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Topic: Chinese strategic thought


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In the News (Sat 16 Feb 19)

  
  Chinese strategic thought - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chinese strategic thought consists of concepts of statecraft in both traditional and modern China.
Chinese papers written about political or military strategy generally contain a unique mix of the modern and the traditional with discussions of 21st century information warfare intermixed with allusions to events in ancient Chinese history.
Chinese strategic thinkers tend to view current international relations as a competition between states acting in their self-interest similar to that of the Warring States period in Chinese history.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chinese_strategic_thought   (434 words)

  
 Chinese strategic culture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
The earliest definition though a restricted one, was from Jack Snyder who defined strategic culture as "the body of attitudes and beliefs that guides and circumscribes thought on strategic questions, influences the way strategic issues are formulated, and sets the vocabulary and perceptual parameters of strategic debate." This definition has since undergone many changes.
The simplest way to look at strategic culture in our view would be, as in the case of China whether a long history and continual culture could be critical sources to determine strategic behaviour of a nation.
For his research, the writer Alastair Iain Johnston was right in choosing China and within the long period of Chinese history, the Ming period (1368-1644) to study the trends in strategic culture and grand strategy preferences, where the decision makers were aware of the philosophical and textual traditions out of which strategic culture arose.
www.saag.org /papers/paper32.html   (1109 words)

  
 Strategic Forces - Development of the Chinese Armed Forces
If the Chinese discussed with Khrushchev their concern over developments in the strait and their objectives regarding the offshore islands, it is likely that he recommended caution (although in his memoirs Khrushchev states that he was in favor of liquidating the islands in preparation for an attack on Taiwan itself).
Chinese nuclear weapons were not discussed at any great length, but the PLA Military Science Academy was identified as having responsibility for developing doctrinal and strategic principles for their future employment.
Strategic and tactical planning was hastened by both the deployment of China's own MRBMs (1969-70) and the Soviets introduction of tactical nuclear weapons in central Asia and the Far East (1971-72).
www.fas.org /irp/dia/product/prc_ch-11.htm   (8399 words)

  
 The Wright Stuff - Learning From Stones   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
A popular saying in the Chinese diplomatic and defense communities is about the Chinese way of war and diplomacy and its difference to that of the West: Chinese place heavy emphasis on strategy and stratagems whereas the West relies more on overwhelming force and advanced capability.
Chinese strategists tend to stress the significance of culture and end up stereotyping U.S. and Western ways of war.8 While a good answer to this question is difficult to qualify, one has to see that the West has dominated world politics with its superior comprehensive power over several centuries.
Strategic moves, diplomatic posturing, and testing each other’s waters are the hallmarks of the opening of the game.
www.au.af.mil /au/aunews/archive/apr/learningfromstones.html   (10131 words)

  
 Johnston, A.I.: Cultural Realism: Strategic Culture and Grand Strategy in Chinese History.
Strategic Culture and Grand Strategy in Chinese History
First Johnston examines ancient military texts as sources of Chinese strategic culture, using cognitive mapping, symbolic analysis and congruence tests to determine whether there is a consistent grand strategic preference ranking across texts that constitutes a single strategic culture.
The results lead to the surprising conclusion that there may be, in fact, fewer cross-national differences in strategic culture than proponents of the "strategic culture" approach think.
press.princeton.edu /titles/5716.html   (405 words)

  
 Academics
In this course, we investigate Chinese ancient philosophy in a way to let its own tendencies be sensed and appreciated.
Because the 36 stratagems is part of Chinese strategic thought, understanding the 36 stratagems is critical to understand the China business environment.
By analyzing both Chinese companies and non-Chinese companies applying the Stratagems, students will learn that the Stratagems are relevant to today and applicable both inside and outside of China.
www.thebeijingcenter.org /courses_offered_s.html   (590 words)

  
 GOV 2882: CHINESE STRATEGIC THOUGHT
Much of the secondary literature on Chinese strategic thought argues there are key continuities in approaches to war and peace which cut across time and historical context.
Yet few students of Chinese strategic thought have explicated precisely what those elements of continuity are, how influential these have been, or whether there are elements of discontinuity, contestation and debate within a more amorphous and less unified strategic tradition.
If there are clear discontinuities, then this may require both a revision of our understanding of contemporary Chinese approaches to war and peace and an inquiry into the 'sociology' of any misreading of Chinese strategic tradition.
www.people.fas.harvard.edu /~johnston/GOV2882.html   (1773 words)

  
 NEAS - Syllabi   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
This was the period that saw the emergence of the schools of thought, institutions, technological and artistic traditions that were to shape subsequent Chinese history and strongly influence the other societies and cultures of East Asia.
This course is an intensive reading and research course in Chinese strategic thought from the Warring States period to contemporary China.
And both are thought to be unique: the U.S. because of its presidential system of government, two-party system, and low levels of voter participation, Japan because of its postwar history, influential bureaucracy, and single party control.
neas.miis.edu /syllabi.html   (9396 words)

  
 Chinese Civil War
Given the huge size of China, in both population and geographic scope, and the chaos that followed the fall of the last dynasty, it is no surprise that this is a very complicated tale.
The first round of the Chinese civil war was won not by Mao Tse-tung, but by Chiang Kai-shek’s Kuomintang, which broke an alliance of convenience with the Communists on its way to the establishment of a new National government in 1928.
In December 1943 the Chinese exclusion acts of the 1880s and subsequent laws enacted by the United States Congress to restrict Chinese immigration into the United States were repealed.
www.globalsecurity.org /military/ops/chinese-civil-war.htm   (901 words)

