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Topic: Cholera

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In the News (Wed 20 Mar 19)

  Cholera - MSN Encarta
The symptoms of cholera are diarrhea and the loss of water and salts in the stool.
Cholera epidemics swept through Europe and the United States in the 19th century but did not recur in those areas after improvement of the water supply.
Epidemics of cholera occurred in 1953 in Calcutta (now Kolkata), India; between 1964 and 1967 in South Vietnam; among Bangladeshi refugees fleeing to India during the civil war of 1971; in Latin America in 1991, and in Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1994 where the epidemic deaths were estimated at 23,800 within one month.
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761561188   (473 words)

Cholera is a bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract.
While cholera is a rare disease, those who may be at risk include people traveling to foreign countries where outbreaks are occurring and people who consume raw or undercooked seafood from warm coastal waters subject to sewage contamination.
The cholera bacteria is passed in the stools (feces).
healthlink.mcw.edu /article/954988124.html   (357 words)

 Disease Listing, Cholera, General Information | CDC Bacterial, Mycotic Diseases
Cholera has been very rare in industrialized nations for the last 100 years; however, the disease is still common today in other parts of the world, including the Indian subcontinent and sub-Saharan Africa.
Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Cholera can be simply and successfully treated by immediate replacement of the fluid and salts lost through diarrhea.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/cholera_g.htm   (1210 words)

In fact, it was Koch’s work on cholera the led the way to firmly establishing the germ theory of disease, and helped convince the medical community as to the microbial nature of this devastating clinical condition.
Cholera toxin, an enzyme, was eventually identified as the main virulence factor associated with strains that induced acute diarrhea.
Since not all varieties of the cholera bacteria have the toxin, it was hypothesized that the gene encoding it might be the result of a latent phage infecting only a few of them (01 and 0139).
www.medicalecology.org /water/cholera/cholera.htm   (2731 words)

cholerae produces cholera toxin, the model for enterotoxins, whose action on the mucosal epithelium is responsible for the characteristic diarrhea of the disease cholera.
In 1883, Robert Koch successfully isolated the cholera vibrio from the intestinal discharges of cholera patients and proved conclusively that it was the agent of the disease.
Recurrent infections of cholera are in fact, rare, and this is probably due to local immune defense mediated by antibodies secreted onto the surfaces of the intestinal mucosa.
textbookofbacteriology.net /cholera.html   (3967 words)

 The 1832 Cholera Epidemic in New York State:
It would not be until the Third Cholera Pandemic of 1849, through the efforts of an obscure London scientist/doctor, John Snow, and his observations of cholera victims and their water sources, that the rudiments of a germ theory would be understood.
In this respect, the 1832 Cholera epidemic was different than prior diseases and epidemics; instead of government's prior tendency to disintegrate and disappear as disease approached, the New York City government remained on the field and played a major and dominant role in the public health response.
Cholera in particular remains an unpopular, "dirty" event and is overwhelmingly associated with filth, ignorance, poverty, contaminated water, lack of public health, and newly developing communities.
www.earlyamerica.com /review/2000_fall/1832_cholera.html   (9583 words)

 ARS Research Timeline - Story on Hog Cholera Eradication   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Whether hog cholera originated in America or Europe is not definitely established, but most experts believe it to be native to this country.
Cholera was first reported in the United States in 1833 in southern Ohio.
No cases of hog cholera were confirmed during a 3-year eradication test begun in 1961 in Lowndes County, Ga. Ninety-seven percent of the hogs in the county received two vaccinations during a 2-month period.
www.ars.usda.gov /is/timeline/cholera.htm   (1359 words)

Cholera is an acute intestinal diarrheal disease caused by a bacterium -- Vibrio cholerae, which is found in water contaminated by sewage.
Cholera cases were first recognized in Peru in the last week of January 1991.
Travelers to cholera infected areas should follow the standard food and water precautions of eating only thoroughly cooked food, peeling their own fruit, and drinking either boiled water, bottled carbonated water, or bottled carbonated soft drinks.
www.thirdworldtraveler.com /Disease/cholera.html   (1060 words)

