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Topic: Classical conditioning

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  Classical conditioning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The simplest form of classical conditioning is reminiscent of what Aristotle would have called the law of contiguity which states that: "When two things commonly occur together, the appearance of one will bring the other to mind." Classical conditioning focuses on reflexive behavior or involuntary behavior.
The relationship between the conditioned stimulus and conditioned response is known as the conditioned (or conditional) reflex.
In classical conditioning, when the unconditioned stimulus is repeatedly or strongly paired with a neutral stimulus the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus and elicits a conditioned response.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Classical_conditioning   (1583 words)

 Conditioning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In psychology - refers to one of two types of learning: Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning.
In mathematics - the conditioning of a matrix is expressed by its condition number.
In probability theory - the adoption of conditional probabilities based on observed events.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Conditioning   (147 words)

 Classical conditioning: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The conditional reflex (food-related behaviour elicited by a stimulus that has been reliably paired with food) is said to be developed through classical conditioning.
Eyeblink conditioning is a form of classical conditioning in which animals are trained to blink in response to a tone....
Fear conditioning is a form of learning in which fear is associated with a particular neutral context (e.g., a room) or neutral stimulus (e.g., a tone)....
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/c/cl/classical_conditioning.htm   (1491 words)

 Educational Psychology Interactive: Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning was the first type of learning to be discovered and studied within the behaviorist tradition (hence the name classical).
The major theorist in the development of classical conditioning is Ivan Pavlov, a Russian scientist trained in biology and medicine (as was his contemporary, Sigmund Freud).
Classical conditioning is Stimulus (S) elicits >Response (R) conditioning since the antecedent stimulus (singular) causes (elicits) the reflexive or involuntary response to occur.
chiron.valdosta.edu /whuitt/col/behsys/classcnd.html   (580 words)

 Classical conditioning   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Classical conditioning also called "pavlovian conditioning" and "respondent is a type of learning involving animals caused by the association (or pairing) two stimuli.
The conditional reflex (food-related behavior by a stimulus that has been reliably with food) is said to be developed classical conditioning.
Other forms of classical conditioning that yielded insight into how memories are encoded fear conditioning and conditioned taste aversion.
www.freeglossary.com /Classical_conditioning   (282 words)

 Classical conditioning - WikEd
Noun- conditioning that pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that evokes a reflex: the stimulus that evokes the reflex is given whether or not the conditioned response occurs until eventually the neutral stimulus comes to evoke the reflex.
Classical conditioning is the basis for behavior therapy, a method of changing behavior.
Classical conditioning is a very powerful, long lived, authentic form of learning that takes place in school settings all the time.
wik.ed.uiuc.edu /index.php/Classical_conditioning   (1165 words)

 New Page 1
Classical conditioning was accidentally discovered around the beginning of the 20
The extinction phase is when the conditioned response no longer occurs after repeated pairings without the unconditioned stimulus.
The opposite of generalization, discrimination happens when a conditioned response does not occur when there is a difference between the presented stimulus and the original conditioned stimulus.
www3.niu.edu /acad/psych/Millis/History/2003/ClassicalConditioning.htm   (668 words)

 Free Essay Classical Conditioning vs Operant Conditioning   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Conditioning is the acquisition of specific patterns of behavior in the presence of well-defined stimuli.
Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism learns to transfer a natural response from one stimulus to another, previously neutral stimulus.
Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which the likelihood of a behavior is increased or decreased by the use of reinforcement or punishment.
www.echeat.com /essay.php?t=26781   (870 words)

 Operant vs. Classical Conditioning   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
This type of conditioning is sometimes referred to as respondent conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning as a result of Dr.
Classical conditioning is what happens when an animal learns associations among things.
Operant Conditioning: Operant conditioning is a set of principals that describe how an animal learns to survive in its environment through reinforcement (consequences).
www.dogmanners.com /conditioning.html   (631 words)

