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Topic: Civil Rights Act of 1968


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In the News (Mon 27 May 19)

  
  Civil Rights Act of 1968 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
On April 11, 1968, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (also known as CRA '68), which was meant as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
While the Civil Rights Act of 1866 prohibited discrimination in housing, there were no federal enforcement provisions.
The 1968 expanded on previous acts and prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin, sex, (and as amended) handicap and family status.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Civil_Rights_Act_of_1968   (380 words)

  
 civil rights. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The term is broader than “political rights,” which refer only to rights devolving from the franchise and are held usually only by a citizen, and unlike “natural rights,” civil rights have a legal as well as a philosophical basis.
In the United States civil rights are usually thought of in terms of the specific rights guaranteed in the Constitution: freedom of religion, of speech, and of the press, and the rights to due process of law and to equal protection under the law.
The 1866 act was of dubious constitutionality and was reenacted in 1870 only after the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment.
www.bartleby.com /65/ci/civilrig.html   (620 words)

  
 Civil Rights Act of 1964 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Originally conceived to protect the rights of fl men, the bill was amended prior to passage to protect the civil rights of all men and women.
The "Jim Crow" laws in the South were abolished, and it became illegal to compel segregation of the races in schools, housing, or hiring.
He had long been close to Alice Paul, one of the leaders of the suffrage movement in the 1910s and 1920s, and at her urging included gender as a protected category.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Civil_Rights_Act_of_1964   (1210 words)

  
 Chapter III - Housing - California Attorney General's Office - Unlawful Discrimination Handbook
In addition, the Unruh Act, like the FEHA, prohibits discrimination against persons who are perceived to be a member of a protected class or who associate with a member of, or with a person perceived to be a member of, a protected class.
The FEHA and the Unruh Civil Rights Act can be enforced against any owner, lessor, sublessor, assignor, managing agent, real estate broker, salesperson, or any person having any legal or equitable right of ownership or possession or the right to rent a housing accommodation.
Civil Code sections 782 and 782.5 void discriminatory provisions in deeds and other written instruments relating to title to real property which purport to restrict the right of any person to sell, buy, lease, rent, use, or occupy such property on the basis of race, color, nationality, or ethnicity.
caag.state.ca.us /publications/civilrights/01CRhandbook/chapter3.htm   (2272 words)

  
 Supplement to Notice of Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines: Q&A   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The Fair Housing Amendments Act expands the coverage of Title VIII to prohibit discriminatory housing practices based on handicap and f amilial status, establishes an administrative and judicial enforcement mechanism for cases where discriminatory housing practices cannot be resolved informally, and provides for monetary penalties in cases where housing discrimination is found.
Section 810 of the Fair Housing Act provides that any person who believes that he or she has been, or will be, subjected to a discriminatory housing practice because of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national origin may file a complaint with the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
While it is true that the Congress, in enacting title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to assure that persons would be accorded equal protection of the law, the Constitutional underpinnings of the law are also rooted in the Commerce Clause.
www.efn.org /~fairhous/eng/legalres/federal/fhactreg.html   (17085 words)

  
 Ross (AR04) - Radio Address - Honoring the Anniversary of the 1968 Civil Rights Act   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
This progressive legislation followed in the footsteps of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, our nation’s most comprehensive civil rights bill to date that prohibits the use of racial discrimination in voting, education and the use of public facilities.
It’s hard to imagine that less than 50 years ago, a person could be legally barred from the purchasing of a home based on the color of his or her skin.
In honor of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, I urge my fellow citizens as you go about your daily lives to remain cognizant of the fact that all men and women are created equal.
www.house.gov /apps/list/speech/ar04_ross/radio_040804.html   (341 words)

  
 The HistoryMakers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
President Lyndon Johnson signs a civil rights act that will come to be known as the 1968 Housing Act.
President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968 on this date in Washington, D.C. The act is also referred to as the Housing Rights Act of 1968.
www.thehistorymakers.com /timeline/index.asp?string=1968   (602 words)

  
 Civil Rights in 1968
Civil rights had gained lot of ground in the 60's, and Martin Luther King, Jr.
The next day he was assassinated, but King remained a controversial symbol of the African-American civil rights struggle, revered by many for his non-violence and condemned by others for his militancy and insurgent views.
President Johnson's answer to King's assassination was the Civil Rights Act of 1968, an amendment to the landmark 1964 Civil Rights Act.
www.vancouver.wsu.edu /fac/mercier/hist419/civil_rights.htm   (813 words)

  
 integration: The 1964 Civil Rights Act to the Present
Early in 1965 the Voting Rights Act was passed, but it did not prevent the rising tide of militance among fls; Watts, a fl slum in Los Angeles, erupted in violence, leaving 34 dead.
The positive political theory of legislative history: new perspectives on the 1964 Civil Rights Act and its interpretation.
The Civil Rights Movement in the American west: fl protest in Seattle, 1960-1970.
www.infoplease.com /ce6/history/A0858852.html   (1181 words)

