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Topic: Chromosomal translocation

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In the News (Fri 19 Jul 19)

  Chromosome Translocations
It is estimated that 1 in 625 individuals in the general population carry a balanced chromosomal translocation.
The sex chromosomes are X and Y. Women have two X chromosomes and men have one X and one Y. We inherit half of our chromosomes (23) from each parent in the egg and sperm.
Individuals that carry chromosomal translocations are typically healthy; however they are at an increased risk for infertility, miscarriage, stillbirth, and/or having a child with birth defects.
www.reproductivegenetics.com /translocations.html   (824 words)

 BBC - Health - Conditions - Chromosomal translocation
A translocation is a condition where a fragment of one chromosome is broken off and is then attached to another.
In a balanced translocation (found in the parent of an affected child, the person doesn't have any additional genetic material - they simply have a smaller than normal chromosome 21 with a piece broken off, a normal second chromosome 21, a chromosome 14 with the broken piece of 21 attached, and a normal chromosome 14.
But if the normal 21 and the affected 14 (carrying material from the broken chromosome 21) are passed on, there is now extra genetic material from chromosome 21 (as the baby will have one normal 21 from each parent as well as the broken piece attached to 14).
www.bbc.co.uk /health/conditions/chromosomaltranslocation1.shtml   (536 words)

 Chromosomal translocation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chromosomal translocation of the 4th and 20th chromosome.
In genetics, a chromosome translocation is an abnormal chromosomal rearrangement caused by the interchange of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.
Also, translocations can be balanced (in an even exchange of material with no genetic information extra or missing) or unbalanced (where the exchange of chromosome material is unequal resulting in extra or missing genes).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chromosomal_translocation   (363 words)

 Robertsonian translocation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Robertsonian translocation is a common form of chromosomal rearrangement that occurs in the five acrocentric human chromosome pairs, namely 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.
The most frequent forms of Robertsonian translocations are between chromosomes 13 and 14, 13 and 21, and 21 and 22, and occur when the long arms of two acrocentric chromosomes fuse at the centromere and the two short arms are lost.
Their children, however, may either be normal and carry the fusion chromosome (depending which chromosome is represented in the gamete), or they may inherit a missing or extra long arm of an acrocentric chromosome.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Robertsonian_translocation   (504 words)

 Miscarriages - Causes and Treatments - Chromosomal Causes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The “largest single class” of chromosomal abnormality found in spontaneous abortions are the autosomal trisomies (roughly 50% of abnormal specimens), some of which reveal a maternal age effect.
Monosomy X is the “single most common” chromosomal abnormality found in spontaneous abortions (roughly 25% of abnormal specimens), which usually occurs due to a loss of the paternal sex chromosome (Y chromosome) and is not more common with advancing maternal age.
May result from a 21/D or 21/22 translocation where there are theoretically 6 possible combinations with three of these being lethal and of the other three there is an equal 33% chance of having a Down's syndrome, a balanced translocation (normal appearing as with the parent carrying the translocation) or a normal set of chromosomes.
www.infertilitytutorials.com /miscarriage_members/chromosomal.cfm   (759 words)

 Chromosomal translocations involved in non-Hodgkin lymphomas Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine - Find ...
In recent years, a number of genes deregulated by chromosomal translocations have been identified, and the detailed molecular mechanisms by which chromosomal translocations contribute to the pathogenesis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma are beginning to be elucidated.
This type of chromosomal translocation occurs in some types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, such as the t(2;5) in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), but is best known in acute and chronic myeloid leukemias.
Chromosome translocations in T-cell lymphomas also may arise from analogous errors of T-cell receptor (TCR) gene V(D)J recombination.2 However, somatic hypermutation of V segments is rare, and class switching of the TCR genes does not occur in T cells.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3725/is_200309/ai_n9288876   (832 words)

 The invertor knock-in conditional chromosomal translocation mimic - Nature Methods
This chromosomal translocation mimic is applicable to any fusion gene of interest using the set of vectors described here (Fig.
The new invertor mouse model is an additional approach to generate gene fusions, mimicking the consequence of chromosomal translocations, which is fully dependent of expression of Cre recombinase and inversion of a floxed intron-cDNA cassette.
Thus, one motivation for generating mouse models of chromosomal translocations is for potential use as a preclinical setting, prior to their use with patients.
www.nature.com /uidfinder/10.1038/nmeth727   (2171 words)

 Chromosome Translocation Sources Available by Reprogenetics.com
Chromosome translocation related phrases on Reprogenetics.com are yeast infections in cystic fibrosis, information on down syndrome, chromosomal translocation 7 and 9, definition of down syndrome, and ideogram translocation schizophrenia.
Chromosome translocation related ideas on Reprogenetics.com include yeast infections in cystic fibrosis, ideogram translocation schizophrenia, chromosomal translocation 7 and 9, definition of down syndrome, and information on down syndrome.
Find chromosome translocation on Reprogenetics.com with the terms ideogram translocation schizophrenia, definition of down syndrome, yeast infections in cystic fibrosis, chromosomal translocation 7 and 9, and information on down syndrome.
www.reprogenetics.com /chromosome_translocation_u.html   (509 words)