 Classical conditioning -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
These associations are formed by pairing two stimuli--what Ivan Pavlov described as the learning of conditioned behavior-- to condition an animal to give a certain response.
The simplest form of classical conditioning is reminiscent of what Aristotle would have called the law of contiguity which states that: "When two things commonly occur together, the appearance of one will bring the other to mind."
The conditioned stimulus, or conditional stimulus, is an initially neutral stimulus that elicits a response--known as a conditioned response--that is learned by the organism.
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Classical_conditioning   (834 words)

 Classical Conditioning
In this chapter we will look at Classical Conditioning, perhaps the oldest model of change there is. It has several interesting applications to the classroom, ones you may not have thought about it.
The point is this: Classical conditioning says nothing about rewards and punishments which are key terms in reinforcement theory.
Classical conditioning is built on creating relationships by association over trials.
www.as.wvu.edu /~sbb/comm221/chapters/pavlov.htm   (1120 words)

 WowEssays.com - Discussion On Classical Conditioning As An Explanation Of Learning
One of the principles of classical conditioning is extinction.
Pavlov’s dog who was conditioned to salivate to the sound of a bell of one tone may well salivate to a similar sounding bell or a buzzer.
The conditioned response to a similar stimulus is not as strong as the response to the original stimulus; the less similar the weaker the response.
www.wowessays.com /dbase/ae5/csk140.shtml   (1984 words)

 Classical Conditioning Could Link Disorders and Brain Dysfunction, Researchers Suggest
In fact, classical conditioning is so well understood and so similar in animals and humans, it's ideal for studies trying to link human disorders to brain dysfunction, says Temple University psychologist Diana Woodruff-Pak, PhD, who has found a connection between conditioning and Alzheimer's disease.
After discussing their research, the two believed that classical conditioning might be an interesting paradigm with which to pursue the study of cognitive aging.
The conditioning paradigm they used was classical eye-blink conditioning: By pairing a tone with an air puff to the eye, participants unconsciously learn to blink when they hear the tone, even if it's not accompanied by the air puff.
www.apa.org /monitor/mar99/alzh.html   (1127 words)

 Classical Conditioning
The "classic" classical conditioning experiment conducted by Pavlov goes as follows: A dog is hooked to a mechanism that measures the amount that the dog salivates.
The fundamental difference is that the unconditioned response occurs as a result of the unconditioned stimulus, and the conditioned response occurs in response to the conditioned stimulus.
Given that the conditioned stimulus does precede the unconditioned stimulus, the general rule of thumb is that the shorter the latency the more likely it is that the conditioning will occur.
web.umr.edu /~psyworld/classical_conditioning.htm   (1313 words)

 Classical Conditioning   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Conditioning may occur even in the absence of a CS, this is called temporal conditioning, where the US presented alone at regular intervals and the CS is the time interval, itself.
When an organism is conditioned to a compound stimulus, consisting of a weak stimulus in combination with a salient one, in later testing of each stimulus alone, the organism does not respond to the weak one, but does to the salient stimulus.
The question here, is: "Is conditioning automatic and nonselective, or not?" Traditionally, classical conditioning was explained based upon stimulus substitution, the CS acquires the power of US by becoming a substitute for it.
www.viterbo.edu /personalpages/faculty/DWILLMAN/p335_class.htm   (2543 words)

 Features of Classical Conditioning
In trace conditioning one might assume that the very recent memory trace of the CS begins to be associated with the US and hence the UR gradually extends back, albeit weakly, to the actual occurrence of the CS.
The results clearly show that CS-US predictability is an important factor in determining the efficacy of conditioning - the more the experimental groups were shocked during no-tone intervals the less the tone could predict shock and the less their bar pressing was suppressed by the tone during the conditioned suppression test-phase of the experiment.
One attempt to reconcile this result with the second-order conditioning results is to suggest that it is not the UR which becomes associated with the CS, but rather, the motivational state which to which the UR is directed.
www.brembs.net /classical/classical.html   (3463 words)

 Classical and Operant Conditioning in Psychology 101 at AllPsych Online
The bell and salivation are not naturally occurring; the dog was conditioned to respond to the bell.
Therefore, the bell is considered the conditioned stimulus (CS), and the salivation to the bell, the conditioned response (CR).
The classic study of Operant Conditioning involved a cat who was placed in a box with only one way out; a specific area of the box had to be pressed in order for the door to open.
allpsych.com /psychology101/conditioning.html   (725 words)

