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Topic: Class II histocompatibility molecule


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 Histocompatibility   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Class I molecules are encoded by the BCA region while class II molecules are encoded by the D region.
Class I molecules are composed of two polypeptide chains; one encoded by the BCA region and another (ß2-microglobulin) that is encoded elsewhere.
Class II molecules are composed of two polypeptide chains, both encoded by the D region.
www.cehs.siu.edu /fix/medmicro/mhc.htm   (889 words)

  
 Histocompatibility Molecules   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Histocompatibility molecules are glycoproteins expressed at the surface of almost all vertebrate cells.
Class I molecules consist of two polypeptide chains, a long one (on the left) of 346 amino acids — it is called the heavy chain — and a short one (on the right) of 99 amino acids.
Class I molecules serve to display antigens on the surface of the cell so that they can be "recognized" by T cells.
home.comcast.net /~john.kimball1/BiologyPages/H/HLA.html   (1573 words)

  
 HON Allergy Glossary Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
A cluster of genes on chromosome 6 in humans, encoding cell surface molecules that are polymorphic and that code for antigens which lead to rapid graft rejection between members of a single species which differ at these loci.
Several classes of protein such as MHC class I and II proteins are encoded in this region.
A molecule encoded to genes of the MHC which participates in antigen presentation to cytotoxic T (CD8+) cells.
www.hon.ch /Library/Theme/Allergy/Glossary/mhc.html   (153 words)

  
 Emil R. Unanue, MD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
MHC-class II molecules serve two functions: 1) to bind to peptides generated from internalized proteins and to transport them to the plasma membrane; our studies suggest that internalized proteins end up in lysosomes where they are denatured and partially catabolized.
From the lysosome, selected peptides are transported to a class II-MHC bearing organelle and subsequently to the plasma membrane as a complex bound to the class II-MHC molecules, and 2) to form with their bound peptides, the antigenic determinant recognized by CD4 T cells.
Thus, diabetogenic class II MHC molecules are highly selective in the peptides presented by their APCs, governed by the features of their P9 anchor pocket.
www.pathology.wustl.edu /html/unanue.html   (4062 words)

  
 Interpretation of Biphasic Dissociation Kinetics for Isomeric Class II Major Histocompatibility Complex-Peptide ...
Kinetics of the reactions between the invariant chain (85-99) peptide and proteins of the murine class II MHC.
Stable peptide binding to MHC class II molecule is rapid and is determined by a receptive conformation shaped by prior association with low affinity peptides.
Isolation and characterization of the intracellular MHC class II compartment.
www.biophysj.org /cgi/content/full/77/5/2451   (5214 words)

  
 Characterization of a Lysozyme-Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Molecule-loading Compartment as a Specialized ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
No difference is observed in the presence or absence of concanamycin B. After a 1-h chase, class II molecules appear in the dense fractions 10-12 of the Percoll gradient, indicating that the transport of class II molecules to LLC occurred.
This strongly suggests that the transport of class II molecules out of LLC occurs only after SDS-stable dimers have been generated, leading to the conclusion that the transport mechanism of class II complexes from LLC to the plasma membrane can be triggered by the tight association of HEL with class II molecules.
The abbreviations used are: MHC, major histocompatibility complex; Ii, invariant chain; MIIC, MHC class II compartment(s); CIIV, MHC class II vesicle(s); HEL, hen egg lysozyme; LLC, lysozyme-loading compartment(s); EE, early endosome(s); LE, late endosome(s).
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/271/44/27360   (5810 words)

  
 The Assembly and Stability of MHC Class II-({alpha}{beta})2 Superdimers -- Schafer et al. 161 (5): 2307 -- The Journal ...
and maturation of class II molecules (19, 20).
molecules are in the transmembrane region or buried in the peptide
The structure of MHC class II: role for the dimer of dimers.
www.jimmunol.org /cgi/content/full/161/5/2307   (6731 words)

  
 Antigen Presentation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Diverting antigens from the Class I to the Class II pathway
Class I histocompatibility molecules are transmembrane proteins expressed at the cell surface.
The two chains of the class II molecule are inserted into the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum.
home.comcast.net /~john.kimball1/BiologyPages/A/AntigenPresentation.html   (1707 words)

  
 Howstuffworks "How Your Immune System Works"
In humans these molecules are encoded by several genes all clustered in the same region on chromosome 6.
The MHC molecules do this by presenting fragments of proteins (peptides) belonging to the invader on the surface of the cell.
The T cell recognizes the foreign peptide attached to the MHC molecule and binds to it, an action that stimulates the T cell to either destroy or cure the infected cell.
health.howstuffworks.com /immune-system.htm/printable   (5631 words)

  
 Human protein: Q59GY1 - HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP beta chain variant (Fragment). EMBL Bioinformatics ...
This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DPA) and a beta chain (DPB), both anchored in the membrane.
Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages).
Within the DP molecule both the alpha chain and the beta chain contain the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities, resulting in up to 4 different molecules.
harvester.embl.de /harvester/Q59G/Q59GY1.htm   (725 words)