  
 China and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Implications for the United States
Contemporary Chinese interpretations of this work emphasize the largely defensive and nonviolent nature of Chinese strategic thought, most often citing Sun Zi's well-known maxim: "To win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill.
The second driving factor behind Chinese modernization is a rising concern about the survivability of its nuclear deterrent, particularly given the prospect of the Strategic Defense Initiative in the 1980s and now the deployment of theater and national missiles defenses by the United States.
Chinese perceptions about the survivability of its force were also undermined by Desert Storm, which highlighted the ability of US conventional forces to destroy fixed targets with precision-guided munitions and the concomitant inability of those same forces to destroy mobile targets.
www.fas.org /irp/nic/china_wmd.html   (17620 words)

  
 CHINA AND THE REVOLUTION IN MILITARY AFFAIRS: Part IV
Socio-cultural factors and their influence on military prowess and strategic thinking are less obvious and have not been treated as amply in the literature as have the more obvious and measurable economic factors.
Confucianism is at its root a set of socio-cultural norms which value and legitimize conservatism in thought, and the maintenance of the status quo in political, socio-economic, and cultural structures.
As noted, the past record of Chinese human capital development is mixed, and since 1949 and the advent of the communist system has included long periods in which scholarly and scientific training and intelligence were actively scorned, and scientists and intellectuals actively punished and even killed.
www.milnet.com /threats/chnrmap4.htm   (2683 words)

  
 Chinese Nuclear Doctrine [Free Republic]
It was around 1987 that the Strategic Missile Forces (Zhanlue daodan budui), for instance began a research programme on nuclear campaign theory that focussed on a range of topics including the character and form of a nuclear counter-attack, the command and control of nuclear weapons, and the defence and survivability of nuclear weapons.
The Chinese list of destabilising BMD systems that should be banned include space, land, or sea-based weapons designed to attack "spacecraft"(not reentry vehicles or missiles) and space-based systems designed to attack objects in the atmosphere, land or at sea.
Chinese Premier Li Peng announced in August 1991 during a visit by the Japanese Premier that China would participate in the NPT regime, and Beijing officially acceded to the Treaty in March 1992.
www.freerepublic.com /forum/a3914e8b337e7.htm   (11426 words)

  
 NEAS - Resources, Security   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Chinese Military Modernization and Force Development, Cordesman, Anthony H. It is far from clear what China\\\'s motives for expanding its strategic capabilities and modernizing its military forces are.
Chinese Transnational Organized Crime: The Fuk Ching, Finckenauer, James O. Drawing upon data from the 2000 Transatlantic Workshop on Human Smuggling at Georgetown University and the work of pre-eminent Asian crime and smuggling researcher, Ko-lin Chin of Rutgers University, Finckenauer describes how the most infamous Chinese gang, Fuk Ching, operates.
Chinese gang activity rarely registers with the greater U.S. population, except in cases of human smuggling, for which Chinese gangs like Fuk Ching are becoming renowned.
neas.miis.edu /resources-security.html   (9677 words)

  
 One Hundred Unorthodox Strategies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Each of the one hundred tactical principles is concisely stated and clearly illustrated with a description of a battle from Chinese history.
One Hundred Unorthodox Strategies was compiled in the fifteenth century, during the Ming Dynasty, as a handbook of tactics based on Chinese military classics.
Acclaimed translator and Chinese military specialist Ralph Sawyer adds his own thoughtful commentary, deepening the reader's understanding of the intricacies of Chinese strategic thought.
vikingphoenix.com /2/100-unorthodox.htm   (409 words)

  
 Jiang Taigong: The Supreme Strategist
I conclude that there are no supreme schools of strategic thoughts, just supreme implementers of those strategic thoughts.
This compilation introduces to the reader the core principles of Chinese military science, grouping selected passages and key quotations into five thematic sections encompassing forty-one topical chapters, including Fundamentals, Dao (or Tao) of Warfare, Dao of Command, Tactical Essentials, and Tactical Specifics.
It also has a concise introduction to the Chinese strategic thought and influential materials not only of traditional import, but also for contemporary study and enduring value in both business and military circles throughout the world.
www.jadedragon.com /articles/meh040102.html   (305 words)

  
 The Philosophy of Chinese Military Culture (1403971870) MOTT - Palgrave Macmillan
"This volume is a vitally important contribution to understanding the impact of cultural factors on Chinese strategic thought and, as such, a necessary antidote to the unfortunate tendency to analyze other militaries through Euro-American conceptions of war and power.
With meticulous research and documentation, the authors trace the development of Chinese strategic culture from the ancient world to the present and assess its implications for Beijing’s approach to military modernization and war."--Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr., Tufts University and Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis
This volume on Russia is the first in a series on strategic thinking in Asia.
www.palgrave-usa.com /catalog/product.aspx?isbn=1403971870   (803 words)

  
 fachp.html   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Courses: Chinese Literature 153: Epic Poetry, Narrative Verse, and Prosimetric Literature; Chinese Literature 157: Women's Writing in Imperial China; Chinese Literature 251: Readings in Liaozhai Zhiyi; Chinese Literature 255: Readings in Yuan Drama.
Chinese Literature 160: Heroes and Anti-heroes in Chinese Literature: Seminar; EAS 98r: Junior Tutorial.
Courses: Chinese Literature 229: Reading Classical Prose; Chinese Literature 266r: Topics in Classical Chinese Literature: Seminar; Foreign Cultures 68: Authority and the Claims of the Individual in Chinese Literary Culture.
www.fas.harvard.edu /~eas/fachp.html   (712 words)

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