 WHO | Cholera
Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
When cholera appears in a community it is essential to ensure three things: hygienic disposal of human faeces, an adequate supply of safe drinking water, and good food hygiene.
Use of this vaccine to prevent or control cholera outbreaks is not recommended because it may give a false sense of security to vaccinated subjects and to health authorities, who may then neglect more effective measures.
www.who.int /mediacentre/factsheets/fs107/en   (1173 words)

 US FDA/CFSAN - Bad Bug Book: Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1
Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1 This bacterium is responsible for Asiatic or epidemic cholera.
Cholera is generally a disease spread by poor sanitation, resulting in contaminated water supplies.
Following the epidemic spread of cholera in Peru (1), in April 1991, health officials in neighboring Bolivia established a surveillance system to detect the appearance and monitor the spread of cholera in their country.
www.cfsan.fda.gov /~MOW/chap7.html   (1861 words)

 Home | aHealthyme.com
Although cholera was a public health problem in the United States and Europe a hundred years ago, modern sanitation and the treatment of drinking water have virtually eliminated the disease in developed countries.
Cholera can also be diagnosed by culturing a stool sample in the laboratory to isolate the cholera-causing bacteria.
A cholera vaccine exists that can be given to travelers and residents of areas where cholera is known to be active, but the vaccine is not highly effective.
www.ahealthyme.com /article/gale/100084342   (1271 words)

 eMedicine - Cholera : Article by Vidhu V Thaker, MD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Cholera should be suspected when a patient older than 5 years develops severe dehydration from acute, severe, watery diarrhea (usually without vomiting) or in any patient older than 2 years who has acute watery diarrhea in an area where an outbreak of cholera has occurred.
The characteristic cholera stool is an opaque white liquid that is not malodorous and often is described as having a rice water appearance (ie, in color and consistency, it resembles water that has been used to wash or cook rice).
A cholera cot is a cot covered by a plastic sheet with a hole in the center to allow the stool to collect in a calibrated bucket underneath.
www.emedicine.com /ped/topic382.htm   (7182 words)

 Cholera Fact Disease
Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacteria Vibrio cholerae.
Cases of cholera that occur in the United States are usually among persons who have traveled to places where cholera is common, or among persons who have eaten contaminated food brought back to the United States by other travelers.
The risk of cholera in the United States is virtually nonexistent, and the risk for cholera is very low for travelers visiting even those areas with epidemic cholera when simple precautions are observed.
health.utah.gov /els/epidemiology/epifacts/cholera.html   (609 words)

 Cholera - Blue Book: IDEAS - Victorian Government Health Information, Australia
Cholera appears to be increasing worldwide in both the number of cases and their distribution.
Cholera vaccine is a heat-killed suspension of the Inaba and Ogawa serotypes of V. cholerae O1.
Cholera is subject to quarantine conditions under the Commonwealth Quarantine Act 1908.
www.health.vic.gov.au /ideas/bluebook/cholera.htm   (962 words)

 eMedicine - Cholera : Article by Sajeev Handa, MBBCh, BAO
V cholerae is unable to survive in an acidic environment.
The treatment of patients with cholera "sicca" is difficult because the evaluation of the degree of dehydration is overshadowed by the accumulation of fluid in the intestinal lumen.
Cholera is endemic in parts of the United States and should be considered in cases of protracted secretory diarrhea in the correct epidemiological setting.
www.emedicine.com /med/topic351.htm   (3550 words)

Cholera is an acute, infectious disease caused by the consumption of water or food contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Cholera is a public health concern in developing countries all over the world, especially in Africa, south Asia, and Latin America.
A cholera vaccine is available, but is normally not recommended by the CDC or the World Health Organization because only 50 to 70 percent of those who take the vaccine develop immunity to cholera, and the immunity lasts only a few months.
www.healthsystem.virginia.edu /uvahealth/adult_travel/cholera.cfm   (426 words)

