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Topic: Chloroplast

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In the News (Tue 22 Jan 19)

  Chloroplast - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis.
Chloroplasts are one of the forms a plastid may take, and are generally considered to have originated as endosymbiotic cyanobacteria.
The fluid within the chloroplast is called the stroma, corresponding to the cytoplasm of the bacterium, and contains tiny circular DNA and ribosomes, though most of their proteins are encoded by genes contained in the cell nucleus, with the protein products trafficked to the chloroplast.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chloroplast   (491 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Chloroplasts are organelles found in plants and eukaryotic algae which conduct photosynthesis.
In green plants they are surrounded by two lipid bilayer membraness, which correspond to the host cell and ancestral bacterium, though algal chloroplasts show notable variations from this pattern.
The fluid within the chloroplast is called the stroma, corresponding to the cytoplasm of the bacterium, and contains tiny circular DNA and ribosomes.
www.wikiwhat.com /encyclopedia/c/ch/chloroplast.html   (248 words)

 Evolution: Chloroplast Genetics and Endosymbiosis
Chloroplasts are thought to be descendents from an ancestral cyanobacterium.
The chloroplast genome is circular and ranges in size from 30kbp to 200kbp (Martin and Hermann, 1998).
In land plants and green algae, the rbcL locus is found on the LSC in the chloroplast genome, and the rbcS locus for the small subunit of Rubisco is found in the nuclear genome as a multicopy (Clegg et al., 1997).
www.geocities.com /we_evolve/Plants/chloroplast.html   (3184 words)

 Chloroplast genetic engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chloroplast genetic engineering is a technique in the field of genetic engineering, that uses plant's chloroplasts to produce proteins.
Since chloroplasts are not present in the pollen of plants, chloroplast genetic engineering provides a way of reducing the risk of the genes escaping to nature.
Chloroplast genetic engineering involves the modification of the DNA contained within the chloroplasts.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chloroplast_genetic_engineering   (1721 words)

 AllRefer.com - chloroplast (Botany, General) - Encyclopedia
Chloroplasts are reponsible for the green color of almost all plants and are lacking only in plants that do not make their own food, such as fungi and nongreen parasitic or saprophytic higher plants.
The chloroplast is generally flattened and lens-shaped and consists of a body, or stroma, in which are embedded from a few to as many as 50 submicroscopic bodies : the grana : made up of stacked, disklike plates.
The chloroplasts of algae are simpler than those of higher plants and may contain special, often conspicuous, starch-accumulating structures called pyrenoids.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/C/chloropl.html   (229 words)

 Chloroplast   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Chloroplast is the "power plant" of plant cells, producing energy and carbohydrates from the energy of light, water and carbon dioxide.
The inner membrane and the sacks - tylakoids - inside the chloroplast contain the enzymes which transform light energy into the energy forms that can be used by the cell.
Inside the is chloroplast matrix - fluid with the enzymes building carbohydrates used by the cell for its vital energy demanding functions.
colos1.fri.uni-lj.si /~colos/COLOS/EXAMPLES/BIOLOGY/kloropl1wa.html   (175 words)

A chloroplast is an organelle used to capture light energy from the sun to produce free energy stored in ATP through photosynthesis.
They are one of the plastids, or photosynthetic organelles that conduct photosynthesis, and play a similar functional role to mitochondria in animal cells.
Like mitochondria, chloroplasts have a double membrane with intermembrane space, their own DNA, and metabolize energy, and the inner space of both is composed of reticulated foldings.
www.iscid.org /encyclopedia/Chloroplast   (195 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for chloroplast
chloroplast CHLOROPLAST [chloroplast], a complex, discrete green structure, or organelle, contained in the cytoplasm of plant cells.
Chloroplasts are reponsible for the green color of almost all plants and are lacking only in plants that do not make their own food, such as fungi and nongreen parasitic or
Test of an in vivo method to detect chloroplast division in crop plants; Part II: verification of the phenomenon by germplasm methods and confocal microscopy.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=chloroplast&StartAt=1   (708 words)

