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Topic: Chloroform

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In the News (Mon 18 Feb 19)

  ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Chloroform
Chloroform is a colorless liquid with a pleasant, nonirritating odor and a slightly sweet taste.
Although the amounts of chloroform in the air that you exhale and in blood, urine, and body tissues can be measured, there is no reliable test to determine how much chloroform you have been exposed to or whether you will experience any harmful effects.
The measurement of chloroform in body fluids and tissues may help to determine if you have come into contact with large amounts of chloroform, but these tests are useful for only a short time after you are exposed.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /tfacts6.html   (828 words)

 Eco-USA: Chloroform
The amount of chloroform normally expected to be present in air ranges from 0.02 to 0.05 parts of chloroform per billion parts of air (ppb) and from 2 to 44 ppb in treated drinking water.
It is estimated that the concentration of chloroform in surface water is 0.1 ppb, the concentration in untreated ground water is 0.1 ppb, and the amount in soil is 0.1 ppb.
The average amount of chloroform that you might be exposed to on a typical day by breathing air in various places ranges from 2 to 5 micrograms per day (ug/day) in rural areas, 6 to 200 ug/day in cities, and 80 to 2,200 ug/day in areas near major sources of the chemical.
www.eco-usa.net /toxics/chcl3.shtml   (1338 words)

 Chloroform (EHC 163, 1994)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The increase of chloroform levels in the southern hemisphere since 1974 (from 3 to 11 ppt), is in accordance with the increase in the levels of 1,1,1-trichloroethane during the same period (from 25 to 116 ppt).
Chloroform levels in the air of enclosed swimming pools are a function of several factors such as the degree of ventilation, the level of chlorination, water temperature, the degree of mixing at the water surface, and the quantity of organic precursors present (Lahl et al., 1981a).
Concentrations of chloroform in the plasma of all 127 subjects who attended the pools averaged 0.82 µg/litre and ranged from 0.1 to 3 µg/litre, whereas in the plasma samples of 40 nonexposed subjects, chloroform was not detected (limit of quantification, 0.1 µg/litre).
www.inchem.org /documents/ehc/ehc/ehc163.htm   (14629 words)

 Chloroform (CASRN 67-66-3), IRIS, Environmental Protection Agency
At high doses, chloroform has been reported to be carcinogenic in several chronic animal bioassays, with significant increases in the incidence of liver tumors in male and female mice and significant increases in the incidence of kidney tumors in male rats and mice (U.S. EPA, 1994, 1998c).
Chloroform administered in toothpaste was not carcinogenic to male C57B1, CBA, CF-1, or female ICI mice or to beagle dogs.
Chloroform's carcinogenic effects in rodent liver and kidney are attributed to oxidative metabolism-mediated cytotoxicity in the target organs.
www.epa.gov /iris/subst/0025.htm   (11705 words)

 [No title]
Chloroform is a clear colorless volatile liquid with an ethereal scent that is nonflammable and does not form explosive mixtures at atmospheric temperatures and pressures.
Chloroform is formed from the aqueous reaction of chlorine with organic substances in the wood pulp and then can be released to the air during the bleaching process and when effluents are released to receiving waters (ARB, 1990a).
Chloroform also was the major contributor to the overall cancer risk in 3 of the approximately 130 risk assessments reporting a total cancer risk equal to or greater than 10 in 1 million, and contributed to the total cancer risk in 31 of these risk assessments (OEHHA, 1996a).
www.scorecard.org /chemical-profiles/html/chloroform.html   (1624 words)

 NTP: Abstract for TR-000 Chloroform
Chloroform, also known as trichloromethane, is primarily used (93%) in the manufacture of fluorocarbons for refrigerants, propellants, and plastics.
A carcinogenesis bioassay of USP grade chloroform was conducted using Osborne-Mendel rats and B6C3F1 mice.
Chloroform was administered orally (by gavage) in corn oil to 50 animals of each sex and at two dose levels five times per week for 78 weeks.
ntp.niehs.nih.gov /index.cfm?objectid=070B8B79-E9D6-DCEC-E430278BDE8A4014   (517 words)