  
 Crystal structure of a dimeric form of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA1) -- Baker et al. 13 (9): 2285 -- ...
Class II MHC binding and the physiological role of SpeA1 dimer in the
Papageorgiou, A.C., Collins, C.M., Gutman, D.M., Kline, J.B., O’Brien, S.M., Tranter, H.S., and Acharya, K.R. Structural basis for the recognition of superantigen streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA1) by MHC class II molecules and T-cell receptors.
Roussel, A., Anderson, B.F., Baker, H.M., Fraser, J.D., and Baker, E.N. Crystal structure of the streptococcal superantigen SPE-C: Dimerization and zinc binding suggest a novel mode of interaction with MHC class II molecules.
www.proteinscience.org /cgi/content/full/13/9/2285   (3003 words)

  
 Mapping of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A Functional Binding Sites and Presentation by Monoclonal Antibodies and Fusion ...
with MHC class II molecules and the importance of the disulfide
MHC class II binding to the C-terminal portion of SEs (15, 27).
MHC class II molecules, 80 specific anti-SEA MAbs were generated.
iai.asm.org /cgi/content/full/67/4/1894   (4940 words)

  
 Involvement of CREB Binding Protein in Expression of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Genes via Interaction ...
of the MHC class II genes (24, 41).
Class II transactivator (CIITA) is sufficient for the inducible expression of major histocompatibility complex class II genes.
Class II transactivator regulates the expression of multiple genes involved in antigen presentation.
mcb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/18/11/6777   (5990 words)

  
 Staphylococcal Enterotoxin D Is a Promiscuous Superantigen Offering Multiple Modes of Interactions With the MHC Class ...
of MHC class II molecules on the cell surface (17, 18, 29).
Cross-linking of MHC class II molecules by staphylococcal enterotoxin A is essential for antigen-presenting cell and T cell activation.
Cross-linking of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules by staphylococcal enterotoxin A superantigen is a requirement for inflammatory cytokine gene expression.
www.jimmunol.org /cgi/content/full/160/1/225   (5231 words)

  
 Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus -- Dinges et al. 13 (1): 16 -- Clinical Microbiology Reviews   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
primarily on the binding of PTSAgs to the MHC class II and the
The 19 residues of SEB and the 21 residues of the MHC molecule
The rim domain of the toxin adheres to the membrane, and the intertwined stem regions are responsible for the formation of a pore, with an exclusionary radius of 14 Å.
cmr.asm.org /cgi/content/full/13/1/16   (9635 words)

  
 Reasons To Believe: Facts For Faith Issue 6, 2001
The cell uses a complex assembly of molecules called the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to transport the fragment to the cell’s surface, where it is presented to the immune system.
Fragments of the viral protein are then incorporated into the class I MHC and the immune system is quickly alerted to the presence of viral particles inside the cell.
As their concentration increased in the prebiotic soup, the large, complex molecules would be expected to aggregate to form protocells or prebionts.
www.reasons.org /resources/fff/2001issue06   (16982 words)

  
 HLA-DR and -DQ phenotypes in inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis -- Stokkers et al. 45 (3): 395 -- Gut   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Association of HLA class II genes with susceptibility to Crohn's disease.
HLA class II gene frequencies in Crohn's disease: a population based analysis in Germany.
Analysis of MHC class II DP, DQ and DR alleles in Crohn's disease.
gut.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/45/3/395   (3552 words)

  
 B-cells and humoral immunity
An antibody, or immunoglobulin, is a y-shaped protein molecule that is made by a B-lymphocyte in response to a particular antigen.
T cells bind an epitope consisting of an antigen fragment lying in the groove of a class II histocompatibility molecule.
The result is inflammation: the accumulation of cells and molecules that attempt to wall off and destroy the antigenic material (an abscess is one example, the rash following exposure to poison ivy is another).
www.revision-notes.co.uk /revision/271.html   (894 words)

  
 1993-1994 Scientific Report
The identification of T cell defined epitopes is complicated by the requirement for antigen presentation in the context of either a class I or class II major histocompatibility molecule.
Binding motifs may be misleading because of the multiple steps required for peptide processing and presentation by the class I and II molecules.
Moreover, non-classical class I and II molecules (with presumably different binding motifs) have been shown to present tumor antigens.
www.fccc.edu /research/reports/scirep94/riley94.htm   (1013 words)

  
 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry P01903 [2DRA_HUMAN] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain
Ghosh P. Amaya M. Mellins E. Wiley D.C. "The structure of an intermediate in class II MHC maturation: CLIP bound to HLA-DR3.";
Molecular function: MHC class II receptor activity (non-traceable author statement).
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain.
www.expasy.org /uniprot/P01903   (817 words)