 Putting Genes in Chloroplast Not "Environmentally Friendly"
Chloroplast gene expression is known to involve complex RNA-editing, a process in which the RNA transcript is chemically modified so that its base sequence, and hence the protein translated from it, is completely different from that encoded in the gene (See "What's wrong with GMOs?", Science in Society 16, out now).
RNA editing of chloroplast transcripts is known to be critical for the health of the host plant.
The transmission of chloroplast genes to offspring is thought to be strictly maternal, avoiding the problem of transgene escape via the paternally-produced pollen.
www.biotech-info.net /chloroplast_genes.html   (1569 words)

 Bugs in the News - What the Heck is a Chloroplast?
The chloroplast is a complex structure made of fat (lipid) and protein membranes all folded-around in a complicated way.
Chlorophyll embedded within the chloroplast structure (or if isolated and put into a bottle for that matter) is able to absorb the right "kind" of photons (as determined by the wavelength of the light encountered).
The sugar is made in the chloroplast in structures called stroma - and the CO2-addition reactions use the energy from the ATP and NADPH to work.
people.ku.edu /~jbrown/chloroplast.html   (775 words)

Chloroplasts appear green because chlorophyll molecules bind to the proteins of the photosynthetic reaction center and the light harvesting complex (LHC).
Research on chloroplasts is essential because the chloroplasts contain light harvest complexes (LHCs) which function in gathering light energy and converting it into organic material.
Because the size of plant cells vary, chloroplast number, as the measure of the chloroplast density, is most accurately measured by counting the number of chloroplasts per cell area.
www.csulb.edu /divisions/aa/projects/showcase/fall97/chloroplast   (983 words)

 Chloroplast Genome Structural Rearrangements
Previous studies have shown that in Marchantia, fl pine, and the vast majority of angiosperms examined to date, the chloroplast gene rpoC1 is interrupted by an intron (of about 750 base pairs), but that in the grasses and one of three subfamilies of cacti (Cactoideae) this intron has been lost.
Chloroplast genome rearrangements and the evolution of giant lobelias from herbaceous ancestors.
Filter hybridizations reveal that the intron in absent from the chloroplast genomes of all examined families of the Caryophyllales, suggesting that the intron was lost in the common ancestor of the order.
www.life.uiuc.edu /downie/rearrangements.html   (883 words)

 Photosynthetic Mutant Library
chloroplast gene expression, lipid or pigment synthesis, light perception, membrane assembly, protein import) results in one of the phenotypes contributed to PML.
The PML collection is anticipated to include mutations in the vast majority of genes that play non-redundant roles in the establishment of a photosynthetically-competent chloroplast.
Bottom line: If you are confident that your protein is chloroplast-localized and have good reason to believe that it plays a role in chloroplast gene expression or the assembly or functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus, PML is probably the best place to start.
chloroplast.uoregon.edu   (708 words)

The chloroplast, basically, is the organelle responsible for photosynthesis.
However, the chloroplast is larger than the mitochondria.
It needs to have the larger size because its membrane is not folded into cristae.
library.thinkquest.org /C004535/chloroplast.html   (100 words)

 Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Chloroplasts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Chloroplasts are the food producers of the cell.
The stroma is an area inside of the chloroplast where reactions occur and starches (sugars) are created.
The lamellae act like the skeleton of the chloroplast, keeping all of the sacs a safe distance from each other and maximizing the efficiency of the organelle.
www.biology4kids.com /files/cell_chloroplast.html   (317 words)

 Welcome to Chloroplast Genome DB   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The chloroplast is the green plastid in land plants, algae and some protists.
As the site in the cell where photosynthesis takes place, chloroplasts are responsible for much of the world's primary productivity, making chloroplasts essential to the lives of plants and animals alike.
Other important activities that occur in chloroplasts (and several non-photosynthetic plastid types) include the production of starch, certain amino acids and lipids, some of the colorful pigments in flowers, and some key aspects of sulfur and nitrogen metabolism.
chloroplast.cbio.psu.edu   (364 words)

