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Topic: Civil time


In the News (Mon 18 Mar 19)

  
  AllRefer.com - civil time (Astronomy, General) - Encyclopedia
Civil time may be formally defined as mean solar time plus 12 hr; the civil day begins at midnight, while the mean solar day begins at noon.
Civil time is occasionally adjusted by one-second increments to ensure that the difference between a uniform timescale defined by atomic clocks does not differ from the earth's rotational time by more than 0.9 seconds.
Civil time is usually not used, since it depends on the observer's longitude; instead, standard time, which is the same throughout a given time zone, is generally adopted.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/C/civiltim.html   (229 words)

  
 Decimal Time - Time Zones
Uniform time scales, such as International Atomic Time (TAI) and Terrestrial Time (TT), are also historically based on GMT, but are not kept synchronized with the earth's rotation, and thus increasingly diverge from UT. Many representations of decimal time, such as Modified Julian Dates and astronomical calendar dates, use UT or uniform time scales.
French decimal time used local true, or apparent, solar time, that is, 5 o'clock on a decimal clock occurred exactly at true noon, when the sun reached its highest point in the sky at the location of the observer, and 10 o'clock was at true midnight, midway between two successive high points.
Alternately, one time of day might be used everywhere, and individuals and organizations could choose to adjust their own schedules according to when the sun shines in their part of the world, without changing the time of day.
www.decimaltime.hynes.net /timezones.html   (738 words)

  
 The Civil Rights Movement and Television
As civil rights workers organized mass boycotts and civil disobedience campaigns to end legal segregation and white supremacist terror in the South, white segregationists mounted a counter-offensive that was swift and too often violent.
Most memorable, perhaps, of all these dramatic video images is the 1963 attack on young civil rights protesters by the Birmingham, Alabama, police and their dogs, and the fire department's decision to turn on fire hydrants to disperse the young fl demonstrators, most of whom were children.
Civil rights organizers encouraged the participation of white liberals in the movement because organizers understood that the presence of whites would attract the television cameras and, by extension, the nation.
www.museum.tv /archives/etv/C/htmlC/civilrights/civilrights.htm   (1668 words)

  
 Universal Time   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Sometimes a Z is appended to a time to indicate UT, as in 0935Z.
Times which may be labeled "Universal Time" or "UT" in data provided by the Astronomical Applications Department of the U.S. Naval Observatory (for example, in the annual almanacs) conform to this definition.
UTC is the basis for civil standard time in the U.S. and its territories.
aa.usno.navy.mil /faq/docs/UT.html   (683 words)

  
 Time Zones and "Z" Time
GMT time is also referred to as "Z" or, phonetically, "Zulu" time, for the letter identifying that time zone centered on the Greenwich Prime Meridian (See the time zone labels along the top of the accompanying World Map of Time Zones).
Civil time zones were initially instituted in the U.S. and Canada in the 1880's by the railroads to standardize time keeping.
Time in the Z or UTC system is reckoned from the local standard time observed along the Greenwich Meridian.
www.meteor.wisc.edu /~hopkins/aos100/z-time.htm   (746 words)

  
 Civil time - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Civil time is another name for mean solar time reckoned from midnight.
At one time Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) could refer to either convention, so the International Astronomical Union introduced the term Universal Time to suggest GMT with the civil day beginning at midnight.
However, more recently this term is sometimes found with reference to specific statutory or standard time scales designated by civilian authorities, or with reference to local or standard time indicated by clocks.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Civil_time   (154 words)

  
 Time
History of Standard Time in the U.S. Standard time in time zones was instituted in the U.S. and Canada by the railroads on 18 November 1883.
Before then, time of day was a local matter, and most cities and towns used some form of local solar time, maintained by some well-known clock (for example, on a church steeple or in a jeweler's window).
Standard time in time zones was not established in U.S. law until the Act of March 19, 1918, sometimes called the Standard Time Act.
www.rivastro.org /member/beginners/time.html   (815 words)

  
 Time Keeping Schemes
As a result, civil time zones were initially instituted in the U.S. and Canada in 1883 to standardize time keeping.
Time zones to the east of the Prime Meridian experience later time than that at the Prime Meridian, whereas time zones to the west of the Prime Meridian experiences earlier time than at the Prime Meridian.
The time given on all weather maps is given as Z-time, the time it is at the Prime Meridian.
www.as.ysu.edu /~wbuckler/Weather/Readings/z_time_on_weather_maps.htm   (962 words)

  
 UTC vis a vis civil time
TDB is proper time in the frame of the barycenter that ticks in sync with the mean ticks of TT.
TCG is coordinate time in the frame of the geocenter that ticks faster than mean TT because of the gravitational and rotational redshift of clocks on the geoid.
TCB is coordinate time in the frame of the barycenter that ticks faster than TCG because of the gravitational and velocity redshift of clocks in the frame of the geocenter.
www.mail-archive.com /leapsecs@rom.usno.navy.mil/msg00121.html   (780 words)

