The theory behind this was that the Chinese emperor acted as the "Son of Heaven." As the only legitimate ruler, his authority extended to "All under heaven" and had neighbors only in a geographical sense.
All sovereigns are denoted by a string of Chinese characters.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chinese_sovereign   (1378 words)

 The Chinese Embassy Bombing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The action of hitting an embassy compound, which is a part of sovereign Chinese territory under international law, is legally tantamount to a declaration of war.
The reason, according to Tennet, that the Chinese Embassy was not accurately identified was that the database existed to identify targets, not non-targets, and therefore diplomatic buildings in general were not plotted as a priority.
Chinese statements provided to the author state that the embassy had a large sign plate on the front gate, stating clearly in both Serbo-Croat and Chinese the exact nature of the building.
www.aeronautics.ru /nws002/afm151.htm   (3117 words)

Sovereign Advisers, a private financial research and investment analysis firm, recently filed a complaint with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Division of Market Regulation and the Committee of European Securities Regulators, pertaining to the inappropriate and misleading sovereign credit ratings assigned to the People's Republic of China (http://www.globalsecuritieswatch.org/SEC.pdf).
The complaint (http://www.globalsecuritieswatch.org/IOSCO.pdf) filed by Sovereign Advisers specifically addresses instances involving failure to disclose the existence of a defaulted series of full faith and credit sovereign obligations of the Chinese Government which remain outstanding in a state of selective default by the Chinese Government.
Sovereign Advisers, a private risk analytics firm based in the U.S., has requested IOSCO to distribute the complaint, filed on behalf of defaulted creditors of the Chinese Government, to securities regulators around the world for investigation and possible regulatory sanctions in connection with the improper offer, sale and trading of recently-issued Chinese government bonds.
www.globalsecuritieswatch.org /press.html   (1878 words)

 Wikinfo | Qing Dynasty   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Han Chinese were prohibited from migrating into the Manchu homeland, and Manchus were forbidden to engage in trade or manual labor.
Supporters of Chinese nationalism argue that Qing rule over these areas is best described as an extremely high degree of autonomy within a single nation-state, while supporters of Tibetan independence argue that the Qing dynasty was a personal union between many nation-states.
However the Chinese bannermen were not regarded as equal to the other two branches due to their late addition to the Manchu cause, and their ethnic Han Chinese backgrounds.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Qing_Dynasty   (3820 words)

 Tales of old Shanghai - Library - A Short History of Shanghai
One of the reasons for the Taotai and the Chinese authorities being generally opposed to the residence of Chinese in the Settlements was the fear that the latter might claim exemption from taxation by the Chinese Government.
Provision was made for legalizing the residence of such Chinese as the Consuls and the Taotai might consider entitled to remain, either from their original occupation of lands and houses or on account of other circumstances connected with their legitimate interests and occupations.
The Chinese residents were taxed equally with the foreign members of the community, but had no voice in the expenditure of collected revenues, and could not participate in the municipal government.
www.earnshaw.com /shanghai-ed-india/tales/library/pott/pott04.htm   (1518 words)

 Emperor of China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Emperor of China (Chinese: 皇帝; pinyin: Huángdì) was the title given to the rulers of China from the founding of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC until the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912.
Unlike the Japanese emperor for example, Chinese political theory allowed for a change of dynasty as imperial families could be replaced.
Up until the Ming Dynasty, the sovereign conventionally changed the era name on a semi-regular basis during his reign.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chinese_emperor   (1481 words)

 Psychospiritual Aspects of Traditional Chinese Medicine
A prevailing attitude throughout Chinese medical thought, and Chinese culture more broadly, is that the proper disposition of the spiritual and mental faculties is essential to physical health, and conversely, that a sound physical basis is required for the maintenance and furtherance of mental and spiritual life.
The role of the sovereign is to preside; his virtue diffuses of its own accord throughout the population.
Since the true sovereign himself may not leave his central position of non-action, there must be system of connections, a means by which the authority of the Heart can radiate to the rest of the organism.
www.planetherbs.com /articles/psych_tcm.html   (6676 words)

 Asia Times Online :: China News, China Business News, Taiwan and Hong Kong News and Business.
Chinese per capita GDP was $1,231 for 2005, while the country's per capita foreign-trade volume was $1,000.
In 2005, the per capita annual income of Chinese urban residents was 10,493 yuan, or $1,294 at the official exchange rate of 8.11 yuan to a dollar.
Chinese policy of export-dependent growth is causing mounting social unrest with serious political implications, which the government is just beginning to acknowledge.
www.atimes.com /atimes/China_Business/HD01Cb05.html   (6608 words)