 Classical Conditioning - Psychological Self-Help
Examples of unconditioned stimuli and responses are: pain and jerking away, a puff of air to the eye and a blink, approaching danger and fear, light and pupil constriction.
In fact, classical conditioning is involved in almost everything we do (even though brushing your teeth isn't the emotional high point of your day, notice how you feel if you don't brush your teeth at the regular time).
Classical and operant conditioning were not new kinds of learning invented by Pavlov and Thorndike.
mentalhelp.net /psyhelp/chap4/chap4d.htm   (1998 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Classical Conditioning basically results from the association of two stimuli inthe environment that work together to create an unconditioned response.
This may be confusing that one minute the salivation is the unconditionedresponse, and the next it is the conditioned response.
The salivation is turnedinto the conditioned response when it is activated by a once neutral stimulus,such as the bell.
facultyweb.cortland.edu /andersmd/ccond/clascon.html   (380 words)

 Essay or Coursework : Compare and contrast classical and operant conditioning.
Classical conditioning focuses on learning associations, and refers to the conditioning reflexes.
These principles of classical conditioning were first outlined by Pavlov and then taken on by Watson.
The principles of operant conditioning were investigated by Thorn dike, and where taken on by Skinner which he developed.
www.coursework.info /i/35928.html   (307 words)

 Behavioral1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The most common examples of classical conditioning seen in the educational environment are in situations where students exhibit phobias and anxieties, like "math anxiety," fear of failure, and general school phobia.
The effect of stimulus generalization is to transfer or "spread" the conditioned response to new stimuli.
For example, Pavlov's dogs could be trained to differentiate their response to two bell tones -- the higher pitched tone being associated with the arrival of food (thus: salivation) and the lower tone not associated with food.
teachnet.edb.utexas.edu /~lynda_abbott/Behavioral1.html   (563 words)

 Classical & Operant Conditioning
Classical Conditioning is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the
Since Pavlov's time in the beginning of this century, research on classical conditioning has increased to a complexity level that is hardly comprehensible but to a few experts in the various fields this science has spawned.
From molecules to behavior - the simple concept of classical conditioning has lead to an overwhelmingly successful multi-level approach to investigate into the mechanisms of learning.
meltingpot.fortunecity.com /zaire/131/conditioning.html   (302 words)

 Recent Research on Conditioning - Psychological Self-Help
In fact, the connection between the conditioned stimulus or CS (tone or rat) and the unconditioned stimulus or UCS (food or loud noise) must make sense and be useful, otherwise an animal or human won't learn that connection.
The classically conditioned stimuli (tone) must truly predict the unconditioned stimuli (food), thus helping the animal be forewarned and to adapt, before the animal will learn the connection.
Again, conditioning is not a blind, mechanical pairing process, it is a very adaptive response of the body for survival (Leahey and Harris, 1989).
mentalhelp.net /psyhelp/chap4/chap4f.htm   (2014 words)

 Classical Conditioning
classical conditioning, an organism is able to discriminate cause and effect relationships in the environment.
appropriate to the pairing of the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus.
classical conditioning in the mollusc Hermissenda by Daniel Alkon, in the locust by Graham Hoyle and Marjorie
www.geocities.com /cell_learning/Classical_Cond.htm   (1045 words)

The later "Operant Conditioning" school noted that in addition to a stimulus spurring a response, it was also important to attend to the consequence that followed the response.
Classical conditioning can not explain all of human behavior: some behaviors are developmental in nature (e.g., babbling in infants), and higher level cognitive thought can often overrule the machine-like reflex responses that have been previously built.
Lovass is known as the "father" of applied behavior analysis (ABA), the behaviorist procedures that involve the systematic environmental modifications used to understand and change the behaviors of humans.
maxweber.hunter.cuny.edu /pub/eres/EDSPC715_MCINTYRE/BehavioristHistory.html   (2091 words)

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