 Indian Pediatrics - Editorial
Structural chromosomal defects originating from a balanced translocation in either parents are often responsible for mental retardation and/or congenital malformations.
The translocation was observed in all metaphases analyzed.
The present report is the first case of 15q22 trisomy due to reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 10 and 15 involving breakpoints q26 and q22 respectively, and also this is the first reported case of 15q trisomy from the Indian population.
www.indianpediatrics.net /nov2002/nov-1050-1054.htm   (1073 words)

 Chromosomal Translocation and Segmental Duplication in Cryptococcus neoformans -- Fraser et al. 4 (2): 401 -- ...
of B3501A chromosomes 9 and 12 in the JEC21 chromosome 4 assembly
chromosomes 9 and 12 underwent telomere-telomere fusion (Fig.
This produced an unstable dicentric structure, represented by the misassembled chromosome 4 in the TIGR genome sequence, which subsequently broke, duplicating a 61-kb genomic region in the process of forming a translocation.
ec.asm.org /cgi/content/full/4/2/401   (3153 words)

 Untitled Document
Chromosomal Translocation is the a rearrangement in which part of a chromosome is detached by breakage and then becomes attached to another chromosome (see illustration below).
These are balanced translocation in which genetic material is exchanged without loss between non-homogous chromosomes.
Often, in these cases, the translocated material from one of the homologous chromosomes is deleted.
www.chgosem.edu /geneticssite/unit1_manual_12.htm   (469 words)

 Chromosomal translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) in gastrointestinal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma -- Nakamura ...
Chromosomal translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) in gastrointestinal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma -- Nakamura et al.
Cloning of the chromosome breakpoint of neoplastic B cells with the t(14;18) chromosome translocation.
The t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosome translocation is a frequent and specific aberration in low-grade but not in high-grade malignant non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type.
jcp.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/56/1/36   (3992 words)

 LMO T-cell translocation oncogenes typify genes activated by chromosomal translocations that alter transcription and ...
Because the LMO1 and LMO2-associated chromosomal translocations seem to result from RAG-mediated recombinase errors, it is proposed that this same target population of DN T cells is affected in humans with the chromosomal translocation.
Coding sequences of the tal-1 gene are disrupted by the chromosome translocation in human T cell leukemia.
Rowley, J.D. A new consistent chromosomal abnormality in chronic myelogeneous leukemia identified by quinaurine fluorescence and giemsa staining.
www.genesdev.org /cgi/content/full/12/17/2651   (5068 words)

 JRM May1996: Identification of a Subtle Chromosomal Translocation in a Family with Recurrent . . .   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Although the parental chromosomes were previously reported to be normal in another laboratory, the pedigree was consistent with a chromosomal etiology, and parental blood samples were reevaluated.
On reexamination, one miscarriage and the infant were found to be chromosomally unbalanced, carrying the derivative 7, resulting in partial monosomy for 7q and partial trisomy for 11q.
Since the rearrangement was quite small and subtle, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using "painting" probes for chromosomes 7 and 11 was used to confirm the balanced state in the fetus.
www.jreprodmed.com /abs/JRM81.htm   (302 words)

 Deletion in the ABL gene resulting from a meiotic recombination of a maternal (3;22;9)(q22;q12;q34.1) translocation -- ...
chromosomal translocation could be the result of several mechanisms.
Figure 2 (A) FISH with chromosomes 3 (green) and 22 (red) specific paint showing derivative chromosomes 3 and 22, and the derivative chromosome 9 with a segment of chromosome 22 translocated.
Primary chromosomal rearrangements of leukemia are frequently accompanied by extensive submicroscopic deletions and may lead to altered prognosis.
jmg.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/40/1/e6   (2464 words)

 Medical References: Chromosomal Abnormalities
Down syndrome, in which a baby is born with an extra chromosome 21, is among the most common chromosomal abnormalities, and the one whose effects are familiar to most people.
While such individuals may have the normal number of chromosomes, small pieces of a chromosome (or chromosomes) may be deleted, duplicated, inverted, misplaced, or exchanged with part of another chromosome.
Among the most common chromosomal abnormalities are those that involve missing or extra sex chromosomes (referred to as X and Y).
www.marchofdimes.com /professionals/681_1209.asp   (1770 words)

 Extending the repertoire of the mixed-lineage leukemia gene MLL in leukemogenesis -- Daser and Rabbitts 18 (9): 965 -- ...
Approximately 5%-10% of all MLL translocations are therapy-related leukemias.
Protein interactions possible after chromosomal translocation are shaded in green and those that are lost in the MLL fusion proteins are shaded in purple.
In one version of this model, the chromosomal abnormality occurs in an HSC (B); a variation is the proposition of an uncommitted, multipotent progenitor (which is not the HSC) in which the effects of MLL fusions are manifest (Armstrong et al.
www.genesdev.org /cgi/content/full/18/9/965   (6174 words)