  
 Leap Seconds
Civil time is occasionally adjusted by one second increments to ensure that the difference between a uniform time scale defined by atomic clocks does not differ from the Earth's rotational time by more than 0.9 seconds.
Ephemeris Time (ET) was defined as the measure of time that brings the observed positions of the celestial bodies into accord with the Newtonian dynamical theory of motion.
International Atomic Time (TAI) is a statistical atomic time scale based on a large number of clocks operating at standards laboratories around the world that is maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures; its unit interval is exactly one SI second at sea level.
tycho.usno.navy.mil /leapsec.html   (1741 words)

  
 Time Scales
Although the term GMT was not explicitly used, the standard time for legal purposes in the United States specified by 15USC261 (the Calder Act) was defined to be based on the mean astronomical time of meridians spaced at 15-degree intervals west of Greenwich; i.e., GMT.
Although the term GMT was not explicitly used, the standard time for legal purposes in the United States specified by 15USC261 was clarified and reaffirmed to be based on the mean solar time of meridians spaced at 15-degree intervals west of Greenwich; i.e., GMT.
This time scale is an effort to ascertain corrections to the values of TAI based on retrospective studies of the behavior of the clocks which have contributed to TAI.
www.ucolick.org /~sla/leapsecs/timescales.html   (12759 words)

  
 TIME Magazine: Civil Rights Archive Collection
The subject was timely, for that morning she and Hamilton Holmes, 19, breached a sorry human-behavior barrier: the 175-year-old tradition of segregation at the campus in Athens.
Replacing the old guard of civil rights activists, fl mayors are emerging as a powerful force in national politics and public policy.
During the civil rights era, poor and middle-class fls were united in their need for basic access to schools, housing and jobs.
www.time.com /time/archive/collections/0,21428,c_civil_rights,00.shtml   (1187 words)

  
 civil time — Infoplease.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Civil time is occasionally adjusted by one-second increments to ensure that the difference between a uniform timescale defined by
Civil time is usually not used, since it depends on the observer's longitude; instead,
Conversion of Universal Time (UT) to Civil Time - Conversion of Universal Time (UT) to Civil Time UT EDT1 EST2 CST3 MST4 PST5 00 *8P *7P *6P *5P *4P...
www.infoplease.com /ce6/sci/A0812359.html   (405 words)

  
 Time standard - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A time standard is a specification or standard of either the rate at which time passes, or points in time, or both.
Mean time was observed by observing the true solar time and then adding to it a calculated correction, the equation of time, which smoothed out from it the know irregularities due to the ellipticity of the orbit nd the non-perpendicularity of the Earth axis to the plane of the Earth's orbit around the sun.
It is the primary realisation of Terrestrial Time.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Time_standard   (1483 words)

  
 Time Line of The Civil War - 1861
This time line was compiled by Joanne Freeman and owes a special debt to the Encyclopedia of American History by Richard B. Morris.
None of the included photographs of First Bull Run were made at the time of battle (July 21); the photographers had to wait until the Confederate Army evacuated Centreville and Manassas in March 1862.
Their views of various landmarks of the previous summer are arranged according to the direction of the federal advance, a long flanking movement by Sudley's Ford.
memory.loc.gov /ammem/cwphtml/tl1861.html   (742 words)

  
 Nautical time and civil date
The proceedings given in the Logs as for 20th October are really the proceedings for the afternoon of the 19th, followed by those for the morning of the 20th civil time.
This was the time used in the Nautical Almanac, first published in 1767, and this was the time kept by Mr.
The important point seems to be that in the reckoning of the whole voyage he was killed on a Sunday: and that if the historian tampers with the dates of the principal events in a voyage, he throws them out of relation to the remainder of the narrative.
www.aandc.org /research/nautical_time_and_date.html   (2102 words)

  
 Dancing into the past...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Dancing was enjoyed by almost everyone in America during the Civil War - young and old, rich and poor, urban and rural, North and South.
During the 1860's, a ball was one way to forget, at least for an evening, the "fiery trial" of the Civil War.
Unlike modern dancing that is couple oriented, dancing in the mid-Victorian era was much more "social." Almost all dances were done in formations of circles, squares or lines, with couples interacting with other couples.
www.civilwardance.org /intro.htm   (419 words)

  
 Civil War in America Timeline of Battles
In this case, the time was summer 1863, and the setting was Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital; putting their heads together were President Jefferson Davis, General Robert E. Lee, and the Confederate secretary of war.
Written by a leading Civil War historian and Pulitzer Prize winner, this text describes the social, economic, political, and ideological conflicts that led to a unique, tragic, and transitional event in American history.
The third edition incorporates recent scholarship and addresses renewed areas of interest in the Civil War/Reconstruction era including the motivations and experiences of common soldiers and the role of women in the war effort.
americancivilwar.com /tl/timeline.html   (511 words)

  
 Hourly Civil Service Time Card Procedure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
In order for hourly civil service employees to be paid, work time must be reported on beige computerized cards which are mailed out by the Payroll Office to the departments twice a month (the 15th or the last standard work day prior to the 15th and the last standard work day of the month).
Hourly civil service time cards are generated from the Payroll Office and mailed to the departments after a Civil Service Employee Request Form (PERS 310) has been submitted by the department and has been processed by Human Resources.
Time cards are distributed by Campus Mail to departments in alphabetical order and must be returned to the Payroll Office in alphabetical order.
www.policy.ilstu.edu /fiscal/hourly_cs_timecards.html   (469 words)