 EPA - Air Toxics Website - Chloroform
Chloroform may be released to the air as a result of its formation in the chlorination of drinking water, wastewater and swimming pools.
Chloroform was used in the past as an extraction solvent for fats, oils, greases, and other products; as a dry cleaning spot remover; in fire extinguishers; as a fumigant; and as an anesthetic.
Chloroform may be released to the air from a large number of sources related to its manufacture and use, as well as its formation in the chlorination of drinking water, wastewater, and swimming pools.
www.epa.gov /ttn/atw/hlthef/chlorofo.html   (1482 words)

The presence of chloroform in the blood and in expired air is an indication of exposure, but data are insufficient to correlate blood or breath levels with indices of exposure.
Chloroform decomposes at ordinary temperatures in sunlight in the absence of air, and in the dark in the presence of air.
Containers of chloroform should be protected from physical damage, heat sources, direct sunlight, and moisture, and should be stored separately from acetone, alkalis, and chemically active metals such as aluminum magnesium (in powder form), sodium, or potassium, dinitrogen tetraoxide, fluorine, triisopropylphosphine, and solid potassium tert-butoxide.
www.osha.gov /SLTC/healthguidelines/chloroform/recognition.html   (4297 words)

 Chloroform (Cicads 58, 2004)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Chloroform induced liver tumours in mice (both sexes) when given by gavage in a corn oil vehicle and possibly in males when given (orally) in a toothpaste vehicle, but was not carcinogenic to the mouse liver when given in the drinking-water or by inhalation.
Chloroform induced micronuclei formation in the kidney (Robbiano et al., 1998) and liver (Sasaki et al., 1998) of rats and chromosome damage (aberrations) in the bone marrow of rats (Fujie et al., 1990); a hamster bone marrow chromosome aberration study also gave evidence of a weak effect (Hoechst, 1987).
In mice, covalent binding of chloroform to renal proteins and microsomes is correlated with the degree of renal tubular necrosis (Ilett et al., 1973; Smith and Hook, 1983, 1984).
www.inchem.org /documents/cicads/cicads/cicad58.htm   (14674 words)

 EPA NE: Air Toxics - Chloroform   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In the past, chloroform was used as a solvent, an anesthetic, a spot remover, in fire extinguishers and as a fumigant.
Chloroform can enter the air from factories that use it in manufacturing processes, from the evaporation of drinking water and sewage treatment facilities as well as from pulp and paper manufacturing.
Chloroform may cause health effects due to its toxicity from both short term or acute exposures, such as when it is spilled, and also long term or chronic exposure, such as repeated occupational exposures.
www.epa.gov /region1/eco/airtox/chloroform.html   (726 words)

 NPI: Chloroform (trichloromethane) fact sheet
Chloroform is a probable carcinogen (agent that causes cancer) and it may be teratogenic (may cause foetal abnormalities).
The concentration of chloroform in fish tissues is expected to be somewhat higher than the average concentration of chloroform in the water from which the fish is taken.
Chloroform is a clear, colourless, volatile, non-flammable liquid with a pleasant, sweet odour which is detectable at ppm levels.
www.npi.gov.au /database/substance-info/profiles/23.html   (1478 words)

 Chloroform   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Chloroform is often produced during the chlorination of drinking water and thus is a common drinking water contaminant.
Chloroform is a colorless, volatile, non-flammable liquid which is slightly water-soluble and is miscible with oils, ethanol, ether, and other organic solvents.
In 1998, 42,595,975 pounds of chloroform waste were managed; 6,802,803 pounds were recycled on-site; 1,871,565 pounds were recycled off-site; 5,135,376 pounds were used for energy recovery on-site; 690,181 pounds were used for energy recovery off-site; 17,781,306 pounds were treated on-site; 3,732,884 pounds were treated off-site; and 6,581,860 pounds were released on-and off-site.
www.nsc.org /ehc/chemical/chlorofo.htm   (1145 words)