  
 Civil Rights - Law and History/Housing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The Fair Housing Act, contained in Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, prohibits discrimination in the sale, financing or rental of housing because of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national origin.
In a report of the U.S. Civil Rights Commission in 1959, Chicago had been called "the most residentially segregated large city in the nation." Soon, the attention of all the civil rights activists in Chicago turned to the issue of fair housing.
The civil rights movement began to march into white-only areas of Chicago only to be met by mobs of whites.
www.usdoj.gov /kidspage/crt/housing.htm   (847 words)

  
 BBC ON THIS DAY | 2 | 1964: President Johnson signs Civil Rights Bill
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 banned literacy tests and poll taxes which had been used to prevent fl people from voting.
Many states acted quickly to circumvent the law which led to a great feeling of injustice and resentment in the inner cities and the rest of the decade was marred by race riots and assassinations.
The Civil Rights Act of 1991 encouraged positive discrimation and allowed lawsuits against employers if their hiring had a "disparate impact" on women or minorities, even if there was no proof of discriminatory intent.
news.bbc.co.uk /onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/2/newsid_3787000/3787809.stm   (605 words)

  
 Indian Civil Rights Act Resources on the Tribal Court Clearinghouse
In 1986, this provision was amended (as part of a federal drug and alcohol prevention act) to "in no event impose for conviction of any one offense any penalty or punishment greater than imprisonment for a term of one year or a fine of $5,000 or both".
Martinez, 439 U.S. During the ten-year period from the date of the passage of the Indian Civil Rights Act in 1968 to the Martinez Decision in 1978, federal courts heard approximately 80 cases involving the application of the Indian Civil Rights Act.
The Northwest Justice Project (NJP) is a not-for-profit statewide organization that provides free civil legal services to low-income people from eight offices throughout the state of Washington, and has a Question and Answers to the Indian Civil Rights Act.
www.tribal-institute.org /lists/icra.htm   (1480 words)

  
 Title VIII: Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity - HUD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (Fair Housing Act) prohibits discrimination in the sale, rental and financing of dwellings based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin.
Of course, the property must meet the Act's requirements that at least 80% of its occupied units have at least one occupant who is 55 or older, and that it publish and follow policies and procedures which demonstrate an intent to be 55 and older housing.
The Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) requires buildings and facilities that are constructed by or on behalf of, or leased by the United States, or buildings financed, in whole or in part, by a grant or loan made by the United States to be accessible to persons with mobility impairments.
www.hud.gov /offices/fheo/progdesc/title8.cfm   (1746 words)

  
 Civil Rights Movement Timeline
According to King, it is essential that the civil rights movement not sink to the level of the racists and hatemongers who oppose them: "We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline," he urges.
Asserting that civil rights laws alone are not enough to remedy discrimination, President Johnson issues Executive Order 11246, which enforces affirmative action for the first time.
After two years of debates, vetoes, and threatened vetoes, President Bush reverses himself and signs the Civil Rights Act of 1991, strengthening existing civil rights laws and providing for damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination.
www.factmonster.com /spot/civilrightstimeline1.html   (1548 words)

  
 Civil Rights Act 1964
The Vice Chairman shall act as Chairman in the absence or disability of the Chairman or in the event of a vacancy in that office.
The Director is authorized to appoint, subject to the civil service laws and regulations, such other personnel as may be necessary to enable the Service to carry out its functions and duties, and to fix their compensation in accordance with the Classification Act of 1949, as amended.
If any provision of this Act or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the remainder of the Act and the application of the provision to other persons not similarly situated or to other circumstances shall not be affected thereby.
usinfo.state.gov /usa/infousa/laws/majorlaw/civilr19.htm   (6221 words)

  
 History of Civil Rights Laws
Civil Rights Act of 1866 -- "all persons shall have the same rights...to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, give evidence, and to the full and equal benefit of all laws..."
Civil Rights Act of 1964 -- Title VII prohibits employment discrimination based on race, sex, national origin, or religion.
Civil Rights Act of 1991 -- adds provisions to Title VII protections, including right to jury trial.
www.withylaw.com /history.htm   (376 words)

  
 Civil Right Acts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The first two acts gave fls the rights to be treated as citizens in legal actions, particularly to sue and be sued and to own property.
These rights were also guaranteed by the 14th Amendment (1868) to the Constitution, which conferred citizenship on the former slaves; and the 15th Amendment (1870), which declared it illegal to deprive any citizen of the franchise because of race.
The Civil Rights Act of 1875 further guaranteed fls the right to use public accommodations, but this legislation was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1883.
www.rlc.dcccd.edu /annex/COMM/english/mah8420/CivilRightsActs.htm   (350 words)