  
 Structural basis for abrogated binding between staphylococcal enterotoxin A superantigen vaccine and MHC-II{alpha} -- ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
An antigenic peptide molecule bound to the antigen-presenting cleft of a HLA-DR1 molecule is depicted in yellow.
Mehindate, K., Thibodeau, T., Dohlsten, M., Kalland, T., Sékaly, R.-P., and Mourad, W. Cross-linking of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules by staphylococcal enterotoxin A superantigen is a requirement for inflammatory cytokine gene expression.
Tiedemann, R.E. and Fraser, J.D. Cross-linking of MHC class II molecules by staphylococcal enterotoxin A is essential for antigen-presenting cell and T cell activation.
www.proteinscience.org /cgi/content/full/11/3/642   (4731 words)

  
 The Laboratory of Structural Cell Biology - Stephen C. Harrison
Stern, L.J. and Wiley, D.C. The Human Class II MHC Protein HLA-DR1 Assemblies as Empty __ Heterodimers in the Absence of Antigenic Peptide, Cell 68, 465-477, 1992.
Stern, L.J. and Wiley, D.C. Antigenic Peptide Binding by Class I and Class II Histocompatibility Proteins.
Strominger, J.L. and Wiley, D.C. The class I and class II proteins of the human major histocompatibility complex, JAMA, 274, 1074-1076, 1995.
crystal.harvard.edu /wiley_publications.html   (6413 words)

  
 tss.html
Superantigens like TSST-1 are capable of cross-linking major histocompatibility class II (MHCII) molecules and T-cell receptors (TCRs), leading to the activation of a substantial number of T cells.
Since B lymphocytes express Ia molecules throughout much of their development, they are prime targets for TSST-1 binding and activation, but this activation is dependent on the presence of T lymphocytes.
Likewise, if researchers were somehow able to develop an antagonist to Ia molecules, it may be possible to block the initial steps involved in TSS pathogenesis, but once again, this type of treatment is still in the developmental stages.
www.bio.davidson.edu /courses/immunology/Students/spring2000/gramer/restricted/tss.html   (2377 words)

  
 Oxford Glycobiology Institute - Publications
The high degree of internal flexibility observed for an oligomannose oligosaccharide is not reproduced in the overall topology of the molecule.
Structure-activity relationship of a new class of anti-hepatitis B virus agents.
Identification of specific glycoforms of major histocompatibility complex class I heavy chains suggests that class I peptide loading is an adaptation of the quality control pathway involving calreticulin and ERp57.
www.bioch.ox.ac.uk /glycob/publications.html   (13164 words)

  
 Carotenoids - Vitacost
This article describes the effect of dietary beta-carotene supplementation on both the expression of functionally associated surface molecules on human monocytes and on the secretion of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by monocytes, all of which are involved in the initiation and regulation of immune responses involved in tumor surveillance.
The expression of functionally related monocyte surface molecules was quantified by flow cytometry, and ex vivo secretion of TNF-alpha was quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, before and after each treatment period.
After dietary supplementation there were significant increases in plasma levels of beta-carotene and in the percentages of monocytes expressing the major histocompatibility complex class II molecule HLA-DR and the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and leukocyte function-associated antigen-3.
www.vitacost.com /science/medstudies.cfm?litid=6   (6555 words)

  
 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry P04229 [2B11_HUMAN] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1-1 beta chain
Bell J.I. Estess P. St John T. Saiki R. Watling D.L. Erlich H.A. McDevitt H.O. "DNA sequence and characterization of human class II major histocompatibility complex beta chains from the DR1 haplotype.";
Stern L.J. Brown J.H. Jardetzky T.J. Gorga J.C. Urban R.G. Strominger J.L. Wiley D.C. "Crystal structure of the human class II MHC protein HLA-DR1 complexed with an influenza virus peptide.";
Brown J.H. Jardetzky T.S. Gorga J.C. Stern L.J. Urban R.G. Strominger J.L. Wiley D.C. "Three-dimensional structure of the human class II histocompatibility antigen HLA-DR1.";
www.expasy.org /uniprot/P04229   (781 words)

  
 lymphoid organs   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The uptake (ingestion) of an antigen into a cell by the formation of a membrane bound vesicle; similar to phagocytosis.
A unique marker carried on an antigen's surface to which a single antibody molecule binds.
A type of retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus) that is responsible for the fatal illness called AIDS.
work.colum.edu /~sjenkins/Finalexamreviewandgamequestions.htm   (2393 words)

  
 The Zinc-Dependent Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Binding Site of Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin C Is ...
The Zinc-Dependent Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Binding Site of Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin C Is Critical for Maximal Superantigen Function and Toxic Activity -- Tripp et al.
Crystal structure of microbial superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B at 1.5 Å resolution: implications for superantigen recognition by MHC class II molecules and T-cell receptors.
Crystal structure of the streptococcal superantigen SPE-C: dimerization and zinc binding suggest a novel mode of interaction with MHC class II molecules.
iai.asm.org /cgi/content/full/71/3/1548   (1526 words)

  
 The lack of consensus for I-Ag7-peptide binding motifs: Is there a requirement for anchor amino acid side chains? -- ...
, the class II histocompatibility molecule of NOD diabetic mice.
molecules and is recognized by CD4 T cells.
molecule binds to many peptides with broad specificity (1-7) and with low binding strength (7) as expected by
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/96/15/8621   (2629 words)

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