 USGS SIR 2004-5137 Chloroform in the Hydrologic System
Chloroform is one of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detected most frequently in both ground and surface water.
Because it is also one of the four trihalomethanes (THMs) produced in the highest concentrations during the chlorination of drinking water and wastewater, the frequent detection of this compound in ground and surface water of the United States is presumed to be caused primarily by the input of chlorinated water to the hydrologic system.
Liver damage, however, is known to occur at chloroform exposures lower than those required to cause cancer, an observation that has been considered by the USEPA as the basis for setting a new, non-zero Maximum Contaminant Level Goal of 70 µg/L for the compound.
pubs.usgs.gov /sir/2004/5137   (748 words)

 Chloroform in Ketchikan: Residents can sleep easy!
The chloroform cancer potency factor (the risk of cancer as a function of exposure concentration) was obtained using the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), a database of cancer risks compiled by the US Environmental Protection Agency.
After estimating cancer risks from all exposures, chloroform was the compound of highest carcinogenic concern, causing 87% of the total excess calculated cancer risk from KPC emissions.
As scientific understanding of chloroform toxicity evolves, it appears that chloroform is not as potent a carcinogen as once believed.
www.epi.hss.state.ak.us /bulletins/docs/b1995_12.htm   (733 words)

 Being too clean could be hazardous to your health and the environment
Chloroform is classified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a probable human carcinogen.
Past research has shown that chloroform is produced when free chlorine reacts with organic material.
The results show that it is possible that the chloroform produced when the antimicrobial soap containing triclosan mixes with chlorinated water could be absorbed through your skin or inhaled.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2005-04/vt-btc041305.php   (603 words)

 Glossary: Chloroform
CHCl3: Chloroform is an organic compound part of the trihalomethane.
It is derived primarily from various industrial and chemical processes, or as a by-product of disinfecting water with chlorine.
Although it is both a man-made and a naturally occurring compound, human activity is responsible for most of the chloroform found in the environment.
www.greenfacts.org /glossary/abc/chloroform.htm   (130 words)

Chloroform is produced by direct heating of methyl chloride with chlorine to 500 C. This heating process produces spontaneously a series of chloromethanes, chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane(chloroform), and tetrachloromethane which are then separated by distillation.
Chloroform was an effective anaesthetic but can cause carcinogenic effects.
Chloroform reacts with a strong base (sodium hydroxide) to form dichlorocarbene in the presence of a phase transfer catalysts.
www.chemicalland21.com /arokorhi/industrialchem/organic/CHLOROFORM.htm   (385 words)

recognised that ether and chloroform were exhaled unchanged with the
Chloroform remained the preferred anaesthetic till the end of the century
associated with the discovery of chloroform and of anaesthesia.
www.anes.uab.edu /aneshist/chloro.htm   (8386 words)

 Chloroform perfume lyrics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
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chloroform-perfume-lyrics.pppou.com /chloroform-perfume-lyrics.html   (729 words)

 Chloroform - Environmental Monitoring Technology
EMT's Chloroform Monitoring Kit includes one monitoring badge, detailed instructions, a monitoring information form, and a shipping label.
OSHA Permissible exposure limit (PEL) for chloroform is 50 ppm (240 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m(3))) as a ceiling limit.
NIOSH Recommended exposure limit (REL) for chloroform is 2 ppm (9.78 mg/m(3)) as a 60-minute short-term exposure limit (STEL).
www.emt-online.com /ProductPages/Chloroform.htm   (162 words)

 Documentation for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLHs) - 67663
) 60­minute STEL; NIOSH considers chloroform to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR 1990].
Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for chloroform is 500 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [Lehmann and Flury 1943].
Criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to chloroform.
www.cdc.gov /niosh/idlh/67663.html   (426 words)

 Spectrum Laboratories : Chemical Fact Sheet - Cas # 67663
Chloroform is likely to enter the environment associated with its use as an industrial
Chloroform will not be expected to bioconcentrate into the food chain but
contributes the largest amount of chloroform with mean and max wastewater concn of 49 and 280
www.speclab.com /compound/c67663.htm   (751 words)

 New Page 1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
www.sci-spot.com /Chemistry/chloroform.htm   (75 words)

 Am I Right - Song Parodies, Chloroform
It lets you make all the girls your "willing" date
Yes I gotta say this chloroform is great
The parody authors spend a lot of time writing parodies for website.
www.amiright.com /parody/70s/paulsimon14.shtml   (637 words)

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