 Chloroplast.html   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
This is a chloroplast with a double surrounding membrane.
The many thylakoids in a chloroplast give the chloroplast a green color.
The many chloroplasts in a leaf mesophyll cell give that cell a green color.
koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu /cell/chloroplast.html   (333 words)

 RNA Polyadenylation and Degradation in Cyanobacteria Are Similar to the Chloroplast but Different from Escherichia coli ...
the inhibition of polyadenylation in the chloroplast inhibited
P] RNA of 120 nt corresponding to the spinach chloroplast petD gene was incubated with ATP and either the yeast PAP (left four lanes) or the putative Synechocystis PAP (right four lanes).
As described above, RNA polyadenylation is performed by PNPase in the chloroplast, the cyanobacteria, and the E.
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/278/18/15771   (5546 words)

 ARS | Publication request: The Development and Evaluation of Consensus Chloroplast Ssrs for Chloroplast Genetic Analysis
In order to increase the number of consensus chloroplast SSRs (ccSSRs) beyond that previously reported, the target sequences for chloroplast SSR motifs were set at A or T (n > 6) mononucleotide repeats from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) chloroplast sequences.
In order to provide for a marker system having significant coverage of the chloroplast genome, ccSSR primers were strategically "recombined" and named recombined consensus chloroplast primers (RCCP) for PCR analysis.
Furthermore, these RCCP pairs could have utility as a molecular tool for broad-based chloroplast genetic analysis, especially in plant species for which chloroplast genome sequence information is not now available.
ars.usda.gov /research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=150947   (308 words)

 Chlorplast Instructions
The Chloroplast in a living plant is the structure responsible for conversion of energy from the sun to food for the plant (in the form of starches).
Similarly, the CYBUG Chloroplast converts solar energy to electrical energy in a controlled and efficient manner for use in small robotic lifeforms such as the Solarfly.
I built the Chloroplast circuit because I enjoyed tinkering with BEAM circuits, but didn't appreciate how the conventional solar engines dropped ALL energy across the motors (leaving none for logic or uP) and the low voltage they operated at forcing me to use very low torque pager style motors.
www.jcminventures.com /chlorplast_instructions.htm   (927 words)

 Molecular genetic analysis of chloroplast gene promoters dependent on SIG2, a nucleus-encoded sigma factor for the ...
Molecular genetic analysis of chloroplast gene promoters dependent on SIG2, a nucleus-encoded sigma factor for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase, in Arabidopsis thaliana -- Hanaoka et al.
Chloroplast genes of higher plants are transcribed by at least
Kestermann,M., Neukirchen,S., Kloppstech,K. and Link,G. (1998) Sequence and expression characteristics of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast sigma factor from mustard (Sinapis alba).
nar.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/31/24/7090   (4311 words)

 A Small Chloroplast-encoded Protein as a Novel Architectural Component of the Light-harvesting Antenna -- Ruf et al. ...
Laasch, H. Non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence in isolated chloroplasts under conditions of stressed photosynthesis.
Nakazono, M., Hirai, A. Identification of the entire set of transferred chloroplast DNA sequences in the mitochondrial genome of rice.
Stern, D.B., Lonsdale, D.M. Mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of maize have a 12-kilobase DNA sequence in common.
www.jcb.org /cgi/content/full/149/2/369   (5698 words)

 ChloroplastDB: the Chloroplast Genome Database -- Cui et al. 34 (Supplement 1): D692 -- Nucleic Acids Research
is annotated as rp12 in the Oryza sativa chloroplast DNA, a
the chloroplast DNA of Anthoceros formosae, Adiantum capillus-veneris
Cattolico, R.A. (1985) Chloroplast biosystematics: chloroplast DNA as a molecular probe Biosystems, 18, 299–306
nar.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/34/suppl_1/D692   (2496 words)

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