Sovereign borders for them are protective shields against external threats of human rights violation, but coming to the non-Western states, sovereign borders appear to be a way of covering up human rights violation.
Chinese Confucians, Legalists as well as Daoists all speak of the spirit of Dao when dealing with issues concerning national unity.<37> The universal nature of Dao prescribes that a prince should win people's hearts but warns against the open use of coercion and rewards lest this would tarnish the supreme incorruptibility of a prince.
For example, Chinese national leaders proclaim that they would rather lose thousands of troops than give up one inch of their land and that they would sacrifice and bleed one after another to protect territory.<44> This seems an intensified version of the rationality of the sovereign state.
www.taiwansecurity.org /TS-Shih.htm   (11713 words)

 San Jose Mercury News: Taiwan elections, Chinese puzzle
Promising a constitutional overhaul in 2006 that would, in effect, transform Taiwan into a sovereign, non-Chinese state, he further proposed an islandwide referendum, to be conducted in conjunction with the presidential vote, to express the Taiwanese people's opposition to Chinese efforts to deny Taiwan's international standing.
It has often been noted that the Chinese term for crisis -- weiji -- is a compound of two other terms: danger (weixian) and opportunity (jihui).
RICHARD BAUM, a professor of political science at UCLA, is director of the UCLA Center for Chinese Studies and the author of "Burying Mao: Chinese Politics in the Age of Deng Xiaoping." He wrote this article for Perspective.
www.taiwandc.org /mercurynews-2004-02.htm   (1339 words)

 American Thinker: China's manifest destiny
Chinese communist founder Mao Zedong and leader Deng Xiaoping both publicly asserted that the Russian cities of Vladivostok and Khabarovsk were Chinese.
Some Chinese historians have claimed that the current China—Russia borders are unfair and that Russia 'stole' the Far East by force.
Chinese migrants entering the region to replace the departing Russians have encountered harsh resistance from the remaining population.
www.americanthinker.com /articles.php?article_id=4540   (1731 words)

 AH_FU's Xanga Site
Traditional Chinese Medicine is known for its distinctive approach to cure the ailments of the internal body.
The name list of Chinese traditional medicines to be exported accompanied by their production enterprises, which are approved for quality registration and inspection, is published once a year.
The Chinese culture was still foreign to the axiom that the ultimate fortune of a woman was not in a good wedding of huge expenditure, but in a union of two individuals that have discovered the divinity of love.
www.xanga.com /AH_FU   (6764 words)

 The Journal of Asian Law | Back Issues
He answered, "Perhaps sovereign immunity." This may not be too much of an exaggeration.
This question is of great significance both from the point of view of academic inquiry and from that of practical application.
If the volumes of literature written on sovereign immunity are examined, and the number of lawsuits relating to the question are considered, the significance of the question of sovereign immunity and its relevance to people in the legal profession become immediately clear.
www.columbia.edu /cu/asiaweb/v1n1wang.htm   (435 words)

 Asia Times
Once in power, sovereigns have to adjust themselves to the society, as the legitimacy for their ruling is determined by the Han people.
Chinese national pride is rooted in the memory of an immense country that, for most of its existence, considered itself so wealthy that it did not need to trade with the Western powers.
CNS estimated that around 100 million Chinese were working in the non-state sector, which includes private and foreign firms, joint ventures, as well as companies with mixed ownership.
www.atimes.com /atimes/China/DK29Ad01.html   (6653 words)

 theage.com.au - US group tries for historic returns on China bonds
A group representing about 340 family investors is reviving a battle over defaulted Chinese sovereign bonds that may stir the ghosts of Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong.
In trying to recover funds on Chinese sovereign bonds issued as long ago as 1913, the American Bondholders Foundation is employing modern methods.
In a general sense, the case highlights the messy legal problems that often arise in claims on international sovereign debt, problems that have led some financial officials to propose an international bankruptcy court.
www.theage.com.au /articles/2002/04/04/1017206240209.html   (653 words)

 China Bank Notes
Huang-ti, the Yellow Emperor, is said to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese.
He has been credited with the invention of the principles of Traditional Chinese medicine, the invention of the compass, and the invention of the earliest form of the Chinese calendar.
However, the Chinese Civil War following WWII resulted in two Chinese states in 1949: People's Republic of China on the mainland, and the Republic of China in Taiwan.
www.tomchao.com /as/as8p.html   (417 words)

 Salon.com People | Tibet: Lost in the Himalayas
By now, the oppression of the Tibetan people, their culture and their religion by the Chinese government is a proven and accepted fact.
Since 1950, when the Chinese invaded sovereign Tibet, the circumstances of the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people have been chronicled in print and film many times over, as have the destruction of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries, priceless art and the livelihoods of many more thousands who have had to flee that country.
What happened spiritually is that the Chinese government went into the monasteries and imposed a re-education process upon them, in which they made it illegal to worship the Dalai Lama.
archive.salon.com /people/feature/2002/02/04/tibet_johnson/print.html   (2290 words)