 Communicable Disease Fact Sheet
While cholera is a rare disease in the U., those who may be at risk include people traveling to foreign countries where outbreaks are occurring and people who consume raw or undercooked seafood from warm coastal waters subject to sewage contamination.
The cholera germ is passed in the stools.
The single most important preventive measure is to avoid consuming uncooked foods or water in foreign countries where cholera occurs unless they are known to be safe or have been properly treated.
www.health.state.ny.us /nysdoh/communicable_diseases/en/cholera.htm   (313 words)

 Cholera   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Cholera struck again in 1834, this time causing such a serious loss of business on the canal that tolls were reduced by nearly half the increase of 1833.
Though we have no records to prove it, it is likely there were cholera victims in the homes along Tonawanda' s portion of the Erie Canal since it was low and swampy between the canal and the river and travelers from all over the state passed through it daily.
Cholera epidemics were occasional visitors to the area in later years also, particularly in 1849.
ah.bfn.org /h/chol.html   (1137 words)

 MDTravel Health - Cholera - old and new vaccines
Cholera is an intestinal infection caused by a bacterium known as Vibrio cholerae.
Cholera is rare in travelers, including those visiting countries where cholera outbreaks are occurring.
Cholera is best prevented by careful selection of food and beverages, as described elsewhere.
www.mdtravelhealth.com /infectious/cholera.html   (372 words)

Cholera is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium that affects the absorption of water in the small intestine.
Cholera is not really a tropical disease, but is related to standards of hygiene and the quality of drinking water.
The cholera outbreak in Peru in 1998 was thought to be related to contaminated algae and it appears that this is a very effective way for cholera to spread to coastlines.
www.netdoctor.co.uk /travel/diseases/cholera.htm   (1322 words)

 causes of cholera, cholera symptoms, cures for cholera
Cholera is one of the most severe diseases of the intestines.
Cholera is caused by a germ known as vibrio cholerae.
Cholera can be controlled only by rigid purification of water supply and proper disposal of human excreta.
www.home-remedies-for-you.com /remedy/Cholera.html   (799 words)

 CHOLERA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Cholera occurs in many of the developing countries of Africa, and Asia, where sanitary conditions are less than optimal.
Treatment for cholera involves rehydration with oral rehydration solution or, in the most severe cases, with intravenous solutions until the patient is able to ingest fluids.
Data indicate that simultaneous administration of cholera and yellow fever vaccines produces less-than-normal antibody responses to both vaccines.
www.medhelp.org /lib/cholera2.htm   (567 words)

 Cholera Prevention
A vaccine for cholera is available; however, it confers only brief and incomplete immunity and is not recommended for travelers.
There are no cholera vaccination requirements for entry or exit in any Latin American country or the United States.
The Centers for Disease Control is investigating epidemic cholera wherever it occurs and is training laboratory workers in proper techniques for identification of V.cholerae.
wonder.cdc.gov /wonder/prevguid/p0000002/p0000002.asp   (1191 words)

 MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Cholera
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Cholera is an acute illness characterized by watery diarrhea.
Cholera occurs in epidemics when conditions of poor sanitation, crowding, war, and famine are present.
www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/ency/article/000303.htm   (600 words)

Cholera is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which lives and multiples (colonizes) in the small intestine but does not destroy or invade the intestinal tissue (noninvasive).
The major symptom of cholera is massive watery diarrhea that occurs because of a toxin secreted by the bacteria that stimulates the cells of the small intestine to secrete fluid.
Cholera is not a difficult disease to treat and most people recover well with appropriate oral fluid replacement (hydration).
www.webmd.com /hw/health_guide_atoz/nord144.asp   (452 words)

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