 A Chromosomal Translocation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
On the left of the diagram is human chromosome number 2 (of 23).
translocation mutation has changed the number of chromosomes.
Since chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans and bonobos all have 24 chromosome pairs, it is assumed that the common ancestor had 24 pairs.
www.don-lindsay-archive.org /creation/translocation.html   (168 words)

 LSUHSC.org - Molecular Pathology
FISH analyses allow visualization of an abnormal chromosomal complement that otherwise might go undetected (e.g., in a hematologic population where cells are not dividing or in a patient who has a cryptic translocation or microdeletion).
The chromosomal translocation t(11;18) or api2-mlt1 gene rearrangement is present in 40-50% of patients with MALT-type lymphomas of the stomach.
Whole chromosome paints may be used to verify crytic cytogenetic results and may be used to detect chromosome translocation, multiple chromosome rearrangement analysis, or chromosome rearrangement studies or mutagenesis.
www.lsuhsc.org /molecular-pathology-services-molecular.html   (4888 words)

 High expression of c-myc gene is associated with chromosomal translocation in AIDS-related B-cell lymphoma.
High expression of c-myc gene is associated with chromosomal translocation in AIDS-related B-cell lymphoma.
Cytogenetic analysis of cells indicated chromosomal translocation of 8:14 with a trisomy of chromosome #12.
The 8:14 translocation and the IgH chain rearrangements are consistent with the activation of c-myc gene expression.
www.aegis.com /aidsline/1992/dec/M92C4976.html   (578 words)

 Evolution of Treatment for a Rare Type of Leukemia - Cancer information on MedicineNet.com
Although its cause is not known, acute promyelocytic leukemia had been associated for many years with a specific chromosomal abnormality, referred to as a chromosomal translocation.
Situated in the nucleus of all cells, the chromosomes carry the genes, which produce the proteins that determine an individual's characteristics.
One of these genes involved in the translocation was known to code for (that is, to determine) a receptor (cell binder) for retinoic acid, a compound related to vitamin A.
www.medicinenet.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=17181   (916 words)

 Genetics Lecture notes (25-Feb-1998)
chromosomes are numbered from the longest to the shortest (more or less - as best as can be determined by light microscopy).
Robertsonian translocations result in the merging (and loss of a small bit) of chromosomes.
It is likely that human chromosome # 2 came from a translocation between 2 different chromosomes found in chimps.
www.cbs.dtu.dk /staff/dave/roanoke/genetics980225.html   (271 words)

Other couples request genetic testing for chromosome problems, such as Down syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 13 and Turner syndrome, in order to improve their chances of getting pregnant during in vitro fertilization.
PGD for chromosome problems can increase the chance of an embryo implanting, decrease the chance of miscarriage and decrease the likelihood of having a pregnancy with a chromosome problem (like Down syndrome).
PGD for Chromosome Translocations: It is estimated that 1 in 625 individuals in the general population carry a balanced chromosomal translocation or rearrangement.
www.reproductivegenetics.com /genetics.html   (566 words)

 V(D)J-mediated Translocations in Lymphoid Neoplasms: A Functional Assessment of Genomic Instability by Cryptic Sites -- ...
Chromosomal translocations in lymphoid neoplasia: a reappraisal of the recombinase model.
Nucleotide sequence of a t(14;18) chromosomal breakpoint in follicular lymphoma and demonstration of a breakpoint-cluster region near a transcriptionally active locus on chromosome 18.
Chromosome t(11;14)(q13;q32) breakpoints in centrocytic lymphoma are highly localized at the bcl-1 major translocation cluster.
www.jem.org /cgi/content/full/195/1/85   (6700 words)

 Isolated Robin sequence associated with a balanced t(2;17) chromosomal translocation -- Jamshidi et al. 41 (1): 1 -- ...
Ideogram illustrations of chromosome 2 and 17, respectively indicating the position of breakpoints and BAC probes.
Chromosome 2: Hybridisation of the BAC probes corresponding to RP11-157M22 and RP11-611G1 onto metaphase chromosomes from the affected individual (II:1).
Chromosome 17: Hybridisation of BACs RP11-147L13 and RP11-261A13 to metaphase chromosomes from the affected individual.
jmg.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/41/1/e1   (2638 words)

 Infertility with Defective Spermiogenesis in Mice Lacking AF5q31, the Target of Chromosomal Translocation in Human ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Chromosomal translocation is one of the common pathogenic mechanisms
A trithorax-like gene is interrupted by chromosome 11q23 translocations in acute leukaemias.
The t(4;11) chromosome translocation of human acute leukemias fuses the ALL-1 gene, related to Drosophila trithorax, to the AF-4 gene.
mcb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/25/15/6834   (6602 words)

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