 EnciclopedyTable of Chinese monarchs -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
This title of Emperor continued to be used for the remainder of China's imperial history, right down to the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912.
Chinese monarchs were known by many different names, and how they should be identified is often confusing.
Qin Shi Huang was the first Chinese sovereign proclaiming himself "Emperor".
www.adago.com /Table_of_Chinese_monarchs.html   (1636 words)

 Conversation with Stephen D. Krasner, p. 3 of 6
The Chinese decide that they want it back as a piece of Chinese sovereign territory.
I was sitting next to someone on a plane once, a Chinese citizen, and they actually have a document that looks like a passport but isn't, that allows Chinese citizens to go from China to Hong Kong.
The Chinese also agreed to allow judges from the Commonwealth to sit on the highest court in Hong Kong.
globetrotter.berkeley.edu /people3/Krasner/krasner-con3.html   (2087 words)

 JPRI Critique Vol. VII No. 8
All Chinese thus looked forward to a future when the "sacred mission and great cause of reunifying the motherland" would be fully realized.
The speaker was Tao Wenzhao from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences' Institute of American Studies and his topic was "America's Taiwan Policy." Despite his expertise, Professor Tao seemed genuinely perplexed at the depth of Taiwan's aversion to the one-country, two-systems solution.
After 1949, this group was led by Chinese officials working under the all-purpose umbrella of the New China News Agency's Hong Kong branch, which served as China's unofficial representative in the colony.
www.jpri.org /publications/critiques/critique_VII_8.html   (3430 words)

 National Committee on American Foreign Policy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Although maritime geography and the law of the sea seem to be on the Chinese side, Japan is not likely to budge from its present position, considering that the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention is subject to different interpretations in accordance with two cardinal principles for maritime delimitation, as shall be discussed later.
The line not only veers into the Chinese side of what an ‘‘equitable’’ line would be by connecting the middle points between the two shores but also meanders to the west to enclose the disputed Diaoyutai (or Senkaku in Japanese) islands on the Japanese side of the line.
The Chinese would draw the line quite differently; it would run in the middle course between the western coastline of the Ryukyus (Okinawa) and the eastern coastline of Taiwan, which Beijing considers to be part of China.
www.ncafp.org /projects/NEasia/dec05hsiung.htm   (9020 words)

 How the Bush Administration Should Handle China
Thus far, the U.S. response to the Chinese challenge has been to remain neutral on the competing maritime border claims and to avoid criticism of China.
China is saying that its sovereign maritime border is 200 nautical miles, not the traditional 12 miles.
Without doubt, Chinese explorers and fisherman sailed the South China Sea for thousands of years and recorded their exploits, but it is equally clear that the Chinese traditionally have viewed Hainan Island as the southernmost outpost of their civilization, certainly until the end of the 19th century.
www.heritage.org /Research/AsiaandthePacific/BG1470.cfm   (3261 words)

 Race law 'is a memorial to my Harinder' | World | The Observer
It was a campaign that exposed some of the taboo subjects in a largely Chinese society where racism is deeply ingrained, and a campaign that gave a voice to victims who were supposed to remain silent.
The Hong Kong government consistently maintained that legislation was not a proper way to solve problems of discrimination, but as the campaign at home mounted, and it was regularly embarrassed by harsh criticism from the UN human rights commission, it finally yielded and has produced a bill that outlaws racial discrimination.
On the Chinese mainland, the constitution outlaws discrimination 'against any ethnic group' but, like many parts of the Chinese constitution, the rhetoric is not matched by reality on the ground.
observer.guardian.co.uk /world/story/0,,1962612,00.html   (952 words)

 Integrating Environmental Considerations into the Economic Decision-Making Process
The separation of residencies of westerners and Chinese stipulated in the 1845 Land Regulations was broken by the farmers' uprising XiaoDao Affiliation in 1853, and the citizens in avoiding the war took refuge in the settlements where the Chinese population suddenly increased to more than 20,000.
A Shanghai Municipal Council and police station were also set up in the settlements which resulted in the Chinese people there being governed by foreigners and Chinese sovereign rights beginning to disintegrate.
Even worse, when the Mixed Court was established in 1869, the settlements had their own judicial powers, and their political and law systems being almost established, they had become a country within a country where colonists could enjoy special rights.
www.unescap.org /drpad/publication/integra/modalities/china/4ch01b.htm   (228 words)

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