  
 An Interactive Civil rights Chronology
In 1968, 64.3% of fl students attend schools that are 90% minority.
Congress passes the Fair Housing Act, also known as the Civil Rights Act of 1968, on the 10th.
New Kent County School Board, 391 U.S. 430 (1968), the Supreme Court holds that segregation must be dismantled "root and branch." It rejects a freedom-of-choice plan that allowed fl students to transfer to white schools because it placed the burden of desegregation on fl students and preserved white- and fl- identified institutions.
www.yale.edu /lawweb/jbalkin/brown/1968.html   (526 words)

  
 The Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968)
The nation's first Civil Rights Act is passed in Congress over a presidential veto.
The Civil Rights Act of 1957 protecting the right to vote becomes law.
It is the first significant civil rights legislation since 1875.
www.sparknotes.com /history/american/civilrights/htimeline.html   (1522 words)

  
 Indian Civil Rights - Confidential Draft Report, page 16
The suit was dismissed on the the grounds that the federal court does not have the authority under the Indian Civil Rights Act in light of the Martinez decision.
The Indian Civil Rights Act and the Constitution of the United States guarantee that individuals appearing before courts of Indian offenses will be afforded all of those rights guaranteed by the Constitution to all citizens of the United States from any federal court...
Nevertheless, in a case brought in 1987, Attorney Meshbesher was forced to bring a habeas corpus petition in Federal court, alleging denials of the right to counsel, the right to a jury trial and right to a speedy public trial...
www.maquah.net /Legal_Documents/ICRA/ICRA-index.html   (1843 words)

  
 African American Odyssey: The Civil Rights Era (Part 2)
A group of civil rights demonstrators set off on Sunday, March 7, 1965, from Selma to march to Montgomery, Alabama--a fifty-four mile journey--to present a petition for fl voting rights to Governor George Wallace.
The Voting Rights Act prohibited the states from using literacy tests, interpreting the Constitution, and other methods of excluding Afric an Americans from voting.
The twentieth century brought passage of the weak Civil Rights Act of 1957, the more forceful Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
memory.loc.gov /ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9b.html   (1058 words)

  
 The Indian Civil Rights Act
B.   A comprehensive guarantee of the natural and civil rights of American citizens of Indian descent demands that we resolve the constitutional ambiguity in the relation between individual Indians, their tribal governments, and the government of the United States; such a resolution will embrace the either/or choice of full sovereignty or citizenship.
II.   Congress would do better to replace the ICRA with legislation providing for the enforcement of the civil and constitutional rights Indians enjoy by virtue of their citizenship in the United States.  Such legislation should specify de novo review by appropriate judicial bodies in civil rights actions brought by plaintiffs in tribal courts.
The very concept of sovereignty, embodied in the common law of citizenship, which was denied by the colonists in order to legitimize their demands for internal self-government was applied by the United States Supreme Court to identify natural born members of this nation’s ultimate sovereign [note omitted].”  Johnson, 992.
www.msu.edu /~allenwi/reports/Indian_Civil_Rights_Act.htm   (2700 words)

  
 Fair Housing Act as Amended (Title 8)
The Secretary shall by rule prescribe such rights of appeal from the decisions of his administrative law judges to other administrative law judges or to other officers in the Department, to boards of officers or to himself, as shall be appropriate and in accordance with law.
The commencement of a civil action under this subsection does not affect the initiation or continuation of administrative proceedings under this section and section 812 of this title.
(B) A civil action under this paragraph may be commenced not later than the expiration of 18 months after the date of the occurrence or the termination of the alleged discriminatory housing practice.
www.usdoj.gov /crt/housing/title8.htm   (8501 words)

  
 1964 Civil Rights Act
Kennedy's Civil Rights bill was still being debated by Congress when he was assassinated in November, 1963.
The shock of Kennedy's death, the civil rights movement, an emerging awareness of the extent and existence of poverty, a reduction of threatening tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, all helped Americans to focus public attention and perceptions on the problems of their own country.
Allen Ellender: I am frank to say that in many instances the reason why the voting rights were not encouraged is that the white people in those counties are in the minority are afraid they would be outvoted.
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk /USAcivil64.htm   (1044 words)

  
 Chapter 6
The majority of FHEO’s civil rights responsibilities lie in its authority to enforce Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968.
FHIP was authorized by the Housing and Community Development Act of 1987,[25] which provided for the execution of grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements with state or local government agencies, public or private nonprofit organizations, institutions, or other entities that are formulating or carrying out programs to prevent or eliminate discriminatory housing practices.
As a result of inadequate funding, the nation’s civil rights laws remain, in large measure, “unfunded mandates.” These agencies’ budgets have been reduced at a time when their enforcement responsibilities have grown substantially.
www.usccr.gov /pubs/crfund01/ch6.htm   (2750 words)

  
 1964 Civil Rights Act: Insights on Act
Vi Of The Civil Rights Act Of 1964
Vii Of The Civil Rights Act Of 1964
A brother of the man accused in the 1964 deaths of three civil rights workers took the stand Saturday in his defense, saying the defendant was at a Father's Day gathering that day and never indicated he was in...
1964civilrightsact.muskact.com   (2061 words)

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