  
 Civil Service
Full- and part-time Civil Service employees on continuing or temporary appointments who are employed in one administrative unit on a prearranged and assigned schedule of 50% time or more are eligible to earn vacation.
The maximum amount of accumulated vacation time may not exceed the total amount of vacation that may accrue within two (2) work years.
According to University practice, when a Civil Service employee changes positions with no break in service, the accrued vacation balance is transferred with the employee to the new department.
www1.umn.edu /ohr/benefits/leaves/vacation/civilservice.html   (372 words)

  
 WebQuest
Your commander wants to know what made this time so special in the United States history that people are still talking about it after everyone involved with it has been long gone.
You and your fellow spies are going to travel back in time to gather artifacts that will help your commander understand more about this time.
Several groups are going back in time, each assigned a year between 1861 and 1865 and a region (North or South) to give the commander a thorough understanding through many perspectives.
www.southernct.edu /~ils69312/timecapsule/webquest.htm   (1002 words)

  
 Civil Process Time Frames
This allows for the timely and orderly preparation of the case for trial.
The above time frames set forth the general sequence of a simple and typical civil action.
Custom and practice - refers to the typical time frame the Court will do something but is not governed specifically by rule or statute.
www.sc.pima.gov /civil/timeline.htm   (643 words)

  
 Z-Time - by Harold F. Maybeck   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
GMT has been noted as Greenwich Civil Time (GCT) and lately with the advent of a universal community as Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
The first zone centered on 15 West longitude became time zone "N", the next time zone west centered on 30 West longitude became time zone "O", etc, etc. Approaching the International Date Line from the east, Bowditch designated the remaining "half zone" from 172.5 West longitude to 180 longitude as time zone "Y".
This notation, "Z", is appended to times on most navigational, meteorological, and astronomical charts today to indicate that the time of the chart is in "Greenwich Mean Time".
www.maybeck.com /ztime/index.html   (998 words)

  
 Sidereal Time for Civil Time
A chart of civil time (time on your watch) versus sidereal time (ST -- time by the stars) is handy for planning a nightly observing/imaging session -- especially at odd hours when you are not sure what part of the sky is visible.
Due to the relationship between sidereal time and right ascension (RA) coordinate, an object is on the meridian when the ST is equal to its RA position.
All that is needed to create a chart of ST during a civil day is the date, observer's longitude and time zone correction.
www.pietro.org /Astro_Util_StaticDemo/MethodSiderealVSCivil.htm   (394 words)

  
 Civil Rights Timeline (1619 - 2000)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Civil Rights Act gives fls right to equal treatment in inns, public conveniences, public amusement places and prohibits their exclusion from jury duty.
Civil Rights Act, permitting the federal government to sue on behalf of citizens and creating the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, is signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Civil rights activist James Meredith is wounded by a sniper during a voter registration march.
www.goerie.com /nie_civilrights/civil_rights_timeline__1619_-_.html   (2707 words)

  
 Voices of Civil Rights :: Home
AARP, the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR), and the Library of Congress have teamed up to collect and preserve personal accounts of America's struggle to fulfill the promise of equality for all.
Review this civil rights timeline for an interactive tour of pivotal events and moments in civil rights history.
Hear how civil rights veterans like Eleanor Holmes Norton, a woman at the forefront of various social causes, are connecting the past with the present.
www.voicesofcivilrights.org   (248 words)

  
 A Brief Note on Time Systems
It changes slowly over time because of the steady slowdown in the earth's rotation rate, and the irregular jitter in the rotation rate due to motions in its fluid interior which amount to about &plusm;3 milliseconds per day.
The problem with conventional civil calendar dates is that calendrical conventions are unwieldy for measuring long intervals of time.
GPS time was last synchronized with UTC on 1980 January 6, and as of 2006 January 01, GPS is ahead of UTC by 14 seconds.
www-astronomy.mps.ohio-state.edu /~pogge/Ast350/timesys.html   (2204 words)

  
 CivilWar.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
It was the only war fought on American soil by Americans, and for that reason we have always been fascinated with The Civil War.
The purpose of our site is to bring history students, educators and Civil War enthusiasts the very best and most comprehensive information available regarding this American conflict, including its causes and effects.
To that end, we have recently enhanced this site to add content more quickly and to dramatically increase the speed with which information is returned to you.
www.civilwar.com /timehome.htm   (140 words)

  
 Alton, Illinois - Civil War
This event, in November, 1837, was the murder of the outspoken newspaper publisher and abolitionist Elijah Parish Lovejoy by a pro-slavery mob.
This page of the Altonweb is the basis for a continuing exploration of a period of nearly thirty five years extending from the Lovejoy murder to the first Memorial Day celebration in the United States.
The time line presented sketches in broad strokes that period of time and forms a frame, which in time, will be clothed in the richness of our unique heritage.
www.altonweb.com /history/civilwar/index.html   (357 words)

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